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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8900 matches for " Ho Ka Fai "
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Winning in Sequential Parrondo Games by Players with Short-Term Memory
Ka Wai Cheung,Ho Fai Ma,Degang Wu,Ga Ching Lui,Kwok Yip Szeto
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Players with one-step memory can win by switching his choice of A or B game in a Parrondo game sequence. Here the winning or losing of A and B game is defined by one unit of capital. Game A is a losing game if played continuously, with winning probability $p=0.5-\epsilon$, where $\epsilon=0.003$. Game B is also losing and it has two coins: a good coin with winning probability $p_g=0.75-\epsilon$ is used if the player`s capital is not divisible by $3$, otherwise a bad coin with winning probability $p_b=0.1-\epsilon$ is used. The player can win maximally in a game sequence of (A,B) if he knows the identity of the game he plays and the state of his capital. If the player does not know the nature of the game, then he is playing a (C,D) game, where either (C=A, D=B), or (C=B,D=A). For player with one-step memory, he can achieve the highest gain with switching probability equal to $3/4$ in the (C,D) game sequence. Generalization to AB mod($M$) Parrondo game for other integer $M$ and player with longer than one-step memory are also discussed.
Hsa-miRNA-765 as a Key Mediator for Inhibiting Growth, Migration and Invasion in Fulvestrant-Treated Prostate Cancer
Yuet-Kin Leung, Queeny Kwan-Yi Chan, Chi-Fai Ng, Fanny Man-Ting Ma, Ho-Man Tse, Ka-Fai To, Jodi Maranchie, Shuk-Mei Ho, Kin-Mang Lau
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098037
Abstract: Fulvestrant (ICI-182,780) has recently been shown to effectively suppress prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. But it is unclear whether microRNAs play a role in regulating oncogene expression in fulvestrant-treated prostate cancer. Here, this study reports hsa-miR-765 as the first fulvestrant-driven, ERβ-regulated miRNA exhibiting significant tumor suppressor activities like fulvestrant, against prostate cancer cell growth via blockage of cell-cycle progression at the G2/M transition, and cell migration and invasion possibly via reduction of filopodia/intense stress-fiber formation. Fulvestrant was shown to upregulate hsa-miR-765 expression through recruitment of ERβ to the 5′-regulatory-region of hsa-miR-765. HMGA1, an oncogenic protein in prostate cancer, was identified as a downstream target of hsa-miR-765 and fulvestrant in cell-based experiments and a clinical study. Both the antiestrogen and the hsa-miR-765 mimic suppressed HMGA1 protein expression. In a neo-adjuvant study, levels of hsa-miR-765 were increased and HMGA1 expression was almost completely lost in prostate cancer specimens from patients treated with a single dose (250 mg) of fulvestrant 28 days before prostatectomy. These findings reveal a novel fulvestrant signaling cascade involving ERβ-mediated transcriptional upregulation of hsa-miR-765 that suppresses HMGA1 protein expression as part of the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor action of fulvestrant in prostate cancer.
A Study of Interaction Patterns and Awareness Design Elements in a Massively Multiplayer Online Game
Tiffany Y. Tang,Cheung Yiu Man,Chu Pok Hang,Lam Shiu Cheuk,Chan Wai Kwong,Yiu Chung Chi,Ho Ka Fai,Sit Kam
International Journal of Computer Games Technology , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/619108
Abstract: Massively multiplayer online games (MMOGs) have been known to create rich and versatile social worlds for thousands of millions of players to participate. As such, various game elements and advance technologies such as artificial intelligence have been applied to encourage and facilitate social interactions in these online communities, the key to the success of MMOGs. However, there is a lack of studies addressing the usability of these elements in games. In this paper, we look into interaction patterns and awareness design elements that support the awareness in LastWorld and FairyLand. Experimental results obtained through both in-game experiences and player interviews reveal that not all awareness tools (e.g., an in-game map) have been fully exploited by players. In addition, those players who are aware of these tools are not satisfied with them. Our findings suggest that awareness-oriented tools/channels should be easy to interpret and rich in conveying “knowledge” so as to reduce players-cognitive overload. These findings of this research recommend considerations of early stage MMOG design.
