Abstract:
We present an operator definition of the collisional energy and momentum loss suffered by an energetic charged particle in the presence of a medium. Our approach uses the energy-momentum tensor of the medium to evaluate the energy and momentum transfer rates. We apply this formalism to an energetic lepton or quark propagating in thermal electron-positron or quark-gluon plasmas, respectively. By using two different approaches to describe the energetic charged particle, an external current approach and a diagrammatic approach, we show explicitly that the operator method reproduces the known results for collisional energy loss from the scattering rate formalism. We further use our results to evaluate the collisional energy and momentum loss for the cases of heavy quark propagation through a quark-gluon plasma and energetic muon propagation in an electron-positron plasma produced in a high-intensity laser field.

Space information network is used for real
time acquiring, transmitting and processing the space information on the space
platform, which provides significant communication services for communication,
navigation positioning and science exploration. In this paper, the architecture
of Software Defined Space Optical Network (SDSON) based on cloud platform is
designed by means of Software Defined Optical Network (SDON) and cloud
services. The new architecture combining centralized and distributed
management-control mechanism is a multi-layer and multi-domain architecture
with powerful computing and storage ability. Moreover, reliable service and
unreliable service communication models employed in the space information
network are proposed considering the characteristic of Disruption/Delay
Tolerant Network (DTN). Finally, the functional verification and demonstration
are performed on our optical experimental network platform.

Abstract:
A set of quasi-parton distribution functions (quasi-PDFs) have been recently proposed by Ji. Defined as the matrix elements of equal-time spatial correlations, they can be computed on the lattice and should reduce to the standard PDFs when the proton momentum $P_z$ is very large. Since taking the $P_z\to \infty$ limit is not feasible in lattice simulations, it is essential to provide guidance for what values of $P_z$ the quasi-PDFs are good approximations of standard PDFs. Within the framework of the spectator diquark model, we evaluate both the up and down quarks' quasi-PDFs and standard PDFs for all leading-twist distributions (unpolarized distribution $f_1$, helicity distribution $g_1$, and transversity distribution $h_1$). We find that, for intermediate parton momentum fractions $x$, quasi-PDFs are good approximations to standard PDFs (within $20-30%$) when $P_z\gtrsim 1.5-2$ GeV. On the other hand, for large $x\sim 1$ much larger $P_z > 4$ GeV is necessary to obtain a satisfactory agreement between the two sets. We further test the Soffer positivity bound, and find that it does not hold in general for quasi-PDFs.

Abstract:
Single inclusive hadron production at forward rapidity in high energy p+A collisions is an important probe of the high gluon density regime of QCD and the associated small-$x$ formalism. We revisit an earlier one-loop calculation to illustrate the significance of the "rapidity factorization" approach in this regime. Such factorization separates the very small-$x$ unintegrated gluon density evolution and leads to a new correction term to the physical cross section at one-loop level. Importantly, this rapidity factorization formalism remedies the previous unphysical negative next-to-leading order contribution to the cross section. It is much more stable with respect to "rapidity" variation when compared to the leading-order calculation and provides improved agreement between theory and experiment in the forward rapidity region.

Abstract:
We study the nuclear enhancement of the transverse momentum imbalance for back-to-back particle production in both p+A and e+A collisions. Specifically, we present results for photon+jet and photon+hadron production in p+A collisions, di-jet and di-hadron production in e+A collisions, and heavy-quark and heavy-meson pair production in both p+A and e+A collisions. We evaluate the effect of both initial-state and final-state multiple scattering, which determine the strength of the nuclear-induced transverse momentum imbalance in these processes. We give theoretical predictions for the experimentally relevant kinematic regions in d+Au collisions at RHIC, p+Pb collisions at LHC and e+A collisions at the future EIC and LHeC.

Abstract:
We study the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD corrections to the transverse momentum-weighted Sivers asymmetry in semi-inclusive hadron production in lepton-proton deep inelastic scattering. The corresponding differential cross section is evaluated as a convolution of a twist-three quark-gluon correlation function, often referred to as Qiu-Sterman function, the usual unpolarized fragmentation function, and a hard coefficient function. By studying the collinear divergence structure, we identify the evolution kernel for the Qiu-Sterman function. The hard coefficient function, which is finite and free of any divergence, is evaluated at one-loop order.

