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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 87698 matches for " Hyacinth I. Hyacinth "
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Racial Hierarchy and the Global Black Experience of Racism  [PDF]
Hyacinth Udah
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.53012
Abstract: This article aims to raise awareness on the life conditions of black people in Australia and beyond, and to renew public interest and discussion on how racial inferiority discourses, beliefs, and stereotypes about black people acquired and disseminated generations ago during colonialism together with institutional racism continue to limit their life opportunities and push them to the margins of the society. Therefore, this article explores racial hierarchy, white privilege and the socioeconomic challenges faced by black people. It does this by discussing how structures of inequality generated by the concept of race and its use in racialization continue to impact on the global black experience and condition. The article argues that racial inequality is perpetuated, especially, when racism codified in the institutions of everyday life is not acknowledged.
Summary Description of 24 Cases of Neonatal Malaria Seen at a Tertiary Health Center in Nigeria
Hyacinth I. Hyacinth,Stephen Oguche,Christopher S. Yilgwan
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: Neonatal malaria is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Diagnosis of neonatal malaria is difficult because of the similarity in clinical presentation with other neonatal infections.This study aim to highlight the clinical presentations and high mortality still associated with neonatal malaria.Methods: Twenty four out of 41 neonates seen during a 6 months period were studied. Gestational age, age at presentation, birth weight and other clinical symptoms were documented. Questionnaires were used tocollect pertinent pregnancy and perinatal history from the mothers. Data was analyzed using SPSS v18 and results expressed in tables using means, frequencies and percentages.Findings: All 24 neonates, 50% of whom were males, had a positive smear for malaria parasite. 29.2% werepreterm, 17(70.8%) had congenital malaria, 18(75.0%) mothers used intermittent preventive treatment (IPT)of malaria prophylaxis in the index pregnancy and 1(4.2%) mother had HIV in pregnancy. Fever was theprincipal presenting symptom and 83.0% responded to treatment with amodiaquine.Conclusion: Neonatal malaria is still an important cause of mortality, a more effective malaria prophylaxis program and routine malaria parasite screening for neonates is recommended.
The New Invincibles: HIV Screening among Older Adults in the U.S
Oluwatoyosi A. Adekeye, Harry J. Heiman, Onyekachi S. Onyeabor, Hyacinth I. Hyacinth
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043618
Abstract: Background Thirteen percent of the U.S. population is ages 65 and older, a number projected to reach 20% by 2030. By 2015, 50% of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals in the U.S. are expected to be ages 50 and older. Current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines recommend “opt-out” HIV screening for individuals ages 13–64. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence and barriers to HIV screening in older adults, and to evaluate the rationale for expanding routine HIV screening to this population. Methods The study used 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. A total of 12,366 (unweighted) adults, ages 50 and older, participated in the adult section of the NHIS and answered questions on the HIV/AIDS, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, and Tuberculosis components. Associations between HIV screening, socio-demographic variables, and knowledge of HIV-related disease were examined using logistic regression models. Results The HIV screening rate within this population was 25.4%. Race had no statistically significant effect. Low risk perception of HIV exposure (84.1%) accounted for low likelihood of planned screening (3.5%) within 12 months post survey. A routine medical check-up was the single most common reason for HIV screening (37.6%), with only about half (52.7%) of the tests suggested by a health care provider. Conclusion It is imperative that practices and policies are developed and implemented to increase HIV awareness and screening in the older adult population. Increased health care provider awareness of the importance of HIV screening, especially for those 65 and older, is critical. Health policies and clinical guidelines should be revised to promote and support screening of all adults.
Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria
Hyacinth I. Hyacinth, Oluwatoyosi A. Adekeye, Joy N. Ibeh, Tolulope Osoba
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046583
Abstract: Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18–65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.
