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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 22456 matches for " Hugh James Freeman "
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Hepatic manifestations of celiac disease
Hugh James Freeman
Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S7556
Abstract: tic manifestations of celiac disease Review (6393) Total Article Views Authors: Hugh James Freeman Published Date May 2010 Volume 2010:3 Pages 33 - 39 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEG.S7556 Hugh James Freeman Department of Medicine (Gastroenterology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Abstract: Different hepatic and biliary tract disorders may occur with celiac disease. Some have been hypothesized to share genetic or immunopathogenetic factors, such as primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and autoimmune hepatitis. Other hepatic changes in celiac disease may occur with malnutrition resulting from impaired nutrient absorption, including hepatic steatosis. In addition, celiac disease may be associated with rare hepatic complications, such as hepatic T-cell lymphoma.
Medical Management of Ulcerative Colitis with a Specific Focus on 5-Aminosalicylates
Hugh James Freeman
Clinical Medicine Insights: Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/CGast.S8673
Abstract: Medical management of ulcerative colitis has continued to evolve over more than half of a century. Perhaps, the important advance was the development of sulfasalazine, a drug initially used for the treatment of inflammatory joint disease and only later in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Sulfasalazine was a combination designer drug consisting of sulfapyridine, a sulfa-containing antibacterial agent, and 5-amino-salicylate (5-ASA), an anti-inflammatory agent. Its value appeared to be its ability to target a therapeutic concentration of the 5-ASA component of the medication primarily in the colon, largely avoiding proximal small intestinal absorption. With increasing experience, however, it also became evident that many patients treated with sulfasalazine developed intolerance to the drug and, in some rare instances, serious drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions, largely to the sulfapyridine portion. As a result, a number of alternative forms of delivery of 5-ASA were developed consisting of either a similar sulfasalazine-like prodrug formulation requiring luminal destruction of an azo-bond releasing the 5-ASA or a pH-dependent 5-ASA packaging system that permitted release in the distal intestine, particularly in the colon. As a result, 5-ASA—containing medications continue to provide a valuable management tool for remission induction in mildly to moderately active distal or extensive ulcerative colitis, an additional option for more severely symptomatic disease and value for maintenance therapy with limited potential side effects, even with long-term use.
Colitis associated with biological agents
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i16.1871
Abstract: In the past, there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity. Now, a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents, usually administered by infusion, have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents, adverse effects have been documented, including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease. In some, only limited symptoms have been recorded, but in others, severe colitis with serious complications, such as bowel perforation has been recorded. In others, adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis, while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection. Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases, or be responsible for disease exacerbation. Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response. This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies, notably, malignant melanoma. Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated. One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe, and occasionally, fatal. Other agents include rituximab (an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody), bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents, including infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept.
Reproductive changes associated with celiac disease
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Celiac disease is a mucosal disorder of the small intestine that may be triggered by dietary exposure to gluten in genetically-susceptible individuals. The disorder is often associated with diarrhea, malabsorption and weight loss along with other extra-intestinal complications. Reproductive changes have been described, including impaired fertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes possibly related to immune-mediated mechanisms or nutrient deficiency. Other possible pathogenetic factors that may alter placental function include maternal celiac disease autoantibodies binding to placental transglutaminase, and genetic mutations that may facilitate microthrombus formation. Reports noting activation during pregnancy or the puerperium may be important, and suggest that celiac disease may also be hypothetically precipitated by maternal exposure to one or more fetal antigens.
Risk factors in familial forms of celiac disease
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Celiac disease has been reported in up to 2% of some European populations. A similar risk has been identified in the America and Australia where immigration of Europeans has occurred. Moreover, an increasing number of celiac disease patients are being identified in many Asian countries, including China and India. Finally, celiac disease has also been detected in Asian immigrants and their descendants to other countries, such as Canada. Within these so-called “general” celiac populations, however, there are specific high risk groups that have an even higher prevalence of celiac disease. Indeed, the single most important risk factor for celiac disease is having a first-degree relative with already-defined celiac disease, particularly a sibling. A rate up to 20% or more has been noted. Risk is even greater if a specific family has 2 siblings affected, particularly if a male carries the human leukocyte antigen-DQ2. Both structural changes in the small bowel architecture occur along with functional changes in permeability, even in asymptomatic first-degree relatives. Even if celiac disease is not evident, the risk of other autoimmune disorders seems significantly increased in first-degree relatives as well as intestinal lymphoma. Identification of celiac disease is important since recent long-term studies have shown that the mortality of celiac disease is increased, if it is unrecognized and untreated.
