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Preterm Delivery and Psycho–Social Determinants of Health Based on World Health Organization Model in Iran: A Narrative Review
Mahrokh Dolatian,Arash Mirabzadeh,Ameneh Setareh Forouzan,Homeira Sajjadi
Global Journal of Health Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n1p52
Abstract: Background: Preterm delivery is still the primary cause of mortality and morbidity in infants, which shows a problematic condition in the care of pregnant women all over the world. This review study describes prevalence and psycho - socio-demographic as well as obstetrical risk factors related to live preterm delivery (PTD) in the recent decade in Iran. Methods: A narrative review was performed in Persian and international databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Magiran and Irandoc from 2001 to 2010 with following keywords: preterm delivery and pregnancy outcomes with (prevalence, socioeconomic condition, structural determinant, Intermediary determinants, Psychosocial factor, Behavioral factor and Maternal circumstance, Health system) All of article was reviewed then categorized based on WHO model. Results: Totally 52 article were reviewed and 35 articles were selected, of which 26 were cross-sectional or longitudinal, 9 were analytical (cohort or case-control). The prevalence rates of preterm delivery in different cities of Iran were reported between 5.6% in Quom to 39.4% in Kerman. The most common social factors in structural determinant were educational level of mother, and in intermediary determinants were Psychosocial factor (maternal anxiety and stress during pregnancy), Behavioral factor and Maternal circumstance (violation and trauma) and in Health system, lack of prenatal care. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of preterm delivery is a matter of concern. Since many psycho-social factors may affect on the condition and its high rate in poor communities might reveals a causal relationship among biological and psychosocial factors, performing etiological investigations is recommended.
Caregivers’ Quality of Life and Quality of Services for Children with Cancer: A Review from Iran
Homeira Sajjadi,Meroe Vameghi,Mehdi Ghazinour,Mohammadreza khodaeiArdekani
Global Journal of Health Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p173
Abstract: Objective: Caregivers of cancer patients are exposed to different types of psychosocial stress which influence their quality of life. The purposes of this study were to assess quality of life in caregivers of children with cancer and to investigate the relationship between the caregivers’ quality of life and quality of services in the social work section. Method: 125 caregivers were recruited. Quality of life was measured by the Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and data concerning service quality were obtained from the Iranian version of the SERVQUAL questionnaire. Findings: Scores in physical health, psychological status and environmental conditions for caregivers of children with cancer were significantly lower than the general population. There was a negative correlation between the tangible domain of SERVQUAL and the psychological status and environmental conditions of quality of life. The tangible dimension was the only aspect of service quality to predict caregivers’ quality of life regarding psychological status and environmental conditions. Conclusion: Caregivers of children with a disease are care consumers and, like all consumers, they expect good service. Delivering high quality services consistently is difficult but profitable for a service organization. In other words, trying to deliver more appropriate services than patients expect to receive from their social work care is one of the most reliable ways to promote caregivers’ satisfaction and quality of life.
Development of Mother's Lifestyle Scale during Pregnancy with an Approach to Social Determinants of Health
Zohreh Mahmoodi,Masoud Karimlou,Homeira Sajjadi,Masoumeh Dejman
Global Journal of Health Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p208
Abstract: Background and Objective: The present study was conducted to design and measure psychometrics of mothers' lifestyle scale during pregnancy with regards to Iranians' cultural norms and an approach to social determinants. Method: this study, started by reviewing previous studies and exploring similar questionnaires that examine different domains of lifestyle (nutrition, exercising, self-care, smoking, using alcohol and illegal drugs, social relations, and stress control), then besides translating questions of the questionnaires , content of some questions was modified and proper statements with regards to social determinant of health and Iranian cultural , was used. Secondly, the validity of the designed instruments was determined using face, content, criterion, and construct validity. Thirdly, the reliability of the measurement instruments was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Participants were Healthy Iranian pregnant women (37-42 week) who refer to selected hospital for delivery. Results: In the first step of the study, of the 222 questions obtained from a review of the related instruments, certain questions were omitted due to their irrelevance to social determinants of health and finally 160 questions were selected in 10 sections. After determining the face and content validity qualitatively and quantitatively and exploratory factor analysis, the number of questionnaire items was reduced to 132. Calculation of Cronbach's alpha confirmed the high internal consistency (0.76) of the questionnaire. Conclusion: This measurement instrument was designed in the context of the Iranian culture and sounded suitable for studying the pregnant women's lifestyle due to its appropriate validity and reliability, simplicity, and functionality in different situations.