Racial/Ethnic Differences in Poststroke Rehabilitation Outcomes
Charles Ellis,Hyacinth I. Hyacinth,Jamie Beckett,Wuwei Feng,Marc Chimowitz,Bruce Ovbiagele,Dan Lackland,Robert Adams
Stroke Research and Treatment , 2014, DOI: 10.1155/2014/950746
Abstract: Background. Significant racial and ethnic disparities in stroke incidence, severity, and morbidity have been consistently reported; however, less is known about potential differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Objective. To examine racial and ethnic differences in poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Methods. We completed an in-depth search of Medline and several major journals dedicated to publishing research articles on stroke, rehabilitation, and racial-ethnic patterns of disease over a 10-year period (2003–2012). We identified studies that reported rehabilitation outcomes and the race or ethnicity of at least two groups. Results. 17 studies involving 429,108 stroke survivors met inclusion criteria for the review. The majority (94%) of studies examined outcomes between Blacks and Whites. Of those studies examining outcomes between Blacks and Whites, 59% showed that Blacks were generally less likely to achieve equivalent functional improvement following rehabilitation. Blacks were more likely to experience lower FIM gain or change scores (range: 1–60%) and more likely to have lower efficiency scores (range: 5–16%) than Whites. Conclusions. Black stroke survivors appear to generally achieve poorer functional outcomes than White stroke survivors. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the precise magnitude of these differences, whether they go beyond chance, and the underlying contributory mechanisms. 1. Background Stroke is a leading cause of long-term disability and the fourth leading cause of death in the US [1]. Estimates indicate that ~795,000 Americans experience a stroke each year [1]. Among those are non-Hispanic Blacks (Blacks) who are at twice the risk of first-ever stroke compared to non-Hispanic Whites (Whites) [2]. The age-adjusted risk of ischemic stroke is 0.88 in Whites, 1.49 in Hispanics, and 1.91 in Blacks [3]. Blacks are also more likely to experience a stroke at a younger age and more likely to become disabled and experience difficulties with daily living and activities [2]. Similarly, older Blacks and Hispanics are more likely to experience higher odds of one-year all-cause poststroke rehospitalization compared to Whites after adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics [4]. Interestingly, there has been a decrease in ischemic stroke incidence among Whites in the US; however the incidence of overall ischemic stroke among Blacks has remained virtually the same [5]. Studies continue to demonstrate a differential impact of stroke between racial/ethnic groups with minorities experiencing worse poststroke outcomes.
The Role of Nutrition in Sickle Cell Disease
H.I. Hyacinth, B.E. Gee and J.M. Hibbert
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/NMI.S5048
Abstract: Finding a widely available cure for sickle cell anemia (HbSS) still remains a challenge one hundred years after its discovery as a genetically inherited disease. However, growing interest in the nutritional problems of the disease has created a body of literature from researchers seeking nutritional alternatives as a means of decreasing morbidity and improving quality of life among HbSS patients. This review demonstrates that over the past 30 years the role of protein/energy deficiency in HbSS has been more clearly defined via direct measurements, leading to the concept of a relative shortage of nutrients for growth and development, despite apparently adequate dietary intakes. Although there is still a paucity of data supporting the efficacy of macronutrient supplementation, it is becoming clearer that recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) for the general population are insufficient for the sickle cell patient. A similar shortage is likely to be true for micronutrient deficiencies, including recent findings of vitamin D deficiency that may be associated with incomplete ossification and bone disease, which are well known complications of HbSS disease. We conclude that there is need for more effort and resources to be dedicated to research (including supplementation studies of larger sample size) aimed at establishing specific RDAs for HbSS patients, much like the specific RDAs developed for pregnancy and growth within the general population.
