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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6662 matches for " Hou Jinlin "
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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Dual Infection
Liu Zhihua,Hou Jinlin
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for a substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. Because the two hepatotropic viruses share same modes of transmission, coinfection with the two viruses is not uncommon, especially in areas with a high prevalence of HBV infection and among people at high risk for parenteral infection. Patients with dual HBV and HCV infection have more severe liver disease, and are at an increased risk for progression to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Treatment of viral hepatitis due to dual HBV/HCV infection represents a challenge.
Epidemiology and Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Infection
Hou Jinlin,Liu Zhihua,Gu Fan
International Journal of Medical Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases globally. It has been estimated that there are 350 million chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers worldwide. The prevalence of chronic HBV infection varies geographically, from high (>8%), intermediate (2-7%) to low (<2%) prevalence. HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (e-CHB) and occult HBV infection are two special clinical entities, and the prevalence and clinical implications remain to be explored. The predominant routes of transmission vary according to the endemicity of the HBV infection. In areas with high HBV endemicity, perinatal transmission is the main route of transmission, whereas in areas with low HBV endemicity, sexual contact amongst high-risk adults is the predominant route. HBV has been classified into 7 genotypes, i.e. A to G, based on the divergence of entire genome sequence and HBV genotypes have distinct geographical distributions. Three main strategies have been approved to be effective in preventing HBV infection. They are behavior modification, passive immunoprophylaxis, and active immunization. The implement of mass HBV immunization program is recommended by the WHO since 1991, and has dramatically decreased the prevalence of HBV infection and HCC in many countries.
Geographical and Ethnic Distribution of the HBV C/D Recombinant on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Bin Zhou,Lei Xiao,Zhanhui Wang,Ellen T. Chang,Jinjun Chen,Jinlin Hou
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018708
Abstract: Two forms of hepatitis B virus (HBV) C/D recombinant have been identified in western China, but little is known about their geographical and ethnic distributions, and particularly the clinical significance and specific mutations in the pre-core region. To address these questions, a total of 624 chronic HBV carriers from four ethnic populations representing five provinces in western China were enrolled in this study. Genotypes were firstly determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism, and then confirmed by full or partial genome nucleotide sequencing. The distribution of HBV genotypes was as follows: HBV/B: 40 (6.4%); HBV/C: 221 (35.4%); HBV/D: 39 (6.3%); HBV/CD: 324 (51.9%). In the 324 HBV C/D recombinant infections, 244 (75.3%) were infected with the “CD1” and 80 (24.7%) were infected with the “CD2.” The distribution of HBV genotypes exhibited distinct patterns in different regions and ethnic populations. Geographically, the C/D recombinant was the most prevalent HBV strain on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Ethnically, the C/D recombinant had a higher prevalence in Tibetan patients than in other populations. Clinically, patients with HBV/CD1 showed significantly lower levels of serum total bilirubin than patients with HBV/C2. The prevalence of HBeAg was comparable between patients with HBV/CD1 and HBV/C2 (63.3% vs 50.0%, P = 0.118) whether patients were taken together or stratified by age into three groups (65.6% vs 58.8% in <30 years, P = 0.758; 61.9% vs 48.0% in 30–50 years, P = 0.244; 64.3% vs 33.3%, P = 0.336). Virologically HBV/CD1 had a significantly lower frequency of G1896A than HBV/C2. In conclusion, the HBV C/D recombinant is restricted to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in western China and is found predominantly in Tibetans. The predominance of the premature pre-core stop mutation G1896A in patients with the HBV C/D recombinant may account for the higher prevalence of HBeAg in these patients.
