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Determinants of sexual dysfunction among clinically diagnosed diabetic patients
William KBA Owiredu, Nafiu Amidu, Huseini Alidu, Charity Sarpong, Christian K Gyasi-Sarpong
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7827-9-70
Abstract: Sexual functioning was determined in 300 consecutive diabetic men (age range: 18-82 years) visiting the diabetic clinic of Tema General Hospital with the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) questionnaire, between November, 2010 and March, 2011. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants, the level of glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum testosterone were assessed. All the men had a steady heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years before enrolment in the study.Out the 300 participants contacted, the response rate was 91.3% after 20 declined participation and 6 incomplete data were excluded All the respondents had at least basic education, 97.4% were married, 65.3% were known hypertensive, 3.3% smoked cigarettes, 27% took alcoholic beverages and 32.8% did some form of exercise. The 69.3% SD rate observed in this study appears to be related to infrequency (79.2%), non-sensuality (74.5%), dissatisfaction with sexual acts (71.9%), non-communication (70.8%) and impotence (67.9%). Other areas of sexual function, including premature ejaculation (56.6%) and avoidance (42.7%) were also substantially affected. However, severe SD was seen in only 4.7% of the studied population. The perceived "adequate", "desirable", "too short" and "too long intra-vaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) are 5-10, 5-10, 1-2 and 15-30 minutes respectively. Testosterone correlates negatively with glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c), FBS, perceived desirable, too short IELT, and weight as well as waist circumference.SD rate from this study is high but similar to that reported among self-reported diabetic patients in Kumasi, Ghana and vary according to the condition and age. The determinants of SD from this study are income level, exercise, obesity, higher perception of "desirable" and "too short" IELT.Some of the consequences of diabetes include various medical [1], psychological [2], and sexual [3] dysfunctions. Among diabetic
Alcohol Consumption Is Associated with Hypogonadism and Decreased Sexual Function in Ghanaian Diabetics  [PDF]
Huseini Alidu, William K. B. A. Owiredu, Nafiu Amidu, Christian Kofi Gyasi-Sarpong, Peter Paul Mwinsanga Dapare, Ahmed Tijani Bawah, Arnold Togiwe Luuse, Emmanuel Barima Agyemang Prempeh
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2017.73009
Abstract: Introduction: Alcohol usage has largely been seen as a risk factor for the development of sexual dysfunction as well as erectile dysfunction. Others have reported that prolonged alcohol usage and abuse is compatible with normal sexual function in the absence of endocrinological problems as well as hepatic dysfunction. About seventy five (75) percent of alcoholics have various sexual difficulties with improvements in sexual functions occurring after treatment of alcoholism and psychosexual therapy. It is evident from the various reports over the years that mild and occasional alcohol usage is not as much implicated in the causation of SD and its other forms as heavy, addictive or dependent alcohol usage. Alcohol usage has also long been linked to hypogonadism, testicular atrophy as well as leydig cell toxicity. Alcohol induced hypogonadism has been reported to resolve after withdrawal of alcohol use. Since both diabetes and alcohol usage have been strongly associated with both hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction, it is logical to expect that diabetics who frequently consume alcohol will have a worsened hypogonadal state and sexual function. This research therefore seeks to provide evidence of an association between alcohol consumption in diabetics and a worsened sexual dysfunction in comparison to diabetics who did not consume alcohol. Methods: Type II diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Clinic at the Maamobi General Hospital between the periods of January 2010 and March 2011 were consecutively recruited for this study. Diabetics with other known endocrinological diseases and physical disabilities were excluded from the study. Sexual function was assessed using the GRISS-M. Early morning fasting samples were used in lipid and testosterone profile assays. Results: Study participants who consumed alcohol recorded higher levels of triglycerides and LDL-Cholesterol. They also recorded significantly lower levels of bioavailable testosterone. Furthermore they also recorded higher scores for impotence, premature ejaculation, non-sensuality and infrequency but lower scores for avoidance and were about six times more likely to be infrequent in their sexual activity in comparison with those who did not consume alcohol. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption among diabetic males is associated with hypogonadism and has an impact on several domains of male sexual function. Diabetic males should be advised to avoid alcohol abuse in order to facilitate the management of diabetes associated sexual
IEC 61850 SCL Validation Using UML Model in Modern Digital Substation  [PDF]
Byungtae Jang, Alidu Abubakari, Namdae Kim
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.98009
Abstract: The IEC 61850 standard stipulates the Substation Configuration Description Language (SCL) file as a means to define the substation equipment, IED function and also the communication mechanism for the substation area network. The SCL is an eXtensible Markup Language (XML) based file which helps to describe the configuration of the substation Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) including their associated functions. The SCL file is also configured to contain all IED capabilities including data model which is structured into objects for easy descriptive modeling. The effective functioning of this SCL file relies on appropriate validation techniques which check the data model for errors due to non-conformity to the IEC 61850 standard. In this research, we extend the conventional SCL validation algorithm to develop a more advanced validator which can validate the standard data model using the Unified Modeling Language (UML). By using the Rule-based SCL validation tool, we implement validation test cases for a more comprehensive understanding of the various validation functionalities. It can be observed from the algorithm and the various implemented test cases that the proposed validation tool can improve SCL information validation and also help automation engineers to comprehend the IEC 61850 substation system architecture.
