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A New Laparoscopic Surgical Procedure to Achieve Sufficient Mesorectal Excision in Upper Rectal Cancer
Seiji Ohigashi,Takashi Taketa,Kazuki Sudo,Hironori Shiozaki,Hisashi Onodera
International Journal of Surgical Oncology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/708439
Abstract: Objective. Mesorectal excision corresponding to the location of a tumor, termed tumor-specific mesorectal excision (TSME), is commonly performed for resection of upper rectal cancer. We devised a new laparoscopic procedure for sufficient TSME with rectal transection followed by mesorectal excision. Operative Technique. After mobilization of the sigmoid colon and ligation of inferior mesenteric vessels, we dissected the mesorectum along the layer of the planned total mesorectal excision. The rectal wall was carefully separated from the mesorectum at the appropriate anal side from the tumor. After the rectum was isolated and transected using an endoscopic linear stapler, the rectal stump drew immediately toward the anal side, enabling the mesorectum to be identified clearly. In this way, sufficient TSME can be performed easily and accurately. This technique has been successfully conducted on 19 patients. Conclusion. This laparoscopic technique is a feasible and reliable procedure for achieving sufficient TSME. 1. Introduction Total mesorectal excision (TME) is recognized as an extremely important surgical technique for the prevention of local recurrence of rectal cancer [1–3]. On the other hand, TME is not necessarily applicable in every case of rectal cancer: for upper rectal cancer, mesorectal excision for limited lengths of 5?cm from a tumor toward the anal side is widely conducted, and this method is reportedly associated with adequate rates of cure [4, 5]. This technique is referred to as partial mesorectal excision (PME), but rather should be called tumor-specific mesorectal excision (TSME) reflecting its correspondence to the localization or T-stage of the tumor [5]. In a narrow pelvic cavity, performing sufficient TSME is difficult, and there is a risk of local recurrence when TSME is inadequate [6–8]. Whether surgery is performed laparoscopically or via a conventional open route, TSME is usually conducted obliquely to the anal side, introducing unnecessary rectal resection which may lead to postoperative bowel malfunction [9]. In addition, there is of the potential for slippage of the TSME between the right and left sides of the rectal wall. Particularly in the case of laparoscopic surgery, straight and sharp dissection of the mesorectum is difficult to perform and the dissection line is likely to be in zigzags. Of course, TSME shifting toward the oral side from the starting line is inappropriate and should be strictly avoided in order to prevent local recurrence (Figure 1). Figure 1: (A) Ideal resection line of the mesorectum. (B) and (C)
Pre-operative diagnosis and successful surgery of a strangulated internal hernia through a defect in the falciform ligament: a case report
Hironori Shiozaki, Shintaro Sakurai, Kazuki Sudo, Gen Shimada, Hiroshi Inoue, Seiji Ohigashi, Gautam A. Deshpande, Osamu Takahashi, Hisashi Onodera
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-6-206
Abstract: A 77-year-old Japanese woman presented to our emergency department with sudden hematemesis, occurring at least four to five times over a 12-hour period. No ulcer or gastrointestinal bleeding was detected on gastroendoscopy. A 40mm mass in the inferior lobe of the right lung was found on a chest X-ray, and our patient’s symptoms were therefore initially ascribed to aspirated blood from lung tumor-associated hemoptysis. However, our patient continued to show signs of severe abdominal pain and decreased urine output despite aggressive hydration, leading her examining physicians to search for a possibly severe, occult abdominal pathology. On emergent computed tomography imaging, we found an acute strangulated internal hernia within the falciform ligament. Diagnosis was made by helical computed tomography, permitting rapid surgical intervention.Our findings on computed tomography imaging assisted with the pre-operative diagnosis and enabled us to make a rapid surgical intervention. Early diagnosis may help preclude significant strangulation with unnecessary resection.
