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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 83642 matches for " Hsin-Chu Chen "
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Two-Level Block Decompositions for Solving Helmholtz Equation via Chebyshev Pseudo Spectral Method  [PDF]
Hsin-Chu Chen
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.99107
Abstract: In this paper, we consider solving the Helmholtz equation \"\" in the Cartesian domain \"\", subject to homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition, discretized with the Chebyshev pseudo-spectral method. The main purpose of this paper is to present the formulation of a two-level decomposition scheme for decoupling the linear system obtained from the discretization into independent subsystems. This scheme takes advantage of the homogeneity property of the physical problem along one direction to reduce a 2D problem to several 1D problems via a block diagonalization approach and the reflexivity property along the second direction to decompose each of the 1D problems to two independent subproblems using a reflexive decomposition, effectively doubling the number of subproblems. Based on the special structure of the coefficient matrix of the linear system derived from the discretization and a reflexivity property of the second-order Chebyshev differentiation matrix, we show that the decomposed submatrices exhibits a similar property, enabling the system to be decomposed using reflexive decompositions. Explicit forms of the decomposed submatrices are derived. The decomposition not only yields more efficient algorithm but introduces coarse-grain parallelism. Furthermore, it preserves all eigenvalues of the original matrix.
Block Decompositions and Applications of Generalized Reflexive Matrices  [PDF]
Hsin-Chu Chen
Advances in Linear Algebra & Matrix Theory (ALAMT) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/alamt.2018.83011
Abstract: Generalize reflexive matrices are a special class of matrices \"\"?that have the relation \"\"where? \"\"and \"\"?are some generalized reflection matrices. The nontrivial cases (\"\" or \"\") of this class of matrices occur very often in many scientific and engineering applications. They are also a generalization of centrosymmetric matrices and reflexive matrices. The main purpose of this paper is to present block decomposition schemes for generalized reflexive matrices of various types and to obtain their decomposed explicit block-diagonal structures. The decompositions make use of unitary equivalence transformations and, therefore, preserve the singular values of the matrices. They lead to more efficient sequential computations and at the same time induce large-grain parallelism as a by-product, making themselves computationally attractive for large-scale applications. A numerical example is employed to show the usefulness of the developed explicit decompositions for decoupling linear least-square problems whose coefficient matrices are of this class into smaller and independent subproblems.
Effect of C-Terminal Residues of Aβ on Copper Binding Affinity, Structural Conversion and Aggregation
Shu-Hsiang Huang, Shyue-Chu Ke, Ta-Hsin Lin, Hsin-Bin Huang, Yi-Cheng Chen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090385
Abstract: Many properties of Aβ such as toxicity, aggregation and ROS formation are modulated by Cu2+. Previously, the coordination configuration and interaction of Cu2+ with the Aβ N-terminus has been extensively studied. However, the effect of Aβ C-terminal residues on related properties is still unclear. In the present study, several C-terminus-truncated Aβ peptides, including Aβ1-40, Aβ1-35, Aβ1-29, Aβ1-24 and Aβ1-16, were synthesized to characterize the effect of Aβ C-terminal residues on Cu2+ binding affinity, structure, aggregation ability and ROS formation. Results show that the Aβ C-terminal residues have effect on Cu2+ binding affinity, aggregation ability and inhibitory ability of ROS formation. Compared to the key residues responsible for Aβ aggregation and structure in the absence of Cu2+, it is more likely that residues 36–40, rather than residues 17–21 and 30–35, play a key role on the related properties of Aβ in the presence of Cu2+.
Analysis of Surface Texturization of Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Hsiao-Yen Chung,Chiun-Hsun Chen,Hsin-Sen Chu
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/540971
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple new model, based on the classic molecular dynamics simulation (MD), alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. This methodology can easily propose the absorptance differences between texturing and nontexturing solar cells. To verify model feasibility, this study simulates square, pyramidal, and semicircular texturization surfaces. Simulations show that surface texturization effectively increases the absorptance of incident light for solar cells, and this paper presents optimal texturization shapes. The MD model can also be potentially used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.
Analysis of Pyramidal Surface Texturization of Silicon Solar Cells by Molecular Dynamics Simulations
Hsiao-Yen Chung,Chiun-Hsun Chen,Hsin-Sen Chu
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/282791
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relations between surface texturization and absorptance of multicrystalline silicon solar cells by a simple new model, based on the classic molecular (MD) dynamics simulation, alternative to complex electron-photon interactions to analyze the surface texturization of solar cells. In this study, the large tilted angle leads to the lower efficiency of solar cell. To consider the effect of incident angle, a range of high efficiency exists due to the increasing probability of second reflection. Furthermore, the azimuth angle of incident light also affects the efficiency of solar cells. Our results agree well with previous studies. This MD model can potentially be used to predict the efficiency promotion in any optical reflection-absorption cases.
A Review of Photocatalysts Prepared by Sol-Gel Method for VOCs Removal
Ting Ke Tseng,Yi Shing Lin,Yi Ju Chen,Hsin Chu
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijms11062336
Abstract: The sol-gel process is a wet-chemical technique (chemical solution deposition), which has been widely used in the fields of materials science, ceramic engineering, and especially in the preparation of photocatalysts. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prevalent components of indoor air pollution. Among the approaches to remove VOCs from indoor air, photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is regarded as a promising method. This paper is a review of the status of research on the sol-gel method for photocatalyst preparation and for the PCO purification of VOCs. The review and discussion will focus on the preparation and coating of various photocatalysts, operational parameters, and will provide an overview of general PCO models described in the literature.
