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Technology for the Utilization of Deep Geothermal Reservoirs in Germany
Ernst Huenges,David Bruhn
Acta Montanistica Slovaca , 2007,
Abstract: The Geothermal Technology Program at GFZ identify suitable geological structures and horizons for extracting energy and develop new methods to increase the productivity of deep geothermal reservoirs. In this context, the former gas exploration well Gro Sch nebeck EGrSk3/90 (50 km northeast of Berlin) was reopened and deepened to the 4309 m depth to serve as a geothermal in situ laboratory for testing stimulation concepts. The objective of these stimulation operations was to create secondary flow paths and to improve the inflow performance of the well.In addition, Gro Sch nebeck is the only test site of the EU-project I-GET (Integrated Geophysical Exploration Technologies for deep fractured geothermal systems), where new, cost-effective and reliable geothermal exploration techniques are developed to increase the success rate of drilling.Based on the data of deep neighbouring wells and the industry seismic measurements, a model was generated to visualise the geological setting and to plan the course of the second well. The well encounters a typical sequence of various geological formations, known in the North German Basin. A series of 2370 m of Quaternary to Triassic sediments is underlain by 1492 m of Zechstein salts, and the following section of this well, which was foreseen for testing, comprises 400 m of Rotliegend formation (siltstones, sandstones, conglomerates and 60 m of underlying volcanic rocks) down to the final depth of 4309 m.The well Gro Sch nebeck makes the deep sedimentary Rotliegend reservoir accessible, which is characterized by water bearing porous and fractured rocks. The Rotliegend reservoir consists of a sequence of sandstones, conglomerates, and volcanic rocks with formation fluids of 150 °C at porosities of up to 10 %. Experiments in this in-situ geothermal laboratory should lead to a reliable technology for a sufficient production of deep fluids in such reservoirs.
Rock Permeability and Fluid Pressure At the Ktb. Implications from Laboratory-And Drill Hole-Measurements Perméabilité des roches et pression dans le KTB : enseignements tirés des mesures de laboratoire et des mesures en puits
Zimmermann G.,Huenges E.
Oil & Gas Science and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.2516/ogst:1999058
Abstract: Rock permeability and the fluid pressure were investigated at different scales at the two drill holes of the Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). Drill hole tests and fluid inclusion investigations both implicate the existence of hydrostatic fluid pressure in situ with respect to salinity of the formation fluid. Matrix permeability and in situ values from hydraulic tests differ up to three decades with higher values in situ. Further on, the pressure dependence of core permeability and in situ determined values differ significantly. All these observed effects support the well known theory of scale variance. This conclusion is supported by observations of hydraulic communications between both drill holes. These scale effects implicate a pronounced hydraulic heterogeneity of the KTB surroundings. Therefore, stochastic network modelling with parameters derived from structural borehole measurements and under the consideration of the observed permeabilities were performed. Under the presumption of existing driving forces fluid transport takes place dominantly on discrete connected pathways characterised by fracture width, fracture length and fracture orientation and is subordinate in the rock matrix. La perméabilité des roches et la pression des fluides ont été étudiées à différentes échelles sur les deux forages du Programme continental de forage profond - Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). Les essais de puits et les recherches d'inclusions de fluides impliquent l'existence d'une pression de fluide fonction de la salinité du fluide de formation. Les valeurs déduites des essais de puits dépassent largement les perméabilités matricielles, l'écart allant jusqu'à trois ordres de grandeur. De plus, l'évolution de la perméabilité mesurée sur échantillon en fonction de la pression et celle déterminée in situ diffèrent largement. Ces observations renforcent la théorie bien connue des effets d'échelle. Cette conclusion est étayée par les observations des communications hydrauliques entre les deux forages. Ces effets d'échelle impliquent une hétérogénéité hydraulique prononcée dans le cadre du KTB. Ainsi, une modélisation stochastique sur réseau avec des paramètres dérivés des mesures en forage et la prise en compte des perméabilités observées a été réalisée. En supposant que des forces motrices existent, le transport de fluide se fait essentiellement par des chemins connectés discrètement, caractérisés par une largeur, une longueur, et une orientation de fracture.