Flavonoid Profiles of Wild Grapes Native to Japan: Vitis coignetiae Pulliat and Vitis ficifolia Bunge var. ganebu Hatusima  [PDF]
Shuji Shiozaki, Kazunori Murakami
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/as.2017.83017
Abstract: Flavonoids are a group of natural compounds in plants with versatile health benefits for humans. Grapes are a dietary source of flavonoids and the flavonoid components in grape berries can depend on the grape species and cultivar. In this experiment, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were analyzed in Vitis coignetiae and V. ficifolia var. ganebu, wild grapes native to Japan, and compared with those in V. labruscana cv. Muscat Bailey A, to evaluate the potential of the wild grapes as a grape resource. Proanthocyanidin contents in seeds were lower in the two wild grapes than in Muscat Bailey A. However, the skin of V. ficifolia var. ganebu was the richest source of proanthocyanidins. Flavonol levels in the skins of the two wild grapes were lower than that in the skin of Muscat Bailey A. Colorimetry determined that the total anthocyanin content in the skin of V. ficifolia var. ganebu was 6 times and 7 times higher, respectively, than those of V. coignetiae and Muscat Bailey A. Although monoglucoside anthocyanin levels analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were in the order Muscat Bailey A > V. ficifolia var. ganebu > V. coignetiae, most of the diglucoside and acylated monoglucoside and diglucoside anthocyanin levels identified by HPLC-mass spectrometry were highest in V. ficifolia var. ganebu. These data suggest that V. ficifolia var. ganebu might be a novel source of flavonoids and superior to V. coignetiae as a source of flavonoids.
Multi-Dimensional Nonsystematic Reed-Solomon Codes
Akira Shiozaki
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: This paper proposes a new class of multi-dimensional nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes that are constructed based on the multi-dimensional Fourier transform over a finite field. The proposed codes are the extension of the nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes to multi-dimension. This paper also discusses the performance of the multi-dimensional nonsystematic Reed-Solomon codes.
Inhibitors of protein kinases affecting cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6  [PDF]
Hironori Ushijima, Masatomo Maeda
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.24051
Abstract: We screened 95 kinase inhibitors whether they affect cAMP-dependent proteolysis of GATA-6 or not. Among them 7 inhibitors inhibited the proteolysis at the concentration range of μM around their IC50. They are inhibitors for protein kinase A (H-89 and 4- cyano-3-methylisoquinoline), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SP600125), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Wort- mannin and LY-294002), casein kinase II (TBB) and cyclin dependent kinase (Cdk1/2 inhibitor III). It is of interest how these kinases play roles in the degradation process of GATA-6 since this transcription factor is essential for development and tissue-specific gene expression of mammals. Inhibitors identified in this study would be helpful to study molecular mechanisms of phenomena in which GATA-6 participates.
Comparative Interactions of Anesthetic Alkylphenols with Lipid Membranes  [PDF]
Hironori Tsuchiya, Maki Mizogami
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2014.412044
Abstract: Objective: While substituted phenols have a variety of pharmacological activity, the mechanism underlying their anesthetic effects remains uncertain especially about the critical target. We characterized the lipid membrane-interacting properties of different phenols by comparing with general anesthetic propofol and local anesthetics. Based on the results, we also studied the pharmacological effects possibly associated with their membrane interactivities. Methods: 1,6-Diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene-labeled lipid bilayer membranes were prepared with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine as model membranes and with different phospholipids and cholesterol to mimic neuronal membranes. These membrane preparations were treated with phenols and anesthetics at 1 - 200 μM, followed by measuring the fluorescence polarization to determine the membrane interactivities to change membrane fluidity. Antioxidant effects were fluorometrically determined using diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine-incorporated liposomes which were treated with 10 - 100 μM phenols, and then peroxidized with 10 μM peroxynitrite. Results: Several phenols interacted with the model membranes and the neuronal mimetic membranes to increase their fluidity at 1 - 10 μM as well as lidocaine and bupivacaine did at 50 - 200 μM. Their comparative potencies were propofol > thymol > isothymol > guaiacol > phenol > eugenol, and bupivacaine > lidocaine, consistent with the rank order of neuro-activity. These phenols inhibited membrane lipid peroxidation at 10 and 100 μM with the potencies correlating to their membrane interactivities. Conclusion: The structure-specific membrane interaction is at least in part responsible for the pharmacology of anesthetic alkylphenols. Membrane-interacting antioxidant alkylphenols may be protective against the peroxynitrite-relating ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Roles of XB130, a novel adaptor protein, in cancer
Atsushi Shiozaki, Mingyao Liu
Journal of Clinical Bioinformatics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/2043-9113-1-10