A Study on Unified Testing Method for IEC 61850 Based Server with Focus on Setting Group Function  [PDF]
Namdae Kim, Alidu Abubakari, Byungtae Jang
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.910012
Abstract: The digital substation system consists of an Intelligent Electronic Device (IED) which requires information for the supervision, protection, and control, as well as a client operating system for substation operation. IEC 61850 communication standard has been defined for information exchange between heterogeneous digital devices in such substations. Currently, the Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) digital substation system uses unbuffered reporting and Generic Object Oriented Substation Events (GOOSE) communication functions for monitoring, protection and control automation. However, it is expected that the Setting Group function will be needed to operate adaptive intelligent substation system. The Setting Group function is advantageous in that it is possible to change the setting of the IED in one unified way through the client operating system, rather than changing the correction value of an IED through different manufacturer-based engineering tools. In order to utilize the Setting Group function of the IED in real substation scenario, it is necessary to test both the communication function with the host operating device and the electric functional test to ensure that correction value is properly changed. In this paper, we introduce the IEC 61850 Setting Group function, and propose a method that can integrate communication function and electrical function test of an IED conforming to the setting group functionality. We also tested the Setting Group function of the actual IED device through the proposed integrated functional test method and analyzed the results. We were able to simplify the process of testing both the electrical and communication signals in digital substations.
Development of a Model Driven ACSI Conformance Testing for IEC 61850-Based IED  [PDF]
Byungtae Jang, Alidu Abubakari, Namdae Kim
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.910014
Abstract: Globally, traditional power systems are rapidly transforming towards the adoption of smart grid platforms. Substations which are at the center of the electric power transformation from the power plant are changing to IEC 61850 based digital substations. Therefore, within substation, there is a growing demand for the IEC 61850 based Intelligent Electronic Devices (IEDs). The operation of multiple manufacturers of IEDs in a single digital substation network increases the need for IEC 61850 communications specification conformance diagnosis to ensure interoperability for efficient data exchange between IEDs. The IEC 61850-10 presents test items for diagnosing communication specification conformance. There are many test tools available in the market today to test the compliance of the IEC 61850 communications specifications to the IED. In this paper, we propose a model-based diagnostic method for IED communication conformance testing. The proposed model-based software therefore uses the “drag and drop” technique to select the various IEC 61850 communication services (objects) required to design the test case in a user friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI). This makes the service conformance testing more flexible for test engineers and system integrators especially in situations that require test case modifications. Also, the proposed software tool makes it easy to understand the various IEC 61850 services using the friendly GUI.
