Abstract:
Given a real-valued phase-space function, it is a nontrivial task to determine whether it corresponds to a Wigner distribution for a physically acceptable quantum state. This topic has been of fundamental interest for long, and in a modern application, it can be related to the problem of entanglement detection for multi-mode cases. In this paper, we present a hierarchy of complete conditions for a physically realizable Wigner distribution. Our derivation is based on the normally-ordered expansion, in terms of annihilation andcreation operators, of the quasi-density operator corresponding to the phase-space function in question. As a by-product, it is shown that the phase-space distributions with elliptical symmetry can be readily diagonalized in our representation, facilitating the test of physical realizability. We also illustrate how the current formulation can be connected to the detection of bipartite entanglement for continuous variables.

Abstract:
We consider the method of entanglement witness operator to verify genuine multipartite entanglement for single-particle W states involving N parties. In particular, linear optical schemes using photo detectors and beam splitters are proposed to implement two different types of witness operator in experiment. The first scheme that requires only a single measurement setting is shown to detect genuine multipartite entanglement for the overall efficiency beyond 1-1/N. On the other hand, the second scheme with N+1 measurement settings achieves success at a significantly lowered efficiency than 1-1/N.

Abstract:
Ordinary intelligent states (OIS) hold equality in the Heisenberg uncertainty relation involving two noncommuting observables {A, B}, whereas generalized intelligent states (GIS) do so in the more generalized uncertainty relation, the Schrodinger-Robertson inequality. In general, OISs form a subset of GISs. However, if there exists a unitary evolution U that transforms the operators {A, B} to a new pair of operators in a rotation form, it is shown that an arbitrary GIS can be generated by applying the rotation operator U to a certain OIS. In this sense, the set of OISs is unitarily equivalent to the set of GISs. It is the case, for example, with the su(2) and the su(1,1) algebra that have been extensively studied particularly in quantum optics. When these algebras are represented by two bosonic operators (nondegenerate case), or by a single bosonic operator (degenerate case), the rotation, or pseudo-rotation, operator U corresponds to phase shift, beam splitting, or parametric amplification, depending on two observables {A, B}.

Abstract:
The Schr{\"o}dinger-Robertson inequality generally provides a stronger bound on the product of uncertainties for two noncommuting observables than the Heisenberg uncertainty relation, and as such, it can yield a stricter separability condition in conjunction with partial transposition. In this paper, using the Schr{\"o}dinger-Robertson uncertainty relation, the separability condition previously derived from the su(2) and the su(1,1) algebra is made stricter and refined to a form invariant with respect to local phase shifts. Furthermore, a linear optical scheme is proposed to test this invariant separability condition.

Abstract:
We derive a class of inequalities, from the uncertainty relations of the SU(1,1) and the SU(2) algebra in conjunction with partial transposition, that must be satisfied by any separable two-mode states. These inequalities are presented in terms of the su(2) operators J_x, J_y, and the total photon number N_a+N_b. They include as special cases the inequality derived by Hillery and Zubairy [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 050503 (2006)], and the one by Agarwal and Biswas [New J. Phys. 7, 211 (2005)]. In particular, optimization over the whole inequalities leads to the criterion obtained by Agarwal and Biswas. We show that this optimal criterion can detect entanglement for a broad class of non-Gaussian entangled states, i.e., the su(2) minimum-uncertainty states. Experimental schemes to test the optimal criterion are also discussed, especially the one using linear optical devices and photodetectors.

Abstract:
We investigate the fluorescence spectrum of a two-level atom in a cavity when the atom is driven by a classical field. We show that forbidden dipole transitions in the Jaynes-Cummings Ladder structure are induced in the presence of the cavity damping, which deteriorates the degree of otherwise perfect destructive interference among the transition channels. With the larger cavity decay, these transitions are more enhanced.

Abstract:
We present two linear optical schemes using nonideal photodetectors to demonstrate inseparability of W-type N-partite entangled states containing only a single photon. First, we show that the pairwise entanglement of arbitrary two modes chosen from N optical modes can be detected using the method proposed by Nha and Kim [Phys. Rev. A 74, 012317 (2006)], thereby suggesting the full inseparability among N parties. In particular, this scheme is found to succeed for any nonzero quantum efficiency of photodetectors. Second, we consider a quantum teleportation network using linear optics without auxiliary modes. The conditional teleportation can be optimized by a suitable choice of the transmittance of the beam splitter in the Bell measurement. Specifically, we identify the conditions under which maximum fidelity larger than classical bound 2/3 is achieved only in cooperation with other parties. We also investigate the case of on-off photodetectors that cannot discriminate the number of detected photons.

Abstract:
In this Letter, we show that the fulfillment of uncertainty relations is a sufficient criterion for a quantum-mechanically permissible state. We specifically construct two pseudo-spin observables for an arbitrary non-positive Hermitian matrix whose uncertainty relation is violated. This method enables us to systematically derive separability conditions for all negative partial-transpose states in experimentally accessible forms. In particular, generalized entanglement criteria are derived from the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities for bipartite continuous-variable states.

Abstract:
It is known that the quantum fidelity, as a measure of the closeness of two quantum states, is operationally equivalent to the minimal overlap of the probability distributions of the two states over all possible POVMs; the POVM realizing the minimum is optimal. We consider the ability of homodyne detection to distinguish two single-mode Gaussian states, and investigate to what extent it is optimal in this information-theoretic sense. We completely identify the conditions under which homodyne detection makes an optimal distinction between two single-mode Gaussian states of the same mean, and show that if the Gaussian states are pure, they are always optimally distinguished.

Abstract:
Recent studies of the decoherence induced by the quantum nature of the laser field driving a two-state atom [J. Gea-Banacloche, Phys. Rev. A 65, 022308 (2002); S. J. van Enk and H. J. Kimble, Quantum Inf. and Comp. 2, 1 (2002)] have been questioned by Itano [W. M. Itano, Phys. Rev. A 68, 046301 (2003)] and the proposal made that all decoherence is due to spontaneous emission. We analyze the problem within the formalism of cascaded open quantum systems. Our conclusions agree with the Itano proposal. We show that the decoherence, nevertheless, may be divided into two parts--that due to forwards scattering and to scattering out of the laser mode. Previous authors attribute the former to the quantum nature of the laser field.