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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 639 matches for " Hisato Kawakami "
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Practical Use of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Combination Therapy as First-Line Treatment for Japanese Patients with Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer  [PDF]
Hisato Kawakami, Isamu Okamoto, Wataru Okamoto, Masayuki Takeda, Shinya Ueda, Toshihiro Kudo, Shin-ichi Nishina, Yasuhito Fujisaka, Masaki Miyazaki, Junji Tsurutani, Takayasu Kurata, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.46121

Gemcitabine and cisplatin combination therapy (GC) is accepted as a standard treatment for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, little information is available regarding such treatment in the clinical practice setting in Japan. We retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients with unresectable or recurrent BTC who received GC as first-line treatment. The regimen consisted of cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) administered intravenously on days 1 and 8 of repeated 3-week cycles. Twenty patients were analyzed. A total of 148 cycles of GC was administered, with a median of 8 and a range of 1 to 18 cycles. Treatment delay and dose reduction were noted in 35 (24%) and 41 (28%) of the 148 cycles, respectively. The major adverse events of grade 3 or 4 included neutropenia (50%), leukopenia (45%), anemia (30%), and thrombocytopenia (15%). Nonhematologic toxicities included nausea (10%), appetite loss (10%), and fatigue (10%). Median progression-free and overall survival times were 6.9 and 12.3 months, respectively. Gallbladder cancer showed a significantly higher response rate than did other types of BTC (chi-squaretest, P = 0.002). GC was thus effective and well tolerated as first-line chemotherapy for Japanese patients with advanced BTC in the clinical practice setting.

Solid-fluid transition of two- or three-dimensional systems with infinite-range interaction
Hisato Komatsu
Statistics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/1742-5468/2015/08/P08020
Abstract: It is difficult to derive the solid--fluid transition from microscopic models. We introduce particle systems whose potentials do not decay with distance and calculate their partition function exactly using a method similar to that for lattice systems with infinite-range interaction. In particular, we investigate the behaviors of examples among these models, which become a triangular, body-centered cubic, face-centered cubic, or simple cubic lattice in low-temperature phase. The transitions of the first three examples are of the first order, and that of the last example is of the second order. Note that we define the solid phase as that whose order parameter, or Fourier component of the density, becomes nonzero, and the models we considered obey the ideal-gas law even in the solid phase.
Generation of Unfolded DNA in Human Neutrophils Following Hypothermal Treatment  [PDF]
Jin Kawata, Makoto Kikuchi, Hisato Saitoh
CellBio (CellBio) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/cellbio.2013.23013

By visualizing DNA with diamidino phenylindole (DAPI), we found that hypothermal incubation followed by rewarming of human neutrophils resulted in an increased number of DAPI-positive objects representative of extensive DNA unfolding seemingly similar to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In contrast to canonical NET formation, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, exhibited negligible effects on formation of the DAPI-positive objects. Moreover, multiple instances of DNA damage were detected in the objects, but not in canonical NETs. Our results thus suggest the potential of hypothermia for triggering DNA structural alteration in neutrophils, which is similar to but distinct from NET formation.

