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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 14102 matches for " Hultgren Jan "
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Lameness and Udder Health in Swedish Dairy Herds, as Influenced by Housing Changes
Hultgren Jan
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-44-s1-p61
Abstract:
A Rubber Slat System for Tied Dairy Cows: Animal Cleanliness, Foot Health and Behaviour
Hultgren Jan,Bergsten Christer
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-44-s1-p60
Abstract:
Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis
Lena Steng?rde, Madeleine Tr?vén, Ulf Emanuelson, Kjell Holtenius, Jan Hultgren, Rauni Niskanen
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-50-31
Abstract: Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol.All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed.NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.At the onset of lactation the nutrient demand increases dramatically and faster than the increase in feed intake. Thus most dairy cows face negative energy balance (NEB) in early lactation. Postpartum (pp) feed intake is lower in cows with higher body condition scores (BCS) ante partum (ap), leaving them in NEB for a longer period than cows with normal or low BCS [1,2]. Most diseases in dairy cows occur during the first two weeks pp [3]. Metabolic disorders are highly multi-factorial and a wide range of animal, management and feed factors may lead to such problems. Fatty liver may occur around calving when the cow is in NEB and blood levels of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) increase as the cow mobilizes adipose tissue. Fatty liver has been shown to be associated with other diseases in the periparturient perio
Exploring the contexts of information designed for Swedish school-leavers
Hultgren, Frances
Svensk Biblioteksforskning , 2006,
Abstract: In this paper the institutional origins of information designed for school leavers have been examined using a discourse analytical approach. Texts from three of the major actors in the careers guidance system constitute the empirical basis of the study. It was found that information and the individual are constituted in different ways in each of the texts. Different ways of viewing the individual and information are related to different views on the nature of society, the labour market and the individual’s position within it, and on the value of education. Such views mediate to the reader which actions may be appropriate or inappropriate to take. The implications of the study are that young people need to develop skills in the critical analysis of informational texts as a tool in discerning their own best interests in relation to the range of interests promoted by career guidance literature. Furthermore, it is suggested that technical solutions need to be developed that increase the transparency of literature designed for school leavers.
Intensity of Oestrus Signalling Is the Most Relevant Indicator for Animal Well-Being in High-Producing Dairy Cows
Emanuel Garcia,Jan Hultgren,Pontus F llman,Johanna Geust,Bo Algers,George Stilwell,Stefan Gunnarsson,Heriberto Rodriguez-Martinez
Veterinary Medicine International , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/540830
Abstract: Full signalling of oestrous behaviour is vital for proper timing of AI and good reproductive performance, currently jeopardized by shorter observations of oestrus behaviour. Alternative indicators including progesterone (P4) recordings on-farm are tested. Oestrous intensity of 37 heifers (H) and 30 1st-parity dairy cows (C1) either Swedish Red (32) or Swedish Holstein (35) with high genetic potential for milk production, was studied in relation to AI. P4-levels in blood or milk were monitored on-farm at 0, 7, and 20 d post-AI with a portable ELISA reader (eProCheck800). Avoidance distance and body condition were scored at day 7, and pregnancy diagnosed by P4 (day 20) and trans-rectal palpation (day 50). More heifers (46%) than C1-cows (10%) showed standing oestrus (strongest intensity, <0.05), leading to higher pregnancy rate at d50 (72% versus 37% for C1, <0.01) and calving rate (H: 64%, C1: 33%, <0.05). Avoidance distances were short (<1 m), reflecting good human-animal interaction. Visually-recorded standing oestrus yielded 4.8 fold higher odds of pregnancy, respectively 4.6-fold higher odds of calving. On-farm P4-recordings had complementary value yet less accuracy. Intensity of oestrus signalling relates to animal well-being, reflected in pregnancy-to-term being a good indicator for optimal welfare in high-producing dairy cattle.
A Novel Endogenous Inhibitor of the Secreted Streptococcal NAD-Glycohydrolase.
Meehl,Pinkner,Anderson,Hultgren
PLOS Pathogens , 2005,
Abstract: The Streptococcus pyogenes NAD-glycohydrolase (SPN) is a toxic enzyme that is introduced into infected host cells by the cytolysin-mediated translocation pathway. However, how S. pyogenes protects itself from the self-toxicity of SPN had been unknown. In this report, we describe immunity factor for SPN (IFS), a novel endogenous inhibitor that is essential for SPN expression. A small protein of 161 amino acids, IFS is localized in the bacterial cytoplasmic compartment. IFS forms a stable complex with SPN at a 1:1 molar ratio and inhibits SPN's NAD-glycohydrolase activity by acting as a competitive inhibitor of its beta-NAD substrate. Mutational studies revealed that the gene for IFS is essential for viability in those S. pyogenes strains that express an NAD-glycohydrolase activity. However, numerous strains contain a truncated allele of ifs that is linked to an NAD-glycohydrolase-deficient variant allele of spn. Of practical concern, IFS allowed the normally toxic SPN to be produced in the heterologous host Escherichia coli to facilitate its purification. To our knowledge, IFS is the first molecularly characterized endogenous inhibitor of a bacterial beta-NAD-consuming toxin and may contribute protective functions in the streptococci to afford SPN-mediated pathogenesis.
