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It is desired to resolve soil contamination
with reduced costs. “Insoluble treatment” is a soil improvement method for
heavy metal containing soil, which uses soil mixers to mix soil and soil improvement
liquid agents. To reduce the costs of this method, soil mixers have to be
optimized. However, it is not achieved due to the lack of theoretical knowledge
on mixing solid with liquid. Therefore, a numerical model to simulate the
dynamic behavior of solid and liquid is on the development in this study using
Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. To validate the numerical model,
several experiments were carried out and numerically reproduced. The comparisons
of the results showed that the numerical model replicated a liquid flow with an
error rate of 2.1% and a seepage flow with an error rate up to 26.1%.
Especially, the water distribution in the soil pores was highly improved with
absolute gaps in volumetric water content up to 4.4% in the porosity range of
10% - 90%. For the water absorption into dry sand, the simulation result became
more realistic by concerning soil suction.
We investigated the feasibility of sonodynamic therapy for glioma by low frequency ultrasoundwith5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in heme synthetic process. In vivo tumor model was made by inoculating human glioma cell line U87-MG subcutaneously in nude mice. The tumor was sonicated by 25-kHz ultrasound 4 hours following administration of 5-ALA. The tumor size decreased in 5-ALA administered (ALA(+)US(+)) mice, while increased in non-5-ALA administrated (ALA(-)US(+)) mice and non-sonicated mice (ALA(+)US(-)). The immunohistochemical analysis revealed an apoptotic change in tumor tissue of ALA(+)US(+) mice. The results showed the therapeutic effect of 25 kHz ultrasound for the glioma in 5-ALA administered tumor-bearing mice by inducing apoptotic change of tumor cells. This is a first report to elucidate the feasibility of therapeutic use of 25 kHz, relatively low frequency, ultrasound in sonodynamic therapy using 5-ALA as a sonosensitizer precursor. The utilization of this frequency will contribute to the development of sonodynamic therapy for gliomas and the spread of this technique in many hospitals that possess ultrasonic aspirators.
In mathematical physics and psychology, “quantum decision theory” has been proposed to explain anomalies in human decision-making. One of such quantum models has been proposed to explain time inconsistency in human decision over time. In this study, we conducted a behavioral experiment to examine which quantum decision models best account for human intertemporal choice. We observed that a q-exponential model developed in Tsallis’ thermodynamics (based on Takahashi’s (2005) nonlinear time perception theory) best fit human behavioral data for both gain and loss, among other quantum decision models.