Risk Factors for Cisplatin-Induced Nephrotoxicity and Potential of Magnesium Supplementation for Renal Protection
Yasuhiro Kidera, Hisato Kawakami, Tsutomu Sakiyama, Kunio Okamoto, Kaoru Tanaka, Masayuki Takeda, Hiroyasu Kaneda, Shin-ichi Nishina, Junji Tsurutani, Kimiko Fujiwara, Morihiro Nomura, Yuzuru Yamazoe, Yasutaka Chiba, Shozo Nishida, Takao Tamura, Kazuhiko Nakagawa
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101902
Abstract: Background Nephrotoxicity remains a problem for patients who receive cisplatin chemotherapy. We retrospectively evaluated potential risk factors for cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity as well as the potential impact of intravenous magnesium supplementation on such toxicity. Patients and Methods We reviewed clinical data for 401 patients who underwent chemotherapy including a high dose (≥60 mg/m2) of cisplatin in the first-line setting. Nephrotoxicity was defined as an increase in the serum creatinine concentration of at least grade 2 during the first course of cisplatin chemotherapy, as assessed on the basis of National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. The severity of nephrotoxicity was evaluated on the basis of the mean change in the serum creatinine level. Magnesium was administered intravenously to 67 patients (17%). Results Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity was observed in 127 patients (32%). Multivariable analysis revealed that an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2 (risk ratio, 1.876; P = 0.004) and the regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (risk ratio, 1.357; P = 0.047) were significantly associated with an increased risk for cisplatin nephrotoxicity, whereas intravenous magnesium supplementation was associated with a significantly reduced risk for such toxicity (risk ratio, 0.175; P = 0.0004). The development of hypomagnesemia during cisplatin treatment was significantly associated with a greater increase in serum creatinine level (P = 0.0025). Magnesium supplementation therapy was also associated with a significantly reduced severity of renal toxicity (P = 0.012). Conclusions A relatively poor performance status and the regular use of NSAIDs were significantly associated with cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, although the latter association was marginal. Our findings also suggest that the ability of magnesium supplementation to protect against the renal toxicity of cisplatin warrants further investigation in a prospective trial.
Determination of a Cut-Off Point of a Scale for Achievement Motive in Geriatrics That Predicts the Frequency of Undertaking Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Community-Dwelling Elderly People  [PDF]
Nobuyuki Sano, Hisato Nakazono
Advances in Aging Research (AAR) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/aar.2019.86008
Abstract: Background: Among elderly people, rehabilitation is important for reducing the risk of falls and hospitalization and to maintain an independent life for longer. Motivation is a factor for elderly people to lead an active daily life and leave home more frequently. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to determine the optimal cut-off point in the Scale for Achievement Motive in Geriatrics (SAMG) that could identify individuals as inactive or active, based on the Frenchay Activities Index (FAI), and to compare characteristics between active and inactive groups classified by the cut-off point. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 285 community-dwelling elderly people measured SAMG and FAI and physical function. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) that was the optimal cut-off point for the SAMG total score, with the associated sensitivity and 1-specificity when compared with the FAI results. Demographic parameters and physical function were compared between two groups defined by cut-off point. Results: The AUC was 0.78, the optimal cut-off for SAMG total score for
Tol2: a versatile gene transfer vector in vertebrates
Koichi Kawakami
Genome Biology , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2007-8-s1-s7
Abstract: The Tol2 element was identified from the genome of the medaka fish (Oryzias latipes), a small fresh water teleost. The sequence of Tol2 is similar to those of transposons belonging to the hAT family, namely hobo, Ac and Tam3 [1]. Although vertebrate genomes contain a large number of sequences related to DNA transposons, including those similar to the hAT family transposons, none of these has been shown to be naturally active, and all are thought to be non-autonomous elements. In an exception, the Tol2 element was found to be autonomously active [2]. The autonomous Tol2 element is about 4.7 kilobases (kb) in length and contains a gene encoding a transposase protein, which consists of four exons (Figure 1) [3]. mRNA transcribed from the gene has the capacity to synthesize a protein of length 649 amino acids, and the transposase protein is fully functional and can catalyze transposition of a non-autonomous Tol2 construct (a construct containing a deletion in the transposase coding region but retaining the Tol2 ends) [3,4]. Tol2 integrates as a single copy through a cut-and-paste mechanism, and it does not cause any rearrangement or modification at the target site except for the creation of an 8 base pair (bp) duplication. Therefore, 8 bp direct repeats are always seen adjacent to integrated Tol2 elements [4].Minimal Tol2 cis sequences necessary for transposition were recently studied [5,6]. Transposon constructs containing 200 bp and 150 bp of DNA from the left and right ends, respectively, could transpose, but constructs containing less than 150 bp and 100 bp of DNA from left and right ends did not [5]. Thus, the 200 bp and 150 bp sequences, which contain 12 bp terminal inverted repeats and subterminal regions, are sufficient for transposition (Figure 1). Theoretically, any foreign DNA fragments can be cloned between these sequences. What, then, is the maximum size of DNA that can be carried by the Tol2 vector? At present, we know that the Tol2 vector can carry a DNA
Molecular Dissection of Cyclosporin A’s Neuroprotective Effect Reveals Potential Therapeutics for Ischemic Brain Injury
Minoru Kawakami
Brain Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/brainsci3031325
Abstract: After the onset of brain ischemia, a series of events leads ultimately to the death of neurons. Many molecules can be pharmacologically targeted to protect neurons during these events, which include glutamate release, glutamate receptor activation, excitotoxicity, Ca 2+ influx into cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, activation of intracellular enzymes, free radical production, nitric oxide production, and inflammation. There have been a number of attempts to develop neuroprotectants for brain ischemia, but many of these attempts have failed. It was reported that cyclosporin A (CsA) dramatically ameliorates neuronal cell damage during ischemia. Some researchers consider ischemic cell death as a unique process that is distinct from both apoptosis and necrosis, and suggested that mitochondrial dysfunction and Δψ collapse are key steps for ischemic cell death. It was also suggested that CsA has a unique neuroprotective effect that is related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Here, I will exhibit examples of neuroprotectants that are now being developed or in clinical trials, and will discuss previous researches about the mechanism underlying the unique CsA action. I will then introduce the results of our cDNA subtraction experiment with or without CsA administration in the rat brain, along with our hypothesis about the mechanism underlying CsA’s effect on transcriptional regulation.
Renormalized Harmonic-Oscillator Description of Confined Electron Systems with Inverse-Square Interaction
N. Kawakami
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1143/JPSJ.62.4163
Abstract: An integrable model for SU($\nu$) electrons with inverse-square interaction is studied for the system with confining harmonic potential. We develop a new description of the spectrum based on the {\it renormalized harmonic-oscillators} which incorporate interaction effects via the repulsion of energy levels. This approach enables a systematic treatment of the excitation spectrum as well as the ground-state quantities.
Comment on "Microscopic Theory of Periodic Conductances in Narrow Channels"
N. Kawakami
Physics , 1993,
Abstract: In a recent letter Johnson and Payne (JP) have studied the effect of the electron interaction on the periodic conductance oscillations in narrow channels based on an exactly solvable model. In this Comment we discuss the exchange-correlation effect on JP's model using a solvable electron model. We wish to point out that when the interaction strength becomes rather small, there may appear two periods in the conductance oscillations due to the exchange effect.
Critical Properties of Quantum Many-Body Systems with 1/r^2 Interaction
Norio Kawakami
Physics , 1994, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.91.189
Abstract: We review recent results obtained for a class of one-dimensional quantum models with $1/r^2$ long-range interaction. Based on the asymptotic Bethe-ansatz solution and conformal field theory, we study critical properties of the continuum boson model, the SU($\nu$) spin chain, the OSp($\nu$,1) supersymmetric {\it t-J} model, and a new hierarchy of models related to the fractional quantum Hall effect. We further investigate the class of $1/r^2$ models with harmonic confinement by means of a newly proposed method of the renormalized-harmonic oscillator solution.
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