Development and Validation of the Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) for Primary Care Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
Sau Nga Fu, Weng Yee Chin, Carlos King Ho Wong, Vincent Tok Fai Yeung, Ming Pong Yiu, Hoi Yee Tsui, Ka Hung Chan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078933
Abstract: Objectives To develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a Chinese questionnaire which assesses the barriers and enablers to commencing insulin in primary care patients with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes. Research Design and Method Questionnaire items were identified using literature review. Content validation was performed and items were further refined using an expert panel. Following translation, back translation and cognitive debriefing, the translated Chinese questionnaire was piloted on target patients. Exploratory factor analysis and item-scale correlations were performed to test the construct validity of the subscales and items. Internal reliability was tested by Cronbach’s alpha. Results Twenty-seven identified items underwent content validation, translation and cognitive debriefing. The translated questionnaire was piloted on 303 insulin na?ve (never taken insulin) Type 2 diabetes patients recruited from 10 government-funded primary care clinics across Hong Kong. Sufficient variability in the dataset for factor analysis was confirmed by Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity (P<0.001). Using exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation, 10 factors were generated onto which 26 items loaded with loading scores > 0.4 and Eigenvalues >1. Total variance for the 10 factors was 66.22%. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.725. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the first four factors were ≥0.6 identifying four sub-scales to which 13 items correlated. Remaining sub-scales and items with poor internal reliability were deleted. The final 13-item instrument had a four scale structure addressing: ‘Self-image and stigmatization’; ‘Factors promoting self-efficacy; ‘Fear of pain or needles’; and ‘Time and family support’. Conclusion The Chinese Attitudes to Starting Insulin Questionnaire (Ch-ASIQ) appears to be a reliable and valid measure for assessing barriers to starting insulin. This short instrument is easy to administer and may be used by healthcare providers and researchers as an assessment tool for Chinese diabetic primary care patients, including the elderly, who are unwilling to start insulin.
Prescription of Chinese Herbal Medicine and Selection of Acupoints in Pattern-Based Traditional Chinese Medicine Treatment for Insomnia: A Systematic Review
Wing-Fai Yeung,Ka-Fai Chung,Maggie Man-Ki Poon,Fiona Yan-Yee Ho,Shi-Ping Zhang,Zhang-Jin Zhang,Eric Tat-Chi Ziea,Vivian Wong Taam
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/902578
Abstract: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatments are often prescribed based on individuals' pattern diagnoses. A systematic review of Chinese and English literatures on TCM pattern differentiation, treatment principle, and pattern-based treatment for insomnia has therefore been conducted. A total of 227 studies, 17916 subjects, and 87 TCM patterns were analyzed. There was a limited consistency in pattern-based TCM treatment of insomnia across practitioners. Except for Gui Pi Tang, An Shen Ding Zhi Wan, and Wen Dan Tang which were used more commonly for deficiency of both the heart and spleen, internal disturbance of phlegm-heat, and qi deficiency of the heart and gallbladder, respectively, the selection of herbal formula for other patterns and pattern-based prescription of individual herbs and acupoints were not consistent. Suanzaoren (Semen Z. spinosae), Fuling (Poria), Yejiaoteng (Caulis P. multiflori), Gancao (Radix Glycyrrhizae), Baishao (Radix P. alba), Shenmen (HT7), Yintang (EX-HN3), Sanyinjiao (SP6), Baihui (GV20), Anmian (EX-HN22), and Sishencong (EX-HN1) were commonly used, but nonspecifically for many patterns. Treatment principles underlying herb and acupoint selection were seldom reported. Although many studies were reviewed, the study quality and diagnostic process were inadequate. More high quality studies are needed to examine the additional benefits of pattern differentiation and pattern-based TCM treatment.
