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Student′s section and student editors of JPGM
Kulkarni Hrishikesh,Kulkarni Meenal,Bhalerao Upendra,Goenka Ajit
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2005,
Natriuretic Peptides in the Management of Solid Organ Transplantation Associated Acute Kidney Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Sagar U. Nigwekar,Hrishikesh Kulkarni,Charuhas V. Thakar
International Journal of Nephrology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/949357
Abstract: Randomized controlled trials involving natriuretic peptide administration in solid organ transplantation setting have shown inconsistent effects for renal endpoints. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of these trials to ascertain the role of natriuretic peptides in the management of solid organ transplantation associated acute kidney injury (AKI). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google scholar were searched independently by two authors for randomized trials evaluating renal effects of natriuretic peptides in solid organ transplantation settings. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for eligibility and extracted the relevant data. The pooled estimate showed that natriuretic peptide administration is associated with a reduction in AKI requiring dialysis (odds ratio = 0.50 [0.26–0.97]), a statistically nonsignificant trend toward improvement in posttransplant creatinine clearance (weighted mean difference = 5.5?mL/min, [?1.3 to 12.2?mL/min]), and reduction in renal replacement requirement duration (weighted mean difference ?44.0 hours, [?60.5 to ?27.5 hours]). There were no mortality events and no adverse events related to natriuretic peptides. In conclusion, administration of natriuretic peptides in solid organ transplantation may be associated with significant improvements in renal outcomes. These observations need to be confirmed in an adequately powered, prospective multicenter study. 1. Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality [1, 2]. Despite recent advances, outcomes from AKI have not substantially changed in the last four decades and the incidence of AKI is on the rise [3]. Solid organ transplantation procedures (e.g., liver transplantation, heart transplantation, lung transplantation, and combined solid organ transplantations such as heart-lung transplant) are a recognized cause of AKI and renal transplantation is also frequently associated with AKI [4–10]. The incidence of AKI after liver transplantation reportedly ranges from 12% to 67% depending upon the definition used [4, 11]. Dialysis is required in up to 21% of the cases [4], and AKI in this setting is associated with higher mortality [4, 11]. Similarly, the incidence of AKI remains high in immediate postcardiac transplantation setting as up to 1/3rd of patients develop AKI [7]. Postischemic acute tubular necrosis is the most common cause of persistent renal failure (also known as delayed graft function) in the immediate postrenal transplant period and remains a major obstacle for
Newborn Sex Selection and India’s Overpopulation Problem  [PDF]
Hrishikesh D. Vinod
Modern Economy (ME) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/me.2013.42013

We begin by noting how India is highly overpopulated and that this creates negative externalities for world environment. Next, we note that females in child-bearing ages alone determine the birth rate, compounding the population growth anywhere. Third, forcing families to have unwanted daughters can increase discrimination against women. Fourth, most countries impose no restrictions on women choosing the sex of their next baby. We use these propositions to argue that cultural preference against daughters in India has important benefits until India achieves net reproduction rate of unity. We argue that the correct policy for malnourished overpopulated India must be the exact opposite of the focus in North America and Europe, where they have an obesity epidemic and declining populations.

Integrin Alpha-V Beta-3-Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), Cross-Talk  [PDF]
Hrishikesh Sil, Amitava Chatterjee
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2015.69087
Abstract: The present study aimed to detect comparative expression of integrin αVβ3 and its involvement in expression and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in 25 malignant human breast tumor and adjacent normal breast tissues from different clinical TNM stages (DCIS to T4) of the disease and possible involvement of known regulating parameters of MMP-2 like TIMP-2, MT1-MMP and EMPRIN. Integrin αVβ3 was highly expressed in tumors than adjacent normal breast tissues. Pro-MMP-2(72-KD) was mainly expressed in adjacent normal tissues compared to tumors. The mature forms of MMP-2 (68 KD and 64 KD) were found only in tumors. Appreciable expression of TIMP-2 and induction of MT1-MMP and EMPRIN in T2-T4 stages suggested their possible role in MMP-2 activation. Over expression Integrin αVβ3 in tumors than adjacent normal breast tissues was an indication of cancer progression with involvement of integrin signaling. We conclude that, the co-precipitation of MMP-2 with αvβ3 by anti-αv antibody is a strong indication that integrin α
An Innovative Cerclage Wire Passer  [PDF]
Hrishikesh Saodekar, Salphale Yogesh
Surgical Science (SS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2018.96023
Abstract: The cerclage wire is an important adjuvant in the management of Orthopaedic and trauma cases and is particularly useful in long bone fractures. It is especially useful for addressing the fractures, especially the comminuted ones with a butterfly fragment. Orthopaedic cerclage Wiring is used as an adjunct to maintain fracture reduction (either temporarily or permanently), while the bone is primarily stabilised by either a plate intramedullary nail or external fixation frame. Multiple cerclage wires provide adjunctive fixation against compressive shear, bending & rotational forces and have been used in traumatology since many years. The aim of this article is to introduce a new year simple low cost instrument named as “Suyash cerclage wire passer”, with excellent outcomes without any major complications to the Orthopaedic community.