Molecular dynamics simulation of a two-dimensional system
S. M. Huseini,S. M. Amini
Iranian Journal of Physics Research , 2001,
Abstract: The study of a two-dimensional (2-D) system started nearly half a century ago when Peierls and Landau showed the lack of long range translational order in a two-dimensional solid. In 1968, Mermin proved that despite the absence of long range translational order. Two-dimensional solids can still exhibit a different kind of long range bond orientation. During the last decade, fascinating theories were put forward to explain the role of topological defects in the melting of two-dimensional solids, starting with Kosterlitz and Thouless. Recent surge of interest in melting is also due to the theoretical ideas of Halperin, Nelson and Young. They have suggested that the transition may be fundamentally different from that observed in ordinary three-dimensional systems. Computer simulations suggest that the transition is of the usual first-order type observed in a three-dimensional system. A large body of experimental and simulation research into the two-dimensional melting followed the announcement of the KTHNY theory. In spite of all this effort, the question as to the nature of two dimensional melting remains unresolved. Recent experimental work supporting the existence of continuous melting transitions in some two-dimentsional systems indicates the need for further theoretical and computational work to lead to an understanding of the experimental results. In this paper we intend to summarze and clarify the current situation with regard to research in the two-dimensional melting with an emphasis on computer simulations. The paper begins with an overview of the current status of relevant theoretical, experimental and simulation research, then a two-dimensional simulation of an ionic salt system is studied in detail. This simulation has been done by using the molecular dynamics method. The most important parameters that have been determined are ,The trnsition temperature, the total energy of the system, the mean square displacement and the bond angle distribution The transtion temperature of the system has been specified by plotting some of these parameters as a function of temperature and time. The first order transition is observed. It is difficult to distinguish a hexatic phase from a two-phase coexistence region.
Zingiber Officinale Alters 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rat Brain
Mehdi Mehdizadeh,Fataneh Dabaghian,Akram Nejhadi,Hassan Fallah-huseini
Cell Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: The spice Zingiber officinale or ginger possesses antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effects. The effects of this traditional herbal medicine on 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) induced neurotoxicity have not yet been studied. The present study considers the effects of Zingiber officinale on MDMA-induced spatial memory impairment and apoptosis in the hippocampus of male rats.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 21 adult male Sprague Dawley rats (200-250 g) were classified into three groups (control, MDMA, and MDMA plus ginger). The groups were intraperitoneally administered 10 mg/kg MDMA, 10 mg/kg MDMA plus 100 mg/kg ginger extract, or 1 cc/kg normal saline as the control solution for one week (n=7 per group). Learning memory was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) after the last administration. Finally, the brains were removed to study the cell number in the cornu ammonis (CA1) hippocampus by light microscope, Bcl-2 by immunoblotting, and Bax expression by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Data was analyzed using SPSS 16 software and a one-way ANOVA test.Results: Escape latency and traveled distances decreased significantly in the MDMA plus ginger group relative to the MDMA group (p<0.001). Cell number increased in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group. Down-regulation of Bcl-2 and up-regulation of Bax were observed in the MDMA plus ginger group in comparison to the MDMA group (p<0.05).Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ginger consumption may lead to an improvement of MDMA-induced neurotoxicity.
Effect of Zingiber officinale R. rhizomes (ginger) on pain relief in primary dysmenorrhea: a placebo randomized trial
Parvin Rahnama, Ali Montazeri, Hassan Fallah Huseini, Saeed kianbakht, Mohsen Naseri
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-12-92
Abstract: This was a randomized, controlled trial. The study was based on a sample of one hundred and twenty students with moderate or severe primary dysmenorrhea. The students were all residents of the dormitories of Shahed University. They were randomly assigned into two equal groups, one for ginger and the other for placebo in two different treatment protocols with monthly intervals. The ginger and placebo groups in both protocols received 500?mg capsules of ginger root powder or placebo three times a day. In the first protocol ginger and placebo were given two days before the onset of the menstrual period and continued through the first three days of the menstrual period. In the second protocol ginger and placebo were given only for the first three days of the menstrual period. Severity of pain was determined by a verbal multidimensional scoring system and a visual analogue scale.There was no difference in the baseline characteristics of the two groups (placebo n?=?46, ginger n?=?56). The results of this study showed that there were significant differences in the severity of pain between ginger and placebo groups for protocol one (P?=?0.015) and protocol two (P?=?0.029). There was also significant difference in duration of pain between the two groups for protocol one (P?=?0.017) but not for protocol two (P?=?0.210).Treatment of primary dysmenorrhea in students with ginger for 5?days had a statistically significant effect on relieving intensity and duration of pain.IRCT201105266206N3