A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Depression among Iranian Adolescents
Homeira Sajjadi,Seyed Hossein Mohaqeqi Kamal,Hasan Rafiey,Meroe Vameghi
Global Journal of Health Science , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p16
Abstract: Depression is the most common mood and psychiatric disorder. The aim of this comprehensive study was to provide a complete picture of the prevalence and risk factors of depression. The study employed a systematic review methodology, searching Iranian and international databases. After screening and evaluating the articles, a synthesis of 53 articles was accumulated. A meta-analysis of the studies showed that the prevalence of children and adolescent depression was 43.55% using the BDI, 15.87 % using SCL-90, and 13.05% using CDI. Also, the prevalence of depression was higher among girls than boys based on the BDI and CDI results. The most important factors contributing to depression were: the female sex, poor inter-parental relationship, poor adolescent-parent relationship, low socio-economic status (SES), state of parenting styles, low level of parental education, and poor academic performance. The comparatively high prevalence of depression among Iranian adolescents call for further investigation and measures.
Social Support Network among People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran
Ameneh Setareh Forouzan,Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari,Homeira Sajjadi,Yahya Salimi,Masoumeh Dejman
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/715381
Abstract: This study considers social network interactions as a potential source of support for individuals living with HIV/AIDS in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 people with HIV/AIDS who refer to behavioral counseling centers. Participants were randomly selected among all people with HIV/AIDS from these centers. Relatives were more reported as sources of support than nonrelatives. They were closer to participants, but there was difference between the closest type among relative and nonrelative supporters . Mean of functional support with considering the attainable range 0–384 was low . Social support of participants has been found to be associated with CD4 cell count , sex , and network size after adjusted for other variables in the final model. Totally, in this study, many of participants had the static social support network that contained large proportions of family and relatives. The findings contribute to the evidence for promotion of knowledge about social support network and social support of people living with HIV/AIDS. 1. Introduction AIDS is a disease that affects not only physical health but also mental and social conditions of patients because of the negative attitude of society, discrimination, and stigmatization [1–3] especially in the developing countries [4]. People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) may experience social drift [5], changing pattern of sexual behaviors and self-image. They may lose employment, financial resources, and even family and friends as major sources of support [1, 3, 6]. Approximately 22727 cases of HIV/AIDS have been identified in Iran [7]. It is estimated that this number will increase to 106000 patients up to 2015 [8]. On the other hand, due to progress of antiretroviral therapy that increases life expectancy in patients [9], improvement of the quality of life in PLWHA is important [10, 11]. Previous studies suggested that social support can be an important factor for influences on well-being and quality of life [12, 13]. Researchers have been provided evidence that social support as an aspect of psychological adjustment [14] can improve physical and psychological health outcomes, increasing motivation for treatment [15], self-care behaviors [13], and also prevention of transmission of infection during HIV/AIDS disease [16–18]. Many PLWHA may facilitate living with HIV/AIDS by their social support networks (SSN). SSN as a subset of a larger social network, consisting of some individuals who are linked to ego and roles such as emotional support, financial aid, guidance, and advice offered to him/her in
Impact of Die Materials on the Effect of New Polymer Processing Aids for Sharkskin Properties  [PDF]
Seyed Pooyan Sajjadi
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2016.49002
Abstract: Flows of polymeric liquids undergo instabilities whose origins are quite different from those of Newtonian flows, due to their elastic character and the complexity of the fluid/solid boundary condition. One of these instabilities is well known as “shark-skin” which damages the surface appearance and properties of polymer extrudate while processing in blowmolding or piping, while it can be suppressed by employing various methods including coating the die surface and/or adding Polymer Processing Aid’s (PPA) to the polymer. In this article, the effect of various die materials on the properties of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a new type of PPA for suppressing the sharkskin phenomenon has been studied.