Hrishikesh Asutkar
e-Journal of Dentistry , 2012,
JGES: An Open Access Peer Reviewed Journal is Born
Pai Hrishikesh
Journal of Gynecological Endoscopy and Surgery , 2009,
Optimal Positions of Relay Stations for Cluster-Based Two-Hop Cellular Network  [PDF]
Hrishikesh VENKATARAMAN, Pradeep Kumar JAIN, Segu REVANTH
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2009.24031
Abstract: Multihop cellular networks is an exciting and a fledgling area of wireless communication which offers huge potential in terms of coverage enhancement, data-rates, power reduction, and various other quality of service improvements. However, resource allocation in MCN is an NP-hard problem. Hence, significant research needs to be done in this field in order to efficiently design the radio network. In this paper, optimal position of relay stations in a hierarchical cluster-based two-hop cellular network is investigated. Vector algebra has been used to derive general equation for carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I) of a mobile station. It has been observed that when the transmit power of base station (BS) and the gateway (GTW)/relay station (RS) are same, the RSs should be located close to mid-point of BS and the edge of the cell. However, significantly, when the transmit power of the BS is greater than that of the GTW, then the RSs should be placed closer to the edge of the cell, in order to maximize the minimum C/I at any point in the cell. This in turn results in higher modulation technique at the physical layer, and hence, a higher data-rate to all the users in the system.
Cluster-Based Design for Two-hop Cellular Networks  [PDF]
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2008, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2008.14045
Abstract: Optimal resource allocation with an objective of maximizing the system capacity is an NP-hard problem in multihop cellular networks. Hence, different heuristic algorithms have been developed over the years that would improve the network system capacity. In this paper, a novel cluster-based architecture is proposed for a two-hop cellular network whereby the transmission distance between any communicating pair is restricted to half the cell radius. In this design, a given radio resource is used by two simultaneously communicating pairs in every hexagonal cell, but for only half the time slot period. The characteristic feature of this cluster-based design is that it enables a frequency reuse ratio of one. The proposed hierarchical system is analyzed and tested under realistic propagation conditions including lognormal shadowing. It has been observed that the system capacity of a cluster-based design is 2.5 times that obtained from the single-hop cellular system with no relaying. In addition, the cluster-based design achieves higher capacity compared to state-of-the-art two-hop algorithms. This is an important finding since the hierarchical cluster-based approach has fewer degrees of freedom in the selection of the routing path for the end-to-end connection. Practical routing algorithms should be able to benefit from this.
A Dynamical Model to Analyze the Influence of Sliding Friction on Motion on a Curve—An Analytical Method  [PDF]
Prahlad Kulkarni
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.58043
Abstract: To demonstrate the influence of sliding friction of motion on a curve, a circular path is considered for simplicity on which a person slides from the highest point to the lowest point. A slide which represents a quadrant of radius 5 m and a person of mass 60 kg are considered for comparison in this paper. A Differential equation for motion considering the fact that the normal force depends both on the sin component of weight and also on the tangential velocity, is established and is solved using integrating factor method, and the motion is analysed for different surface roughness of the slide and is compared using superimposed graphs, also the limiting value of friction coefficient at which the person just exits the slide is determined. The correction factor for exit velocity with friction as compared with the exit velocity for zero friction is determined. The fraction of energy lost to friction at the exit is evaluated. The Variation of normal force with the position of the person on the slide is plotted for different surface roughness of the slide, and the position on the slide where the normal force or the force experienced by the person is maximum, is determined and hence its maximum value is evaluated for different surface roughness. For simplicity, a point contact between the body and the slide is considered.
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