Observation of a Dynamic Crossover in RNA Hydration Water which Triggers the Glass Transition in the Biopolymer
Xiang-qiang Chu,Emiliano Fratini,Piero Baglioni,Antonio Faraone,Sow-Hsin Chen
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: High-resolution quasi-elastic neutron scattering spectroscopy was used to measure H2O and D2O hydrated RNA samples. The contribution of scattering from RNA was subtracted out by taking the difference of the signals between the two samples. The measurements were made at a series of temperatures from 270 K down to 180 K. The Relaxing-Cage Model was used to analyze the difference quasi-elastic spectra. We observed clear evidence of a fragile-to-strong dynamic crossover (FSC) at TL = 220 K in RNA hydration water. We further show that the mean-square displacement of the hydrogen atoms in both RNA and its hydration water exhibit a sharp change in slope at approximately the same temperature 220 K. This latter fact suggests that the dynamic transition (or the glass transition) in RNA is triggered by the abrupt change of mobility of the hydration water at its FSC temperature TL.
Targeting Protective Autophagy Exacerbates UV-Triggered Apoptotic Cell Death
Li-Hsin Chen,Pei-Ming Chu,Yi-Jang Lee,Pang-Hsien Tu,Chin-Wen Chi,Hsin-Chen Lee,Shih-Hwa Chiou
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijms13011209
Abstract: Autophagy is activated by various stresses, including DNA damage, and previous studies of DNA damage-induced autophagy have focused on the response to chemotherapeutic drugs, ionizing radiation, and reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of autophagic response to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in A549 and H1299 cells. Our results indicated that UV induces on-rate autophagic flux in these cells. Autophagy inhibition resulting from the knockdown of beclin-1 and Atg5 reduced cell viability and enhanced apoptosis. Moreover, we found that ATR phosphorylation was accompanied by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3B II (LC3B-II) expression during the early phases following UV irradiation, which is a well-established inducer of ATR. Knocking down ATR further attenuated the reduction in LC3B-II at early stages in response to UV treatment. Despite the potential role of ATR in autophagic response, reduced ATR expression does not affect autophagy induction during late phases (24 and 48 h after UV treatment). The result is consistent with the reduced ATR phosphorylation at the same time points and suggests that autophagic response at this stage is activated via a distinct pathway. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that autophagy acts as a cytoprotective mechanism against UV-induced apoptosis and that autophagy induction accompanied with apoptosis at late stages is independent of ATR activation.
The Effect of Direction on Cursor Moving Kinematics
Ling-Fu Meng,Hsin-Yung Chen,Chiu-Ping Lu,Ming-Chung Chen,Chi-Nung Chu
Sensors , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/s120201919
Abstract: There have been only few studies to substantiate the kinematic characteristics of cursor movement. In this study, a quantitative experimental research method was used to explore the effect of moving direction on the kinematics of cursor movement in 24 typical young persons using our previously developed computerized measuring program. The results of multiple one way repeated measures ANOVAs and post hoc LSD tests demonstrated that the moving direction had effects on average velocity, movement time, movement unit and peak velocity. Moving leftward showed better efficiency than moving rightward, upward and downward from the kinematic evidences such as velocity, movement unit and time. Moreover, the unique pattern of the power spectral density (PSD) of velocity (strategy for power?application) explained why the smoothness was still maintained while moving leftward even under an unstable situation with larger momentum. Moreover, the information from this cursor moving study can guide us to relocate the toolbars and icons in the window interface, especially for individuals with physical disabilities whose performances are easily interrupted while controlling the cursor in specific directions.
Poverty related risk for potentially preventable hospitalisations among children in Taiwan
Likwang Chen, Hsin-Ming Lu, Shu-Fang Shih, Ken N Kuo, Chi-Liang Chen, Lynn Chu Huang
BMC Health Services Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-10-196
Abstract: NHI data on enrolee registrations and use of ambulatory and hospital care by all children born between July 1, 2003 and June 30, 2004 (n = 218,158) was used for the study. The negative binomial regression method was used to identify factors associated with total inpatient care and the severity level for various types of potentially preventable hospitalisations during the first two years of life.This study found high inpatient expenses for lower respiratory infections for children in all income categories. Furthermore, results from the multivariate analysis indicate that children in the lowest economic category used inpatient care to a much greater extent than better-off children for problems considered potentially avoidable through primary prevention or through timely outpatient care. This was especially true for acute injuries and poisonings and for lower respiratory infections. On average, and controlling for other variables, a child in poverty spent 6.1 times more days in inpatient care for acute injuries and poisonings (p < 0.01) and 2.7 times more days for lower respiratory infections (p < 0.01) before age two, compared with a similarly-aged high-income child. The results also suggest a connection between economic status and the severity of a condition causing a potentially avoidable hospital admission. On average, length of stay for each admission for gastroenteritis and dehydration for children in poverty was 1.3 times that for high-income children (p < 0.01). Both the ratios for lower respiratory infections and for acute upper respiratory infections were 1.2 (p < 0.01 for both).There were high hospital admission rates and lengths of stays for lower respiratory infections among young children in all income categories. Hospital care use of young children in the poorest category was significantly higher for acute injuries and poisonings as well as for lower respiratory infections, compared with those of better-off children. The findings suggest the need for inc
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