The Role of Nutrition in Sickle Cell Disease
H.I. Hyacinth,B.E. Gee,J.M. Hibbert
Nutrition and Metabolic Insights , 2010,
Abstract:
Environmental education in Tobago ?s primary schools: a case study of coral reef education
Armstrong,Hyacinth G;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: environmental education is a relatively new area on the primary school curriculum of trinidad and tobago.because of the close relationship between human activities and the degradation of the natural environment in tobago,environmental education will become increasingly important to the preservation and conservation of the island ?s fragile natural resources.current teaching methods rely heavily on text books and utilise a lecture style that does not promote student interaction. unfortunately, these methods are not very conducive to environmental education.as such,this paper examines a pilot program in which staff from the buccoo reef trust taught students from 15 primary schools about coral reefs using interactive tools and hands-on methods as described in people &corals:an education package for primary schools (people &corals ).the pilot program ran over an eight week period with prepared lessons being taught every two weeks and student evaluations taking place once before the first lesson and once after the last lesson.the lessons were supplemented with a field trip to a coral reef ecosystem.despite several challenges that were faced in the implementation process,the overall outcome of the pilot program was successful.teachers and students reacted positively to the information that was being shared,thereby reinforcing the effectiveness of using a dynamic,active method of teaching to advance environmental education.
Environmental education in Tobago ’s primary schools: a case study of coral reef education
Hyacinth G Armstrong
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2005,
Abstract: Environmental education is a relatively new area on the primary school curriculum of Trinidad and Tobago.Because of the close relationship between human activities and the degradation of the natural environment in Tobago,environmental education will become increasingly important to the preservation and conservation of the island ’s fragile natural resources.Current teaching methods rely heavily on text books and utilise a lecture style that does not promote student interaction. Unfortunately, these methods are not very conducive to environmental education.As such,this paper examines a pilot program in which staff from the Buccoo Reef Trust taught students from 15 primary schools about coral reefs using interactive tools and hands-on methods as described in People &Corals:an Education Package for Primary Schools (People &Corals ).The pilot program ran over an eight week period with prepared lessons being taught every two weeks and student evaluations taking place once before the first lesson and once after the last lesson.The lessons were supplemented with a field trip to a coral reef ecosystem.Despite several challenges that were faced in the implementation process,the overall outcome of the pilot program was successful.Teachers and students reacted positively to the information that was being shared,thereby reinforcing the effectiveness of using a dynamic,active method of teaching to advance environmental education. La educación ambiental es un área relativamente nueva en los currículos de las escuelas primarias de Trinidad y Tobago.Debido a la relación entre las actividades humanas y la degradación del ambiente natural,la educación ambiental va a ser cada vez más importante para la preservación y conservación de los frágiles recursos naturales de la Isla de Tobago.Los métodos de ense anza actuales se basan principalmente en libros de texto y utilizan un estilo de lectura que no promueve la interacción de los estudiantes.Desafortunadamente,éstos métodos no son ideales para la educación ambiental.Así,este artículo examina un programa piloto en el que trabajadores del "Buccoo Reef Trust "ense aron a estudiantes de 15 escuelas primarias acerca de los arrecifes coralinos usando herramientas interactivas y métodos manuales.Este programa piloto tuvo una duración de ocho semanas,con lecciones cada dos semanas y dos evaluaciones para los estudiantes: antes de la primera lección y después de la última.Las lecciones se complementaron con una gira de campo a un ecosistema de coral.A pesar de algunas dificultades en el proceso de implementación,en general el progr
Phytochemical and Antifungal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Prosopis africana and Anacardium occidentale against Macrophomina Root Rot of Sesamum indicum L. in Benue State, Central Nigeria  [PDF]
Matthew Elaigwu, Hyacinth Ocheigwu Apeh Oluma, Amana Onekutu
Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection (GEP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/gep.2018.67005
Abstract: This study investigated the antifungal activity of leaf extracts of Prosopis africana and Anacardium occidentale against Macrophomina phaseolina, the causal agent of root rot of Sesamum indicum L. Phytochemical analysis of the two plants showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones in petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts. The effectiveness of the two medicinal plants viz: P. africana and A. occidentale was tested against the causative agent of root rot of Sesamum indicum L. The effect of plant leaf extracts on mycelia growth of the test organism shows that both P. africana and A. anacardium reduced the mycelia growth significantly as compared to the control (plate, 2, 3, 4). The antifungal property of P. africana and A. occidentale makes these plants of potential interest for the control of the fungi Macrophomina phaseolina.
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