Endoscopic Middle Ear and Mastoid Surgery for Cholesteatoma
Hamed Sajjadi
Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: To reduce incidence of residual cholesteatoma following ear surgery; and to reduce the need for second look “open” mastoidectomy using endoscopic mastoidotomy. Ten-year retrospective chart review of 249 primary cholesteatoma cases (1994-2004) with a minimum follow-up of two years. The first objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of otoendoscopy in reducing the incidence of “cholesteatoma remnant” at the time of primary surgery. The second investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of otoendoscopy in reducing the need to open the mastoid cavities during “second look operations”. Materials and Methods: endoscopes were used on all cases as an adjunct to standard microscopic methods. Once all visible cholesteatoma was removed with standard microscopic techniques, endoscopes were utilized in order to identify any “remnants” of cholesteatoma. Endoscopes were also employed during revision second look cases in order to allow the evaluation of intact canal wall mastoid cavities without an open Mastoidectomy approach. Results: Endoscopy at time of primary operations revealed a 22% incidence of hidden cholesteatoma “remnants” despite apparent total microscopic eradication in closed cavity cases, and 10% in open cavity patients. Endoscopic removal of cholesteatoma remnants reduced the long term cholesteatoma “residual” to 9.7% in closed cavity patients. Furthermore, endoscopic surgery significantly reduced the need to open the mastoids during second look operations. Conclusion: Otoendoscopy is a very effective adjunctive method in ear surgery. It allows significant reduction in cholesteatoma residual rate in both closed cavity and open cavity cases. Furthermore, the great majority of second look mastoids can be evaluated endoscopically and thus avoid an open revision Mastoidectomy.
Evaluation of Characteristics of Interfacial Phases Produced in Al/Ni3Al Composite during Manufacturing  [PDF]
Seyed Abdolkarim Sajjadi, Maryam Abbasi, Mazyar Azadbeh
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2011.29182
Abstract: Metal matrix composites (MMCs) are currently being investigated because of their superior properties. The properties are mainly attributed to the efficiency of the load transfer from the matrix to the reinforcements through the matrix-reinforcement interface. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of manufacturing parameters on the microstructure and morphology of the interface and the aluminide phases formed at the matrix-reinforcement interfaces. The parameters are: milling time to fabricate Ni3Al, method of mixing of Ni3Al and Al powders, compaction pressure and sintering temperature. The composite studied in this research was Al/5 Vol% Ni3Al made from two different types of Ni3Al powders. The results showed that compacting and sintering at higher levels lead to the transformation of Ni3Al particles to thin layers of Al3Ni. It was also shown that the prolonged milling time to produceNi3Alreinforcements and the prolonged ball milling procedure for mixing the powders, both, promote the diffusion process at reinforcement/matrix interface.
A survey of topological work at CEOL
Homeira Pajoohesh,M. P. Schellekens
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: We present an overview of ongoing work at the Centre for Efficiency-Oriented languages (CEOL), with a focus on topological aspects. CEOL researchers are engaged in designing a new Real-Time Language to improve software timing. The centre broadly focuses on bridging Semantics and Complexity and unites researchers with expertise in Semantics of Programming Languages, Real-Time Languages, Compiler Design and Graph Based Algorithms. CEOL aims to narrow the gap between Worst Case Execution Time analysis and Average Case Execution Time analysis for Real-Time languages and its longer term goal is the development of ACETT, an Average Case Execution Time Tool. This research work is of crucial interest to industry, given that real-time software is widely used in a variety of applications, such as chemical plants, satellite communications, the space industry, telephone exchanges, medical equipment, the motor industry, etc. Topological work at CEOL focuses on the exploration of quantitative Domains, semivaluations, partial metrics and their applications. We give an overview of prior results obtained at CEOL in this area and of current work on relating the notion of balance of algorithms to running time and of an exploration of semivaluations in relation to algorithmic running time.
A Study on Mechanical Properties of PMMA/Hydroxyapatite Nanocomposite  [PDF]
S. M. Zebarjad, S. A Sajjadi, T. Ebrahimi Sdrabadi, S. A Sajjadi, A Yaghmaei, B Naderi
Engineering (ENG) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2011.38096
Abstract: This study is focused on the role of nano hydroxyapatite particles on the mechanical properties of PMMA/HA nanocomposites. In order to achieve a proper and homogeneous distribution of HA particles in the polymer matrix, mixer milling process was applied. Wear, compression and three-point bending tests were conducted. It was observed that wear rate decreased by increasing in HA content in both atmosphere and artificial saliva. The results of compression tests showed that the addition of 2.5 percent HA to PMMA promoted ultimate compressive strength, yield strength and modulus while caused to decrease elongation at break. Also it was elucidated that addition of HA more than 2.5 wt.% caused a decrease in both ultimate compressive strength and compression yield strength and an increase in elongation at break. The results of three-point bending tests on the PMMA cements containing 2.5 percent HA demonstrated the maximum bending strength value and modulus among all the HA containing formulations. However there was no direct proportionality between the results of bending tests and the HA content and the addition of HA to PMMA (up to 10 wt.%) did not change the bending properties significantly.
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