Quantitative Metabolomics Reveals an Epigenetic Blueprint for Iron Acquisition in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Jeffrey P. Henderson,Jan R. Crowley,Jerome S. Pinkner,Jennifer N. Walker,Pablo Tsukayama,Walter E. Stamm,Thomas M. Hooton,Scott J. Hultgren
PLOS Pathogens , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000305
Abstract: Bacterial pathogens are frequently distinguished by the presence of acquired genes associated with iron acquisition. The presence of specific siderophore receptor genes, however, does not reliably predict activity of the complex protein assemblies involved in synthesis and transport of these secondary metabolites. Here, we have developed a novel quantitative metabolomic approach based on stable isotope dilution to compare the complement of siderophores produced by Escherichia coli strains associated with intestinal colonization or urinary tract disease. Because uropathogenic E. coli are believed to reside in the gut microbiome prior to infection, we compared siderophore production between urinary and rectal isolates within individual patients with recurrent UTI. While all strains produced enterobactin, strong preferential expression of the siderophores yersiniabactin and salmochelin was observed among urinary strains. Conventional PCR genotyping of siderophore receptors was often insensitive to these differences. A linearized enterobactin siderophore was also identified as a product of strains with an active salmochelin gene cluster. These findings argue that qualitative and quantitative epi-genetic optimization occurs in the E. coli secondary metabolome among human uropathogens. Because the virulence-associated biosynthetic pathways are distinct from those associated with rectal colonization, these results suggest strategies for virulence-targeted therapies.
Leptin in septic arthritis: decreased levels during infection and amelioration of disease activity upon its administration
Olof H Hultgren, Andrej Tarkowski
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/ar332
Abstract: Leptin, the 16-kDa product of the obese (ob) gene [1] was originally described as a regulator of food intake and energy expenditure [2,3,4]. Leptin is constitutively produced by adipocytes [1] but may also be expressed in stomach, muscles, placenta and mammary epithelial cells [5]. Rodents carrying mutation in the ob gene (ob/ob mice) [6] or in the gene for the leptin receptor, ObR [7] (db/db mice [8], fa/fa rats [9]), express an obese phenotype that, in the case of ob/ob mice, may be reversed by leptin administration [3]. However, humans carrying a missense mutation in the leptin gene display obesity as one symptom of a complex syndrome [10], and leptin replacement is efficient for this subgroup of obese people [11]. Like leptin-deficient humans, ob/ob and db/db mice show disturbed regulation of several functions besides weight control, including hematopoiesis, angiogenesis and the immune system. While ob/ob mice show defective T-cell responses [12], thymic atrophy [13] and a decreased level of circulating lymphocytes, they seem to be hyper-responsive to monocyte/macrophage-activating stimuli, and the level of circulating monocytes is increased fourfold [14]. ob/ob mice and fa/fa rats show increased sensitivity to lipopolysaccharide, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-1, and reconstitution with leptin protects ob/ob mice from TNF-induced lethality [15].In mice, leptin production is increased by stimuli such as TNF, IL-1 and lipopolysaccharide [16,17,18]. In rats, infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis results in increased leptin production [19]. In humans, varying results concerning leptin production in septic patients have been presented [20,21].Septic arthritis is a highly and rapidly destructive hematogenously spread joint disease, which usually produces sequelae in the affected person and can at worst cause death [22]. The most common pathogen in bacterial arthritis is Staphylococcus aureus [23], which in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is the causative
Role of IL-12 in Staphylococcus aureus-triggered arthritis and sepsis
Olof H Hultgren, Martin Stenson, Andrzej Tarkowski
Arthritis Research & Therapy , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/ar138
Abstract: Septic arthritis is a severe disease, which is associated with high mortality and rapid destruction of affected joints. The most common bacterial agent in this condition is S aureus, which is the responsible pathogen in 37–56% of all cases of septic arthritis. Despite eradication of bacteria from the joint cavity, destruction of the joint often continues, resulting in severe sequelae.In our mouse model of sepsis and septic arthritis we use an intravenous inoculum of a S aureus strain (LS-1) that produces toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST)-1. This bacterial strain was originally isolated in a mouse with spontaneous staphylococcal arthritis. IL-12 is a heterodimeric cytokine that is composed of the constitutively expressed p35 gene product and the inducible p40 subunit. It is primarily produced by monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells.IL-12 has a variety of effects on natural killer cells and T cells, including the ability to facilitate T-helper (Th1)-cell responses, and thereby IFN-γ production. IFN-γ has been shown to be arthritogenic in septic arthritis, but protective with regard to bacterial clearance and survival. IL-12 is protective in several experimental models of bacterial infections, as demonstrated by the fact that neutralization of this cytokine increases susceptibility and addition of recombinant IL-12 ameliorates the severity of the infection. However, IL-12 given at high doses induces a septic shock-like condition, and neutralization of IL-12 protects mice from lipopolysaccharide-induced shock. Thus, the role of IL-12 in cases of severe bacterial infection that culminate in septic shock is not established.It has recently been shown that IL-12 deficiency exists in humans and that absence of IL-12 gives rise to recurrent infections with S aureus. The role of IL-12 in S aureus infection has not previously been assessed. Inoculation of IL-12 p40-deficient mice and their wild-type counterparts with a TSST-1-producing S aureus strain shows the critical im
The Effect of Maintenance Claw Trimming on the Prevalence of Claw Lesions and the Need for Therapeutic Claw Trimming
Manske T,Bergsten C,Hultgren J
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-44-s1-p59
Abstract:
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