Directional Drilling and Stimulation of a Deep Sedimentary Geothermal Reservoir
Ernst Huenges,Inga Moeck
Scientific Drilling , 2007, DOI: 10.2204/iodp.sd.5.08.2007
Abstract: Strata of Lower Permian sandstones and volcanics are widespread throughout Central Europe, forming deeply buried (on average, 4000-m) aquifers in the North German Basin with formation temperatures of up to 150°C. Stimulation methods to increase their permeability by enhancing or creating secondary porosity and flow paths are investigated by deep drilling. The goal is to map the potential for the generation of geothermal electricity from such deep sedimentaryreservoirs using a doublet of boreholes—one to produce deep natural hot water and the other to re-inject the water after use. For these purposes, an in situ downhole laboratory was established in Gross Sch nebeck, north of Berlin, Germany (Fig. 1).
Unterscheiden sich die Ergebnisse unterschiedlicher Prüfungsformate grundlagenwissenschaftlicher Inhalte hinsichtlich ihrer pr diktiven Validit t für den Erfolg im weiteren Medizinstudium? []
Huenges, Bert,Sch?fer, Thorsten,Rusche, Herbert
GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung , 2007,
Abstract:
Awake Craniotomy and Coaching  [PDF]
Carla Ruis, Irene M. C. Huenges Wajer, Pierre A. J. T. Robe, Martine J. E. van Zandvoort
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.35040
Abstract: Background: The importance of monitoring cognition during awake craniotomy has been well described in previous studies. The relevance of being coached during such a procedure has received less attention and questions still remain unanswered about what factors are the most important herein. Objective: The aim of this study was to qualitatively analyze what factors were, according to our patients, important in being coaching during awake craniotomy. Methods: Twenty-six patients who underwent awake craniotomy received a questionnaire about their experiences during the procedure. The questions concerned different aspects of the pre-operative part, the operation itself and coaching aspects. Answers were qualitatively analyzed by two investigators and per question, different answer categories were made. Results: Two thirds of the 20 patients who responded to the questionnaire reported anxiety in the days before or during the operation, varying from general anxiety for being awake during surgery to anxiety for very specific aspects such as opening the skull. The constant presence of the neuropsychologist and a transparent communication during the procedure were most frequently (65% of all the answers) reported as helpful in staying calm. Conclusion: Results of this descriptive study show that patients experience different anxieties before and during an awake craniotomy and give more insight into what factors are important for patients in being coached during such an operation. This study gives directions for clinicians in improving their role as a coach.
The Mesenteric-Caval Fistula: First Results of a New Technique in a Transperitoneal Reconstruction of the Caval Vein by Fulminant Thrombosis of the Inferior Vena Cava Based on Homozygous Antithrombin III-Deficiency  [PDF]
Justus Gross, Rainer Petzina, Rouven Berndt, Bernd Panholzer, Andreas Bayer, Katharina Huenges, Leonie Aschauer, Jochen Cremer, Rene Rusch
Surgical Science (SS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2016.78049
Abstract: Recurrent thrombotic occlusions are one major problem in patients with thrombosis of the inferior vena cava. Due to this, we report a new surgical strategy for the construction of aorto-caval (mesenteric-caval) fistula in a patient with homozygous Antithrombin III (ATIII)-Deficiency. The patient survived postoperatively and only surgical complications grade I and II (Clavien-Dindo classification) were reported after short-term and one year follow-up. After one year, the CT-angiography did not show any caval thrombosis or stenosis and no restriction or occlusion of the fistula. Thus, the mesenteric-caval fistula could be safely performed and resulted in a satisfactory patency.