Reduction of Natural Killer but Not Effector CD8 T Lymphoyctes in Three Consecutive Cases of Severe/Lethal H1N1/09 Influenza A Virus Infection
Laura Denney,Celia Aitken,Chris Ka-Fai Li,Eleri Wilson-Davies,Wai Ling Kok,Colin Clelland,Kevin Rooney,Duncan Young,Tao Dong,Andrew J. McMichael,William F. Carman,Ling-Pei Ho
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010675
Abstract: The cause of severe disease in some patients infected with pandemic influenza A virus is unclear.
Personal development empowerment through ICT in corporate learning: A case study of two developing cities in China
Sanches Lam,Kin Fai Ho
International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning (iJAC) , 2010, DOI: 10.3991/ijac.v3i2.1280
Abstract: Human development despite faltering economic development has been taking place in China where is one of the fastest growing countries in the world. While the formal government sector continues to play an important role, it is the growth of private participation in providing suitable ICT training, especially to the socially and economically under-privileged that appear to have provided the impetus for growth in qualified professionals. This paper argues that the use of ICT in corporate education and training is likely to empower their employees skill sets. The results of this study, which apply two Chinese cities as a case analysis representing the use of ICT could be an effective teaching tool for multi-national corporate learning in developing cities. The authors also have developed a 4Is framework for discussion.
Longtime existence of the K?hler-Ricci flow on $\Bbb C ^n$
Albert Chau,Ka-Fai Li,Luen-Fai Tam
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We produce longtime solutions to the K\"ahler-Ricci flow for complete K\"ahler metrics on $\Bbb C ^n$ without assuming the initial metric has bounded curvature, thus extending results in [3]. We prove the existence of a longtime bounded curvature solution emerging from any complete $U(n)$-invariant K\"ahler metric with non-negative holomorphic bisectional curvature, and that the solution converges as $t\to \infty$ to the standard Euclidean metric after rescaling. We also prove longtime existence results for more general K\"ahler metrics on $\Bbb C ^n$ which are not necessarily $U(n)$-invariant.
Deforming complete Hermitian metrics with unbounded curvature
Albert Chau,Ka-Fai Li,Luen-Fai Tam
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We produce solutions to the K\"ahler-Ricci flow emerging from complete initial metrics $g_0$ which are $C^0$ Hermitian limits of K\"ahler metrics. Of particular interest is when $g_0$ is K\"ahler with unbounded curvature. We provide such solutions for a wide class of $U(n)$-invariant K\"ahler metrics $g_0$ on $n$ dimensional complex Euclidean space, many of which having unbounded curvature. As a special case we have the following Corollary: The K\"ahler-Ricci flow has a smooth short time solution starting from any smooth complete $U(n)$-invariant K\"abler metric on $\C^n$ with either non-negative or non-positive holomorphic bisectional curvature, and the solution exists for all time in the case of non-positive curvature.
Optimal Investment and Proportional Reinsurance with Risk Constraint  [PDF]
Jingzhen Liu, Ka Fai Cedric Yiu, Ryan C. Loxton, Kok Lay Teo
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2013.34046
Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate the problem of maximizing the expected exponential utility for an insurer. In the problem setting, the insurer can invest his/her wealth into the market and he/she can also purchase the proportional reinsurance. To control the risk exposure, we impose a value-at-risk constraint on the portfolio, which results in a constrained stochastic optimal control problem. It is difficult to solve a constrained stochastic optimal control problem by using traditional dynamic programming or Martingale approach. However, for the frequently used exponential utility function, we show that the problem can be simplified significantly using a decomposition approach. The problem is reduced to a deterministic constrained optimal control problem, and then to a finite dimensional optimization problem. To show the effectiveness of the approach proposed, we consider both complete and incomplete markets; the latter arises when the number of risky assets are fewer than the dimension of uncertainty. We also conduct numerical experiments to demonstrate the effect of the risk constraint on the optimal strategy.

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