Novel Evidence of HBV Recombination in Family Cluster Infections in Western China
Bin Zhou, Zhanhui Wang, Jie Yang, Jian Sun, Hua Li, Yasuhito Tanaka, Masashi Mizokami, Jinlin Hou
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038241
Abstract: Two hepatitis B virus (HBV) C/D recombinants were isolated from western China. No direct evidence indicates that these new viruses arose as a result of recombination between genotype C and D or a result of convergence. In this study, we search for evidence of intra-individual recombination in the family cluster cases with co-circulation of genotype C, D and C/D recombinants. We studied 68 individuals from 15 families with HBV infections in 2006, identified individuals with mixed HBV genotype co-infections by restriction fragment length polymorphism and proceeded with cloning and DNA sequencing. Recombination signals were detected by RDP3 software and confirmed by split phylogenetic trees. Families with mixed HBV genotype co-infections were resampled in 2007. Three of 15 families had individuals with different HBV genotype co-infections in 2006. One individual (Y2) had a triple infection of HBV genotype C, D and C/D recombinant in 2006, but only genotype D in 2007. Further clonal analysis of this patient indicated that the C/D recombinant was not identical to previously isolated CD1 or CD2, but many novel recombinants with C2, D1 and CD1 were simultaneously found. All parental strains could recombine with each other to form new recombinant in this patient. This indicates that the detectable mixed infection and recombination have a limited time window. Also, as the recombinant nature of HBV precludes the possibility of a simple phylogenetic taxonomy, a new standard may be required for classifying HBV sequences.
On subordination for certain subclass of analytic functions
Liu Jinlin
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1997, DOI: 10.1155/s016117129700029x
Abstract: In the present paper the class Pn[ ±,M] consisting of functions f(z)=z+ ¢ ‘k=n+1 ¢ akzz(n ¢ ‰ ¥1), which are analytic in the unit disc E={z:|z|<1} and satisfy the condition |f ¢ € 2(z)+ ±zf ¢ € 3(z) ¢ ’1| Keywords analytic --- starlike --- convex univalent --- subordination.
Magnetic fields in our Galaxy: How much do we know? (II) Halo fields and the global field structure
Jinlin Han
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1023/A:1013102711400
Abstract: I review the large scale global magnetic field structure of our Galaxy, using all information available for disk fields, halo fields and magnetic fields near the Galactic center (GC). In the local disk of our Galaxy, RM and dispersion measure (DM) data of nearby pulsars yield the strength of regular field as 1.8$\mu$G, with a pitch angle of about $8\degr$, and a bisymmetric spiral structure. There are at least four, maybe five, field reversals from the Norma arm to the outskirts of our Galaxy. In the thick disk or Galactic halo, large scale toroidal magnetic fields, with opposite field directions in the Southern and Northern Galaxy, have been revealed by the antisymmetric RM sky towards the inner Galaxy. This signature of the A0 dynamo-mode field structure is strengthened by the indication of a poloidal field of dipole form, that is the transition of the RM signs probably shifted from $l\sim0\degr$ to $l\sim+10\degr$. The local vertical field is probably a part of this dipole field. The field structure of the A0 dynamo-mode strikingly continues towards the region near the GC. In short, the magnetic fields in the Galactic disk have a bisymmetric spiral structure of primordial nature, while in the halo and near the GC the A0 dynamo seems to dominate, so that the fields consist of toroidal fields with opposite directions below and above the Galactic plane and poloidal fields of dipole form.
Magnetic fields in our Milky Way Galaxy and nearby galaxies
JinLin Han
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S1743921313002561
Abstract: Magnetic fields in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies have been revealed by starlight polarization, polarized emission from dust grains and clouds at millimeter and submillimeter wavelength, the Zeeman effect of spectral lines or maser lines from clouds or clumps, diffuse radio synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons in interstellar magnetic fields, and the Faraday rotation of background radio sources as well as pulsars for our Milky Way. It is easy to get a global structure for magnetic fields in nearby galaxies, while we have observed many details of magnetic fields in our Milky Way, especially by using pulsar rotation measure data. In general, magnetic fields in spiral galaxies probably have a large-scale structure. The fields follow the spiral arms with or without the field direction reversals. In the halo of spiral galaxies magnetic fields exist and probably also have a large-scale structure as toroidal and poloidal fields, but seem to be slightly weaker than those in the disk. In the central region of some galaxies, poloidal fields have been detected as vertical components. Magnetic field directions in galaxies seem to have been preserved during cloud formation and star formation, from large-scale diffuse interstellar medium to molecular clouds and then to the cloud cores in star formation regions or clumps for the maser spots. Magnetic fields in galaxies are passive to dynamics.
