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Down from the Ivory Tower: Climate Science Faces the Real World
Howard Hanson
The Scientific World Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2003.27
Learning about Vegetarian Diets in School: Curricular Representations of Food and Nutrients in Elementary Health Education  [PDF]
Clara Hanson
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2012.21010
Abstract: This paper examines the way non-meat and plant based diets are discussed in four elementary curricula. The author used an open coding technique of grounded theory to understand the way food, nutrition and vegetarianism was discussed. The curricula relied heavily upon the USDA Food Pyramid and a related concept of “balance” for nutritional information. The curricula also discussed nutrition in terms of food and food groups, rather than in terms of nutrients. Although some of the curricula included information about the benefits of vegetarian diets, the high level of use of the Food Pyramid often overwhelmed the low level of information about vegetarianism.
Trends in U.S. Voting Attitudes with a Consideration of Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity  [PDF]
Sandra L. Hanson
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2016.64038
Abstract: Low turnout rates and discussions of disaffected voters are receiving considerable attention as we approach the 2016 U.S. presidential elections. Do trends in American’s attitudes about voting and correlates of these attitudes (political involvement, efficacy, and social connectedness) confirm the pessimistic assessments and do voters across gender and race/ethnic groups think similarly? Data from the American National Election Studies (ANES) provide some reason for optimism. Trends over the past few presidential election periods show a majority of Americans intend to vote and this majority is increasing. Trends show increases or stability on numerous correlates of voting attitudes including political involvement and social connectedness. Trends in voting attitudes by gender and race/ethnicity show considerable variation. Women and race/ethnic minorities (especially African Americans) are an important element of the positive trends shown here. Findings on external efficacy are an exception to the generally optimistic trends with data showing a majority of respondents don’t believe public officials care what people like the respondent think. However, trends do not show an increase in negative attitudes about public officials. Implications of the findings are considered.
Use of metformin during pregnancy for women with polycystic ovary syndrome  [PDF]
Howard Fan
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31021

Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the literature assessing foetal and maternal pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS who used metformin during pregnancy. Study Design: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, with analysis of 25 studies that recorded neonatal and maternal outcomes in women who used metformin during pregnancy. The outcomes assessed in this review include congenital deformities, miscarriages, preterm labour, gestational diabetes (GDM) and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Results: We found that the use of metformin throughout pregnancy correlated with decreased rates of preterm labour, GDM and PIH. Conflicting evidence exists over whether metformin use during pregnancy reduced miscarriage rates. The use of metformin during pregnancy did not increase teratogenicity risks. Conclusion: The use of metformin throughout pregnancy is associated with decreased rates of preterm labour, GDM, and PIH. However, more randomised controls involving larger numbers of participants are required for more definitive results.

The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Geometric Aspects of Extremal Kerr Black Hole Entropy  [PDF]
Ecaterina Howard
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.43050

Extreme Black Holes is an important theoretical laboratory for exploring the nature of entropy. We suggest that this unusual nature of the extremal limit could explain the entropy of extremal Kerr black holes. The time-independence of the extremal black hole, the zero surface gravity, the zero entropy and the absence of a bifurcate Killing horizon are all related properties that define and reduce to one single unique feature of the extremal Kerr spacetime. We suggest the presence of a true geometric discontinuity as the underlying cause of a vanishing entropy.

Eicosanoid Profiling in an Orthotopic Model of Lung Cancer Progression by Mass Spectrometry Demonstrates Selective Production of Leukotrienes by Inflammatory Cells of the Microenvironment
Joanna M. Poczobutt, Miguel Gijon, Jay Amin, Dwight Hanson, Howard Li, Deandra Walker, Mary Weiser-Evans, Xian Lu, Robert C. Murphy, Raphael A. Nemenoff
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079633
Abstract: Eicosanoids are bioactive lipid mediators derived from arachidonic acid1 (AA), which is released by cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). AA is metabolized through three major pathways, cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO) and cytochrome P450, to produce a family of eicosanoids, which individually have been shown to have pro- or anti-tumorigenic activities in cancer. However, cancer progression likely depends on complex changes in multiple eicosanoids produced by cancer cells and by tumor microenvironment and a systematic examination of the spectrum of eicosanoids in cancer has not been performed. We used liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to quantitate eicosanoids produced during lung tumor progression in an orthotopic immunocompetent mouse model of lung cancer, in which Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells are injected into lungs of syngeneic mice. The presence of tumor increased products of both the cyclooxygenase and the lipoxygenase pathways in a time-dependent fashion. Comparing tumors grown in cPLA2 knockout vs wild-type mice, we demonstrated that prostaglandins (PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2a) were produced by both cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME), but leukotriene (LTB4, LTC4, LTD4, LTE4) production required cPLA2 expression in the TME. Using flow cytometry, we recovered tumor-associated neutrophils and 2 types of tumor-associated macrophages from tumor-bearing lungs and we defined their distinct eicosanoid profiles by LC/MS/MS. The combination of flow cytometry and LC/MS/MS unravels the complexity of eicosanoid production in lung cancer and provides a rationale to develop therapeutic strategies that target select cell populations to inhibit specific classes of eicosanoids.
Fifty years of entomological publications in the Revista de Biología Tropical
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2002,
Abstract: over its fifty year history nearly twenty percent of the papers published in the revista de biología tropical have been about inseets and arachnids. in the 1950's papers on arthropods of medical importance were dominant, in the 1960's there was a poliferation of papers on bees, and in more recent years the subjects have become incresingly diverse. in terms of nationality of contributing authors, the journal appears to have become increasingly international in later years.
Toxicants and physicochemical characteristics of the seeds of African black pear (Dacryodes edulis).
I Hanson
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2009,
Abstract: This experiment investigated the antinutrients content and functional properties of the seeds of African black pear (Dacryodes edulis). The study derived its importance from the environmental problem posed by the seeds of this highly cherished fruit. The aim of the project was to determine through empirical means the possible recycling potential that might be inherent in the seeds of the African black pear. Three seed varieties of the same sample categorized as Small (S), Medium (M) and Large (L) were used for this study. Standard experimental protocols were employed in the estimation of all indices. Data obtained indicate that the seed samples contained phytic acid: 12.13 + 1.14; 12.37 + 1.82 and 13.37 + 0.65g/100g sample on dry matter basis (DMB), respectively for Small, Medium and Large. Trypsin inhibitory activities (TIA) were determined as 546.67 + 30.55; 520.00 + 20.00; and 473.33 + 23.10g/100g sample on DMB in the same order, respectively. High amounts of oxalate 0.24 + 0.02 g-1100g for Small; 0.35 + 0.03 g-1100g for Medium and 0.37 + 0.03 g-1100g for Large while tannins were also found to be (5.07 + 0.14; 5.16 + 0.08; 5.02 + 0.16)g- 1100g for Small; Medium; and Large, respectively in the seeds. Water and oil absorption capacity as well as foam capacity and bulk density for all the samples did not differ significantly (P>0.05). The Medium seed flour, however, showed significantly (P<0.05) higher values in emulsion activity (40.82 + 1.52)% and foam stability (6.20 + 0.33)% as compared to foam stability of the Large seed (5.80 + 0.08)% variety. It may, therefore, be concluded from the strength of this novel results, that the seeds of Dacryodes edulis contained high amounts of phytic acid, oxalate, TIA and tannins. Physicochemical data on the other hand suggest the seeds of Dacryodes edulis to have valuable functional attributes of industrial interest.
Encyclopedia of Psychology and Religion
Mark Hanson
Theological Librarianship , 2010,
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