Abstract:
Within the framework of generalized collinear factorization in perturbative QCD (pQCD), we study the effect of initial multiple parton scattering and induced parton energy loss in Drell-Yan (DY) process in proton-nucleus collisions. We express the contribution from multiple parton scattering and induced gluon radiation to the DY dilepton spectra in terms of nuclear modified effective beam quark distribution functions. The modification depends on the quark transport parameter in nuclear medium. This is similar to the final-state multiple parton scattering in deeply inelastic scattering (DIS) off large nuclei and leads to the suppression of the Drell-Yan cross section in $p+A$ relative to $p+p$ collisions. With the value of quark transport parameter determined from the nuclear modification of single-inclusive DIS hadron spectra as measured by the HERMES experiment, we calculate DY spectra in $p+A$ collisions and find the nuclear suppression due to beam parton energy loss negligible at the Fermilab energy $E_{\rm lab}$=800 GeV in the kinematic region as covered by the E866 experiment. Most of the observed nuclear suppression of DY spectra in E866 experiment can be described well by parton shadowing in target nuclei as given by the EPS08 parameterization. The effect of beam parton energy loss, however, becomes significant for DY lepton pairs with large beam parton momentum fraction $x^{\prime}$ or small target parton momentum fraction $x$. We also predict the DY cross section in $p+A$ collisions at lower beam proton energy $E_{\rm lab}$=120 GeV and show significant suppression due to initial state parton energy loss at moderately large $x^{\prime}$ where the effect of parton shadowing is very small.

Abstract:
We present results and predictions for the nuclear modification of the differential cross sections for inclusive light hadron and prompt photon production in minimum bias d+Au collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV and minimum bias p+Pb collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 5$ TeV at RHIC and LHC, respectively. Our calculations combine the leading order perturbative QCD formalism with cold nuclear matter effects that arise from the elastic, inelastic and coherent multiple scattering of partons in large nuclei. We find that a theoretical approach that includes the isospin effect, Cronin effect, cold nuclear matter energy loss and dynamical shadowing can describe the RHIC d+Au data rather well. The LHC p+Pb predictions will soon be confronted by new experimental results to help clarify the magnitude and origin of cold nuclear matter effects and facilitate precision dense QCD matter tomography.

Abstract:
Tagged jet measurements in high energy hadronic and nuclear reactions provide constraints on the energy and parton flavor origin of the parton shower that recoils against the tagging particle. Such additional insight can be especially beneficial in illuminating the mechanisms of heavy flavor production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC and their modification in the heavy ion environment, which are not fully understood. With this motivation, we present theoretical results for isolated-photon-tagged and B-meson-tagged b-jet production at center-of-mass energy 5.1 TeV for comparison to the upcoming lead-lead data. We find that photon-tagged b-jets exhibit smaller momentum imbalance shift in nuclear matter, and correspondingly smaller energy loss, than photon-tagged light flavor jets. Our results show that B-meson tagging is most effective in ensuring that the dominant fraction of recoiling jets originate from prompt b-quarks. Interestingly, in this channel the large suppression of the cross section is not accompanied by a significant momentum imbalance shift.

Abstract:
We present theoretical predictions for the nuclear-induced attenuation of the differential cross sections for inclusive and tagged b-jet production in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. We find that for inclusive b-jet production at high transverse momentum the mass effects are negligible, and that the attenuation is comparable to the one observed for light jets. On the other hand, for isolated-photon and B-meson-tagged b-jets the sample of events with heavy quarks produced at the early stages of the collision is greatly enhanced. Thus, these tagged b-jet final-states have a much more direct connection to the physics of b-quark energy loss. We present theoretical predictions for the quenching of such tagged b-jet events at the LHC and the QGP-induced modification of the related momentum imbalance and asymmetry. We demonstrate that these tagged processes can be used to accurately study the physics of heavy quark production and propagation in dense QCD matter.