Impact of Urban Agriculture on the Species Distribution and Insecticide Resistance Profile of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles coluzzii in Accra Metropolis, Ghana  [PDF]
Joseph Chabi, Miracle C. Eziefule, Rebecca Pwalia, Joannitta Joannides, Dorothy Obuobi, Godwin Amlalo, Charlotte A. Addae, Iddrisu Alidu, Dominic Acquah-Baidoo, Samuel Akporh, Sampson Gbagba, Kwadwo K. Frempong, Melinda P. Hadi, Helen Pates Jamet, Samuel K. Dadzie
Advances in Entomology (AE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ae.2018.63016
Abstract: Malaria incidence in urban areas has generally been low compared to rural areas but recent data indicate that urban malaria remains a public health problem. It is therefore important to understand the factors that promote urban malaria to help formulate future vector control strategies. This study compared Anopheles gambiae s.l. (A. gambiae s.l.) species composition, distribution and insecticide resistance mechanisms between vegetable and non-vegetable growing areas in Accra Metropolis. Four sites were selected within the city of Accra which comprised of two vegetable-growing and two non-vegetable growing areas. WHO susceptibility tests were carried out on adults A. gambiae s.l. reared from larvae collected from the sites. Five insecticides were tested and the A. gambiae complex, resistance genotypes and enzyme activities of each population were characterized. All A. gambiae s.l. populations tested were resistant to all the insecticides, but relatively lower mortalities were observed in the vegetable growing areas. The mortality against 0.05% deltamethrin was 2.6% (Opeibea) and 12.5% (Korle-Bu) for the vegetable growing areas and 36.2% (Achimota) and 38.9% (Mataheko) in the non-vegetable growing areas. Anopheles gambiae s.s. (95% of Opeibea population) and Anopheles coluzzii, (98% of Korle-Bu population) were the dominant species in the vegetable growing areas. The voltage-gated sodium channel (Vgsc-1014F) frequencies of all the populations were similar but the acetylcholinesterase (ace-1) frequencies were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Korle-Bu and Mataheko populations. High level of P450s and esterases were observed in the A. gambiae s.l. from Opeibea than from the other areas. The contribution of urban agriculture in the development of insecticide resistance needs to be considered in the formulation of future vector control strategies alongside other domestic usages.
Testosterone and Its Bioactive Components Are Associated with Libido and the Metabolic Syndrome in Men  [PDF]
H. Alidu, N. Amidu, W. K. B. A. Owiredu, C. K. Gyasi-Sarpong, A. T. Bawah, P. P. M. Dapare, E. B. Agyemang Prempeh
Advances in Sexual Medicine (ASM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/asm.2017.72008
Abstract: Background: Some evidence has shown that the prevalence of hypoactive sexual desire and erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with testosterone levels whilst higher levels of testosterone have been reported to increase the frequency of intercourse. Available evidence points towards an etiologic role for hypogonadism in the causation of diabetes, metabolic syndrome (Mets) and sexual dysfunction (SD) even though the exact pathophysiological linkage is yet to be fully elucidated. This study therefore sought to evaluate the impact of testosterone as well as its bioactive components on both the MetS and SD. Method: Diabetic men engaged in a stable heterosexual relationship for at least 2 years were recruited for this study. Participants were at least 18 years and provided an informed and signed consent to partake in this study. Fasting blood samples were taken from the participants for biochemical and hormonal assay. The participants were then evaluated using the Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction for males (GRISS-M). Metabolic syndrome was assessed using the NCEP-ATP III, IDF and WHO criteria. All data analyses were performed using the SPSS software, version 11.0 systat, Inc. Germany and GraphPad Prism, version 5.0, San Diego California, USA. Results: The mean total, free and bioavailable testosterone as well as SHBG recorded among the participants was 7.10 ± 1.23 ng/ml, 0.10 ± 0.01 ng/ml, 7.01 ± 1.41 ng/ml and 4.33 ± 1.12 nmol/l respectively. Subjects with the MetS showed significantly lower SHBG levels in comparison with subjects without the MetS. Participants with raised triglyceride levels showed significantly lower levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone when compared to participant without raised triglycerides. Participants with problems of avoidance and infrequency of sexual activity showed significantly lower levels of total, free and bioavailable testosterone when compared to participants without avoidance or infrequency problems. The +SD/+MetS group recorded the lowest SHBG levels. Conclusion: Testosterone and its bioactive components are associated with male libido as well as the metabolic syndrome. Low levels of free and bioavailable testosterone are true determinants of the MetS in men.
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