Pulsars as excellent probes for the magnetic structure in our Milky Way
JinLin Han
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1017/S174392131202371X
Abstract: In this invited talk, I first discuss the advantages and disadvantages of many probes for the magnetic fields of the Milky Way. I conclude that pulsars are the best probes for the magnetic structure in our Galaxy, because magnetic field strength and directions can be derived from their dispersion measures (DMs) and rotation measures (RMs). Using the pulsars as probes, magnetic field structures in the Galactic disk, especially the field reversals between the arms and interarm regions, can be well revealed from the distribution of RM data. The field strengths on large scales and small scales can be derived from RM and DM data. RMs of extragalactic radio sources can be used as the indication of magnetic field directions in the spiral tangential regions, and can be used as probes for the magnetic fields in the regions farther away than pulsars when their median RMs are compared with pulsar RMs.
Significant Fibrosis Is Not Rare in Chinese Chronic Hepatitis B Patients with Persistent Normal ALT
Baolin Liao, Zhanhui Wang, Siwei Lin, Ying Xu, Junqing Yi, Min Xu, Zuxiong Huang, Ying Zhou, Fuchun Zhang, Jinlin Hou
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078672
Abstract: Background Limited studies have been done on chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients defined according to the latest Asian-Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver guideline with liver histology by a large sample size. Methods We retrospectively evaluated liver histological characteristics on a cohort of consecutive treatment-naive CHB patients with persistent normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT) or elevated ALT from May 2005 to October 2011. Histological assessment was based on the Metavir scoring system, significant abnormality was defined as necroinflammation grade ≥A2 and/or fibrosis stage ≥F2. Results A total of 675 CHB patients were recruited, including 516 HBeAg-positive and 159 HBeAg-negative patients. In HBeAg-positive patients, significant fibrosis was found 49.4% (42/85) in PNALT, 69.8% (88/126) in ALT 1-2×upper limit normal (ULN) and 81.6% (249/305) in ALT>2×ULN group, respectively. In HBeAg-negative patients, significant fibrosis was found 30.9% (17/55) in PNALT, 73.3% (33/45) in ALT 1-2×ULN and 94.9% (56/59) in ALT>2×ULN group, respectively. HBeAg-positive patients with PNALT over 30 years old had a higher frequency of significant fibrosis than those under 30 years old (87.5% vs. 45.5%, P = 0.058). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated increasing age (P = 0.012), higher aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P < 0.001) and lower HBV DNA (P < 0.001) were associated with significant necroinflammation, while higher AST (P < 0.001), lower albumin (P = 0.027) and HBV DNA (P = 0.004) were associated with significant fibrosis in HBeAg-positive patients with elevated ALT. Higher AST was associated with significant necroinflammation in HBeAg-negative patients with elevated ALT (P = 0.009). Conclusions Significant fibrosis is not rare in Chinese CHB patients with PNALT, especially HBeAg-positive patients over 30 years old.
Restored Circulating Invariant NKT Cells Are Associated with Viral Control in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B
Xiaotao Jiang, Mingxia Zhang, Qintao Lai, Xuan Huang, Yongyin Li, Jian Sun, William G.H. Abbott, Shiwu Ma, Jinlin Hou
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028871
Abstract: Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious diseases. However, their role in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is not fully understood, especially in human species. In this study, 35 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients, 25 inactive carriers (IC) and 36 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled and the proportions of circulating iNKT cells in fresh isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were detected by flow cytometry. A longitudinal analysis was also conducted in 19 CHB patients who received antiviral therapy with telbivudine. Thereafter, the immune functions of iNKT cells were evaluated by cytokine secretion and a two-chamber technique. The median frequency of circulating iNKT cells in CHB patients (0.13%) was lower than that in HC (0.24%, P = 0.01) and IC (0.19%, P = 0.02), and increased significantly during antiviral therapy with telbivudine (P = 0.0176). The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and CCR6 were dramatically higher on iNKT cells (82.83%±9.87%, 67.67%±16.83% respectively) than on conventional T cells (30.5%±5.65%, 14.02%±5.92%, both P<0.001) in CHB patients. Furthermore, iNKT cells could migrate toward the CC chemokine ligand 5. Patients with a high ratio (≥1.0) of CD4?/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline had a higher rate (58.33%) of HBeAg seroconversion than those with a low ratio (<1.0, 0%, P = 0.0174). In conclusion, there is a low frequency of peripheral iNKT cells in CHB patients, which increases to normal levels with viral control. The ratio of CD4?/CD4+ iNKT cells at baseline may be a useful predictor for HBeAg seroconversion in CHB patients on telbivudine therapy.
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