Update on collagenous sprue
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: Collagenous sprue has traditionally been defined as a small intestinal mucosal disorder characterized by persistent diarrhea, severe malabsorption with multiple nutrient deficiencies and progressive weight loss. Pathologically, a severe to variably severe “flattened” mucosal biopsy lesion with distinctive sub-epithelial deposits in the lamina propria region is detected. Histochemical stains and ultrastructural studies have confirmed that these deposits contain collagens. Often, an initial diagnosis of celiac disease is considered but no continued response to treatment with a gluten-free diet occurs. Recent reports indicate an intimate relationship between collagenous sprue and celiac disease, sometimes with concomitant T-cell enteropathy. In addition, permanent disappearance of these deposits after resection of a localized colon cancer suggested that this disorder could actually represent a paraneoplastic morphologic marker of an occult malignancy. Studies showing either gastric or colonic involvement (or both) with this unusual collagenous inflammatory mucosal process may also reflect a far more extensive and heterogeneous process than previously appreciated.
Mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2010,
Abstract: The mesenteric lymph node cavitation syndrome consists of central necrosis of mesenteric lymph nodes and may occur with either celiac disease or a sprue-like intestinal disease that fails to respond to a gluten-free diet. Splenic hypofunction may also be present. The cause is not known but its development during the clinical course of celiac disease is usually indicative of a poor prognosis for the intestinal disorder, a potential for significant complications including sepsis and malignancy, particularly T-cell lymphoma, and significant mortality. Modern abdominal imaging modalities may permit earlier detection in celiac disease so that earlier diagnosis and improved understanding of its pathogenesis may result.
Colorectal cancer risk in Crohns disease
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: There is recognized increased risk for colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis. There also appears to be an increased rate of intestinal cancer in Crohn’s disease, including both colon and small bowel sites. In Crohn’s disease, evidence suggests that detection of colorectal cancer may be delayed with a worse prognosis. Some risk factors for cancer in Crohn’s disease include the extent of inflammatory change within the colon and the presence of bypassed or excluded segments, including rectal “stump” cancer. In addition, the risk for other types of intestinal neoplasms may be increased in Crohn’s disease, including lymphoma and carcinoid tumors. Earlier detection of colorectal cancer based on colonoscopy screening and surveillance may be achieved but, to date, this has not translated into a positive survival benefit. Moreover, newer staining methods and evolving micro-endoscopic techniques show promise, but have not significantly altered management. Future research should focus on development of molecular or other bio-markers that might predict future dysplasia or cancer development in Crohn’s disease.
Heterogeneity of colorectal adenomas, the serrated adenoma, and implications for screening and surveillance
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Current algorithms for screening and surveillance for colon cancer are valuable, but may be limited by the underlying nature of the targeted neoplastic lesions. Although part of the success of adenoma removal relates to interruption of so-called “adenoma-carcinoma sequence”, an alternate serrated pathway to colon cancer may pose difficulties with the ultimate results achieved by traditional colonoscopic methods. The endpoint carcinoma in this unique pathway may be derived from a dysplastic serrated adenoma. These tend to be located primarily in the right colon, especially in females, and are frequently associated with co-existent colon cancer. Unfortunately, however, there are few, if any, other identifiable risk factors, including age or family history of colon polyps or colon cancer. Moreover, this alternate serrated pathway may itself also be quite biologically heterogeneous as reflected in sessile serrated adenomas (SSA) with virtually exclusive molecular signatures defined by the presence of either BRAF or KRAS mutations. Screening algorithms in the future may need to be modified and individualized, depending on new information that likely will emerge on the natural history of these biologically heterogeneous lesions that differs from traditional adenomatous polyps.
Adult celiac disease in the elderly
Hugh James Freeman
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: There is an increased awareness that celiac disease may occur in the elderly although presentations with either diarrhea, weight loss or both may be less common causing delays in diagnosis for prolonged periods. Higher detection rates also seem evident owing to active case screening, largely through serodiagnostic measures. In some elderly patients who are genetically predisposed, it has been hypothesized that celiac disease might be precipitated late in life by an antigen, possibly from an infectious agent. As a result, peptide mimicry or other poorly-defined mechanisms may precipitate an autoimmune gluten-dependent clinical state. Although diarrhea and weight loss occur, only isolated iron deficiency anemia may be present at the time of initial diagnosis. In addition, the risk of other autoimmune disorders, particularly autoimmune thyroiditis, and bone disease, are increased. Osteopenia may also be associated with an increased risk of fractures. Finally, elderly celiacs have an increased risk of malignant intestinal disease, especially lymphoma.
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