Abstract:
A rigorous result about Hubbard model obtained by C.N.Yang [Phys.Rev.Lett.63,2144(1989)] is generalized to two kinds of extended Hubbard models. One is the Hubbard model in two-dimensional triangular lattice, and the other is the Hubbard model for high spins fermions. We obtain the conditions under which a modified $\eta$-pairing operator is an eigen-operator, thus these models have a series of eigenstates possessing off-diagonal long-range order.

Abstract:
In this letter a generalization of the BEC-BCS crossover theory to a multicomponent superfluid is presented by studying a three-species mixture of Fermi gas across two Feshbach resonances. At the BEC side of resonances, two kinds of molecules are stable which gives rise to a two-component Bose condensate. This two-component superfluid state can be experimentally identified from the radio-frequency spectroscopy, density profile and short noise measurements. As approaching the BCS side of resonances, the superfluidity will break down at some point and yield a first-order quantum phase transition to normal state, due to the mismatch of three Fermi surfaces. Phase separation instability will occur around the critical regime.

Abstract:
Whether a spin-1/2 Fermi gas will become ferromagnetic as the strength of repulsive interaction increases is a long-standing controversial issue. Recently this problem is studied experimentally by Jo et al, Science, 325, 1521 (2009) in which the authors claim a ferromagnetic transition is observed. This work is to point out the results of this experiment can not distinguish whether the system is in a ferromagnetic state or in a non-magnetic but strongly short-range correlated state. A conclusive experimental demonstration of ferromagnetism relies on the observation of ferromagnetic domains.

Abstract:
This review focuses on recent developments on studying synthetic spin-orbit (SO) coupling in ultracold atomic gases. Two types of SO coupling are discussed. One is Raman process induced coupling between spin and motion along one of the spatial directions, and the other is Rashba SO coupling. We emphasize their common features in both single-particle and two-body physics and their consequences in many-body physics. For instance, single particle ground state degeneracy leads to novel features of superfluidity and richer phase diagram; increased low-energy density-of-state enhances interaction effects; the absence of Galilean invariance and spin-momentum locking give rise to intriguing behaviors of superfluid critical velocity and novel quantum dynamics; and mixing of two-body singlet and triplet states yields novel fermion pairing structure and topological superfluids. With these examples, we show that investigating SO coupling in cold atom systems can enrich our understanding of basic phenomena such as superfluidity, provide a good platform for simulating condensed matter states such as topological superfluids, and more importantly, result in novel quantum systems such as SO coupled unitary Fermi gas or high spin quantum gases. Finally we also point out major challenges and possible future directions.

Abstract:
In this review we will discuss the experimental and theoretical progresses in studying spin-orbit coupled degenerate atomic gases during the last two years. We shall first review a series of pioneering experiments in generating synthetic gauge potentials and spin-orbit coupling in atomic gases by engineering atom-light interaction. Realization of spin-orbit coupled quantum gases opens a new avenue in cold atom physics, and also brings out a lot of new physical problems. In particular, the interplay between spin-orbit coupling and inter-atomic interaction leads to many intriguing phenomena. Here, by reviewing recent theoretical studies of both interacting bosons and fermions with isotropic Rashba spin-orbit coupling, the key message delivered here is that spin-orbit coupling can enhance the interaction effects, and make the interaction effects much more dramatic even in the weakly interacting regime.

Abstract:
We study Fermi gases in a three-dimensional optical lattice with five fermions per site, i.e. the s-band is completely filled and the p-band with three-fold degeneracy is half filled. We show that, for repulsive interaction between fermions, the system will exhibit spin-3/2 antiferromagnetic order at low temperature. This conclusion is obtained in strong interaction regime by strong coupling expansion which yields an isotropic spin-3/2 Heisenberg model, and also in weak interaction regime by Hatree-Fock mean-field theory and analysis of Fermi surface nesting. We show that the critical temperature for this antiferromagnetism of a p-band Mott insulator is about two orders of magnitudes higher than that of an $s$-band Mott insulator, which is close to the lowest temperature attainable nowadays.

Abstract:
We construct a variational wave function to study whether a fully polarized Fermi sea is energetically stable against a single spin flip. Our variational wave function contains sufficient short-range correlation at least to the same level as Gutzwiller's projected wave function. For Hubbard lattice model and continuum model with pure repulsive interaction, we show a fully polarized Fermi sea is generally unstable even when the repulsive strength becomes infinite. While for a resonance model, ferromagnetic state is possible if the s-wave scattering length is positive and sufficiently large, and the system is prepared in scattering state orthogonal to molecular bound state. However, we can not rule out the possibility that more exotic correlation can destabilize the ferromagnetic state.

Abstract:
In this letter we consider the dynamic behaviors of spin-orbit coupled Bose condensates realized in recent experiments. We show that there exists an interaction induced ac Hall response which is absent in a non-interacting system. This condensate has two distinct equilibrium phases known as the plane wave phase and the stripe phase. In the plane wave phase, we show that an ac longitudinal current will induce an ac radial current in the transverse direction, and vice versa, as a cooperation effect of spin-velocity locking and spin-dependent interaction. In the stripe phase, we show that the dominant longitudinal response to a transverse radial current is sliding of the density stripe, because it is the low-lying excitation mode originated from spontaneous spatial translational symmetry breaking in this phase.

Abstract:
We calculate the angular momentum and energy of a vortex dipole in a trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. Fully analytic expressions are obtained. We apply the results to understand a novel phenomenon in the MIT group experiment, an excellent agreement is achieved, and further experimental investigation is proposed to confirm this vortex dipole mechanism. We then suggest an effective generation and detection of vortex dipole for experimental realization. Application of the sum rule to calculate collective mode frequency splitting is also discussed.

Abstract:
We consider a mixture of fermionic and bosonic atoms nearby interspecies Feshbach resonances, which have been observed recently in $^6$Li-$^{23}$Na mixture by MIT group, and in $^{40}$K-$^{87}$Rb mixture by JILA group. We point out that the fermion-boson bound state, namely the heteronuclear molecules, will coexist with the fermionic atoms in a wide parameter region, and the attraction between fermionic atoms and molecules will lead to the formation of atom-molecule pairs. The pairing structure is studied in detail, and, in particular, we highlight the possible realization of the Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state in this system.