Abstract: Adaptor proteins are molecules of modular structures without enzymatic activity, composed of multiple protein-protein and/or protein-lipid interacting domains, through which they link signaling components to form macromolecular complexes and propagate cellular signals [1,2]. Depending on the functional role of the interacting partner and the specific biological event that is triggered by these interactions, adaptor proteins can participate in the regulation of different signaling pathways. A good example of how adaptor proteins are involved in signal transduction is the activation of c-Src protein-tyrosine kinases by adaptor proteins via protein-protein interactions. Adaptor proteins are also important to mediate signals initiated via receptor-tyrosine kinases in responses to extracellular stimuli [3,4], and together with non-receptor protein-tyrosine kinases to orchestrate the signal transduction elicited by either ligand receptor interactions or by cellular structure reorganization [5]. Further, a number of adaptor proteins have been demonstrated to regulate tumorigenesis. For example, actin filament associated protein (AFAP) is required for actin stress fiber formation and cell adhesion, and is critical for tumorigenic growth in prostate cancer [6,7]. Tyrosine kinase substrate 5 is a scaffolding adaptor protein with five Src homology (SH) 3 domains, co-localizes to podosomes and regulates migration and invasion of different human cancer cells [8,9]. These findings support a broader investigation of adaptor proteins on tumorigenesis and their potentiality as diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of cancer.During our studies aimed at the characterization of the AFAP [10-12], we cloned a novel 130 kDa protein, referred to as XB130 [13]. Our studies have indeed indicated that XB130 plays, as an adaptor, important roles in the regulation of signal transduction, cell proliferation, survival, motility and invasion [13-16]. In this review, we focus on studies rel
Towards a policy that supports people-centered housing recovery—learning from housing reconstruction after the Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Kobe, Japan
Elizabeth Maly,Yoshimitsu Shiozaki
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s13753-012-0007-1
Abstract: The goal of disaster recovery is for survivors to regain stability in their lives, livelihoods, and housing. A people-centered housing recovery requires that residents are empowered to make decisions about their housing reconstruction, and that policies create housing options that support the ability of all residents to reconstruct their homes and lives. The 1995 Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake caused the largest amount of damage in Japan since World War II, and the subsequent recovery is a starting point for understanding contemporary post-disaster housing reconstruction policies in Japan. Beyond an overview of housing reconstruction programs, we can understand the impact these policies had on Kobe residents’ housing and community recovery. In many cases, housing policies implemented after the Kobe earthquake fragmented communities and caused further damage and disruption in the lives of the survivors. A single-track approach failed to support the entire population of the disaster-stricken area. In subsequent years, Japanese disaster reconstruction laws and policies have seen modifications and improvements. Some of these changes can be seen in cases of recovery after more recent disasters, notably after the 2004 Chuetsu Earthquake in Niigata Prefecture. In the context of these past examples, we can consider what is needed for a people-centered recovery in the Tohoku area after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.
Dynamical axion in topological superconductors and superfluids
Ken Shiozaki,Satoshi Fujimoto
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.054506
Abstract: We consider dynamical axion phenomena in topological superconductors and superfluids in three spatial dimensions in terms of the gravitoelectromagnetic topological action, in which the axion field couples with mechanical rotation under finite temperature gradient. The dynamical axion is induced by relative phase fluctuations between topological and s-wave superconducting orders. We show that an antisymmetric spin-orbit interaction which induces parity-mixing of Cooper pairs enlarges the parameter region in which the dynamical axion fluctuation appears as a low-energy excitation. We propose that the dynamical axion increases the moment of inertia, and in the case of ac mechanical rotation, i.e. a shaking motion with a finite frequency $\omega$, as $\omega$ approaches the dynamical axion fluctuation mass, the observation of this effect becomes feasible.
Green's Function Method for Line Defects and Gapless Modes in Topological Insulators : Beyond Semiclassical Approach
Ken Shiozaki,Satoshi Fujimoto
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.085409
Abstract: Defects which appear in heterostructure junctions involving topological insulators are sources of gapless modes governing the low energy properties of the systems, as recently elucidated by Teo and Kane [Physical Review B82, 115120 (2010)]. A standard approach for the calculation of topological invariants associated with defects is to deal with the spatial inhomogeneity raised by defects within a semiclassical approximation. In this paper, we propose a full quantum formulation for the topological invariants characterizing line defects in three-dimensional insulators with no symmetry by using the Green's function method. On the basis of the full quantum treatment, we demonstrate the existence of a nontrivial topological invariant in the topological insulator-ferromagnet tri-junction systems, for which a semiclassical approximation fails to describe the topological phase. Also, our approach enables us to study effects of electron-electron interactions and impurity scattering on topological insulators with spatial inhomogeneity which gives rise to the Axion electrodynamics responses.
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