Wissensfortschritt und Erfolgsraten im ersten Studienabschnitt eines reformierten Regelstudiengangs im Vergleich zu einem problembasierten Modellstudiengang [Progress of knowledge and success rates in the first section of medical training in a traditional versus problem-based curriculum ]
Sch?fer, Thorsten,Huenges, Bert,Burger, Andreas,Rusche, Herbert
GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung , 2007,
Abstract:
Wie wichtig ist der Unterricht in Medizinethik und Medizingeschichte im Medizinstudium? Eine empirische Studie zu den Einsch tzungen Studierender [How Important is Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Teaching in the Medical Curriculum? An Empirical Approach towards Students' Views]
Schulz, Stefan,Woestmann, Barbara,Huenges, Bert,Schweikardt, Christoph
GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung , 2012, DOI: 10.3205/zma000778
Abstract: [english] Objectives: It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE) - or the lack thereof - has on the judgement of these subjects.Methods: From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5 semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5/6 semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1 and 5 (model curriculum) or 6 semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)).Results: 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1 semester.The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well.Conclusion: Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative impact. Therefore the teaching of GTE should already begin in the 1 semester. The teaching of GTE must take into account that even right at the start of their studies, students judge medical ethics and the history of medicine differently. [german] Zielsetzung: Es wurde untersucht, wie Studierende zu Beginn und im Verlauf ihres Studiums den Unterricht in Medizinethik und Medizingeschichte einsch tzen und welchen Einfluss der durchgeführte bzw. fehlende fachspezifische Unterricht in Geschichte, Theorie und Ethik der Medizin (GTE) auf die Wertsch tzung der F cher hat.Methodik: Befragt wurden im WS 2005/6
Problem-orientiertes Lernen am Krankenbett an Stelle des traditionellen Papierfalles: eine Chance für den Unterricht am Krankenbett? []
Huenges, Bert,Lieverscheidt, Hille,Sch?fer, Thorsten,Burger, Andreas
GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung , 2008,
Abstract:
Wie kann der ad quate rztliche Umgang mit Emotionen im Medizinstudium vermittelt werden? Ein Erfahrungsbericht aus dem Strang " rztliche Interaktion" im Modellstudiengang Medizin der Ruhr-Universit t Bochum [How to teach the adequate handling of emotions during medical studies? A field report on "Medical Interaction" as part of a problem-based curriculum at the Ruhr University in Bochum, Germany]
Veit, Iris,Huenges, Bert,K?ster, Ute,Pieper, Michaela
GMS Zeitschrift für Medizinische Ausbildung , 2009, DOI: 10.3205/zma000622
Abstract: [english] Handling strong emotions like sorrow, anger, shame, and fear in patients with somatic disease in an adequate way is a key issue for the future physician. Up to now, this aspect of the doctor?patient relationship has played a minor role in medical studies. To address this shortcoming, the handling of emotions is the focus of the third semester in the “Medical Interaction” course of the Modellstudiengang Medizin, the problem-based track of the medical faculty in Bochum, Germany. The course presented is given by the Department of General Medicine.The main objective is the recognition and correct interpretation of patients’ emotional expressions. The course is composed of six modules (one introductory and one for each leading affect). The main teaching methods are realistic role plays in a small group setting with video feedback, whereby one main requirement is that each student plays the role of both the patient and the doctor. Each session is introduced and analyzed by a general practitioner experienced in psychosomatic medicine. Evaluation of the course has shown a high acceptance among students. This motivates us to conduct a public discussion on the possibilities of applying this concept in other medical studies as well. [german] Der ad quate Umgang mit Emotionen wie Trauer, Wut, Scham und Angst bei Patienten mit k rperlichen Erkrankungen spielt für den werdenden Arzt eine Schlüsselrolle. Dieser Aspekt der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung wird allerdings im Medizinstudium bislang wenig berücksichtigt. Aus diesem Grunde wird der Umgang mit Emotionen im dritten Semester des Stranges rztliche Interaktion“ im Modellstudiengang Medizin der Ruhr-Universit t Bochum thematisiert. Der vorgestellte Kurs wird von der Abteilung für Allgemeinmedizin durchgeführt.Zielsetzung ist die Verbesserung der emotionalen und kommunikativen Kompetenz des Studierenden. Um dies zu erreichen soll dem eigenen emotionalen Erleben in der Arzt-Patient-Beziehung Raum gegeben werden. Der Kurs gliedert sich in 6 Module in dem realistische Patientenszenarien in Rollenspielen gespielt und aufgezeichnet werden. Ein zentrales Ziel ist, dass jeder Studierende eine Arzt- und eine Patientenrolle selber gespielt hat. Jedes Rollenspiel wird von einem in der psychosomatischen Medizin erfahrenen Allgemeinmediziner eingeleitet und ausgewertet. Die Evaluation spricht für eine hohe Akzeptanz der Lehrveranstaltung von Seiten der Studierenden die uns dazu ermutigt, ffentlich darüber nachzudenken, in wie fern ein solches Konzept in andere Medizinstudieng nge übertragen werden k nnte.
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