Abstract:
mining the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of the etonogestrel implantable contraceptive Review (3912) Total Article Views Authors: Heather Hohmann Published Date July 2009 Volume 2009:3 Pages 205 - 211 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S4299 Heather Hohmann Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: Contraceptive implants provide long-acting, highly effective reversible contraception. The etonogestrel implant (ENG implant) is a single rod implant that offers three years of efficacy. The ENG implant was designed to provide contraceptive efficacy by inhibiting ovulation and Pearl Index scores reported for this method are similar to other long-acting reversible contraception as well as similar to sterilization. The implant has been shown to be safe during breast feeding and may improve symptoms of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. Irregular bleeding patterns can be expected with the device’s use and should be addressed in order to decrease rates of discontinuation.

Abstract:
New planning principles are required to meet the changing needs of the users of the library of the future. The digital revolution has changed the appearance of today’s libraries entirely. The majority of today’s information resources are of a non-physical nature and accessing information is more varied and complex. The traditional role as asset keeper is one of many tasks today. The recently completed examples of Dresden and G ttingen State- and University Library, the Seattle Public Library and the Idea Stores in London, all of them highly popular and frequented, show current trends in library design. What do they offer their visitors? access to information guidance (information skills) possibility for communication working environment inspiring atmosphere Their design is based on the following main principles: Access to the library and its medias should be obvious and easy for everybody. There should be multifarious space for formal and informal communication between customers and staff. The interior should offer an attractive and comfortable environment for both customers and staff. The library building should adequately represent its institutional philosophy and aims. Its building design, structure and appliances should give consideration to sustainability.

Abstract:
Heather HohmannDepartment of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USAAbstract: Contraceptive implants provide long-acting, highly effective reversible contraception. The etonogestrel implant (ENG implant) is a single rod implant that offers three years of efficacy. The ENG implant was designed to provide contraceptive efficacy by inhibiting ovulation and Pearl Index scores reported for this method are similar to other long-acting reversible contraception as well as similar to sterilization. The implant has been shown to be safe during breast feeding and may improve symptoms of dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. Irregular bleeding patterns can be expected with the device’s use and should be addressed in order to decrease rates of discontinuation.Keywords: contraception, Implanon , progestin-only, ENG-implant

Abstract:
We discuss the most general Finsler spacetime geometry obeying the cosmological symmetry group $\mathrm{SO}(4)$. On this background geometry we derive the equations of motion for the most general kinetic fluid obeying the same cosmological symmetry. For this purpose we propose a set of coordinates on the tangent bundle of the spacetime manifold which greatly simplifies the cosmological symmetry generators.

Abstract:
From general relativity we have learned the principles of general covariance and local Lorentz invariance, which follow from the fact that we consider observables as tensors on a spacetime manifold whose geometry is modeled by a Lorentzian metric. Approaches to quantum gravity, however, hint towards a breaking of these symmetries and the possible existence of more general, non-tensorial geometric structures. Possible implications of these approaches are non-tensorial transformation laws between different observers and an observer-dependent notion of geometry. In this work we review two different frameworks for observer dependent geometries, which may provide hints towards a quantization of gravity and possible explanations for so far unexplained phenomena: Finsler spacetimes and Cartan geometry on observer space. We discuss their definitions, properties and applications to observers, field theories and gravity.

Abstract:
We discuss the propagation of gravitational waves in a recently discussed class of theories containing N >= 2 metric tensors and a corresponding number of standard model copies. Using the formalism of gauge-invariant linear perturbation theory we show that all gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light. We then employ the Newman-Penrose formalism to show that two to six polarizations of gravitational waves may exist, depending on the parameters entering the equations of motion. This corresponds to E(2) representations N_2, N_3, III_5 and II_6. We finally apply our general discussion to a recently presented concrete multimetric gravity model and show that it is of class N_2, i.e., it allows only two tensor polarizations, as it is the case for general relativity. Our results provide the theoretical background for tests of multimetric gravity theories using the upcoming gravitational wave experiments.

Abstract:
We introduce a definition of symmetry generating vector fields on manifolds which are equipped with a first-order reductive Cartan geometry. We apply this definition to a number of physically motivated examples and show that our newly introduced notion of symmetry agrees with the usual notions of symmetry of affine, Riemann-Cartan, Riemannian and Weizenb\"ock geometries, which are conventionally used as spacetime models. Further, we discuss the case of Cartan geometries which can be used to model observer space instead of spacetime. We show which vector fields on an observer space can be interpreted as symmetry generators of an underlying spacetime manifold, and may hence be called "spatio-temporal". We finally apply this construction to Finsler spacetimes and show that symmetry generating vector fields on a Finsler spacetime are indeed in a one-to-one correspondence with spatio-temporal vector fields on its observer space.

Abstract:
We briefly review two recently developed extensions of the Lorentzian geometry of spacetime and prove that they are in fact closely related. The first is the concept of observer space, which generalizes the space of Lorentzian observers, i.e., future unit timelike vectors, using Cartan geometry. The second is the concept of Finsler spacetimes, which generalizes the Lorentzian metric of general relativity to an observer-dependent Finsler metric. We show that every Finsler spacetime possesses a well-defined observer space that can naturally be equipped with a Cartan geometry. Conversely, we derive conditions under which a Cartan geometry on observer space gives rise to a Finsler spacetime. We further show that these two constructions complement each other. We finally apply our constructions to two gravity theories, MacDowell-Mansouri gravity on observer space and Finsler gravity, and translate their actions from one geometry to the other.

Abstract:
We generalize the kinetic theory of fluids, in which the description of fluids is based on the geodesic motion of particles, to spacetimes modeled by Finsler geometry. Our results show that Finsler spacetimes are a suitable background for fluid dynamics and that the equation of motion for a collisionless fluid is given by the Liouville equation, as it is also the case for a metric background geometry. We finally apply this model to collisionless dust and a general fluid with cosmological symmetry and derive the corresponding equations of motion. It turns out that the equation of motion for a dust fluid is a simple generalization of the well-known Euler equations.