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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1172 matches for " Hiromichi Goto "
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Significance of Cu/Zn-Superoxide Dismutase Levels in Hemodialysis Patients: A Mini Review  [PDF]
Yuya Nakamura, Masahiro Inagaki, Sachiyo Kenmotsu, Shiho Yamadera, Isao Ohsawa, Hiromichi Gotoh, Yoshikazu Goto, Naoki Sato, Tatsunori Oguchi, Mayumi Tsuji, Yuji Kiuchi
Modern Research in Inflammation (MRI) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/mri.2017.62002
Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) is an enzyme that is ubiquitously present in the cytoplasm and causes dismutation of superoxide radicals, therefore Cu/Zn-SOD is primarily used as an antioxidant marker. Levels of Cu/Zn-SOD are higher in the serum of hemodialysis patients than in serum of healthy volunteers. The increase of serum Cu/Zn-SOD levels is related to the decrease of kidney function with aging and arteriosclerosis in hemodialysis patients. Moreover, infection, vascular puncture, and hemostasis may be related to the increase in serum Cu/Zn-SOD levels. As it is associated with numerous factors in hemodialysis patients, Cu/Zn-SOD may serve as a complex marker for arteriosclerosis, vascular, and inflammatory conditions. It is important to investigate various agents that decrease serum Cu/Zn-SOD levels to improve the life-span of hemodialysis patients.
Air-Pollutant-Philic Plants for Air Remediation  [PDF]
Misa Takahashi, Hiromichi Morikawa
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.310153
Abstract: In this communication, we review our work over two decades on air-pollutant-philic plants that can grow with air pollutants as the sole nutrient source. We believe that such plants are instrumental in mitigating air pollution. Our target air pollutant has been atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and our work on this subject has consisted of three parts: Variation in plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants among naturally occurring plants, genetic improvement of plants’ abilities to mitigate air pollutants, and the plant vitalization effect of NO2. So far, an estimation of the half-life of nitrogen derived from NO2 uptake in plants belonging to the 217 taxa studied to date has shown no plants to be naturally occurring air-pollutant-philic. However, we found that an enormous difference exists in plants’ ability to uptake and assimilate atmospheric NO2. Future studies on the causes of this process may provide an important clue to aid the genetic production of plants that are effectively air-pollutant-philic. Both genetic engineering of the genes involved in the primary nitrate metabolism and genetic modification by ion-beam irradiation failed to make plants air-pollutant-philic, but mutants obtained in these studies will prove useful in revealing those genes critical in doing so. During our study on air-pollutant-philic plants, we unexpectedly discovered that prolonged exposure of plants to a sufficient level of NO2 activates the uptake and metabolism of nutrients that fuel plant growth and development. We named this phenomenon “the plant vitalization effect of NO2” (PVEON). Investigations into the mechanisms and genes involved in PVEON will provide an important clue to making plants air-pollutant-philic in the future.
Active Control Method for Critical Cornering Range  [PDF]
Takahiko Yoshino, Hiromichi Nozaki
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.68043

It has been reported that steering systems with derivative terms have a heightened lateral acceleration and yaw rate response in the normal driving range. However, in ranges where the lateral acceleration is high, the cornering force of the front wheels decreases and hence becomes less effective. Therefore, we applied traction control for the inner and outer wheels based on the steering angle velocity to improve the steering effectiveness at high lateral accelerations. An experiment using a driving simulator showed that the vehicle’s yaw rate response improved for a double lane change to avoid a hazard; this improves hazard avoidance performance. Regarding improved vehicle control in the cornering margins, traction control for the inner and outer wheels is being developed further, and much research and development has been reported. However, in the total skid margin, where few margin remains in the forward and reverse drive forces on the tires, spinout is unavoidable. Therefore, we applied tire camber angle control to improve vehicle maneuverability in the total skid margin. An experiment using a driving simulator has confirmed that the vehicle’s lateral acceleration at the turning limit can be improved by controlling the camber angle. Because of this, camber angle control promises to be more effective than traction control for the inner and outer wheels. By applying this type of steering control, it is possible to increase maneuverability and stability in the cornering margins.

Camber Angle Control Method Corresponding to the Electric Vehicle Age  [PDF]
Takahiko Yoshino, Hiromichi Nozaki
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.68049
Abstract: In recent years, the conversion of vehicles to electric power has been accelerating, and if a full conversion to electric power is achieved, further advancements in vehicle kinematic control technology are expected. Therefore, it is thought that kinematic performance in the critical cornering range could be further improved by significantly controlling not only the steering angle but also the camber angle of the tires through the use of electromagnetic actuators. This research focused on a method of ground negative camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle as a technique to improve maneuverability and stability to support the new era of electric vehicles, and the effectiveness thereof was clarified. As a result, it was found that in the critical cornering range as well, camber angle control can control both the yaw moment and lateral acceleration at the turning limit. It was also confirmed that both stability and the steering effect in the critical cornering range are improved by implementing ground negative camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle using actuators. Dramatic improvements in cornering limit performance can be achieved by implementing ground negative camber angle control that is proportional to the steering angle.
Variable Gear Ratio Control Using Vehicle Body Slip Angle  [PDF]
Takahiko Yoshino, Hiromichi Nozaki
Engineering (ENG) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2014.68046

Vehicles with variable steering characteristics have long been studied and compared with those having typical fixed gear ratio steering, and the variable gear ratio properties are reported to have improved maneuverability and stability in high-speed lane changes and on slippery low-friction road surfaces. However, it is not clear how gear ratios should be set for individual vehicle characteristics. Therefore, the present study has investigated a variable steering gear system using body slip angle feedback for the purpose of improved maneuverability and stability in the critical cornering range and upwards, in excess of the critical limit, and into the countersteer range. The results of a driving simulator experiment show that the steering effect improves and maneuverability and stability increase in the critical cornering range and upwards, in excess of the critical limit, and into the countersteer range by applying linear-variable control to the steering ratio from a body slip angle of 5?. This result is seen both in double lane changes, such as in hazard avoidance, and in J-turns with long drifting. Moreover, it shows an improvement in drift controllability through prompt countersteering. Overall, the present system can enhance the driver’s hazard avoidance capability.

Cut-Off Points of Head, Chest, and Arm Circumferences to Identify Low Birthweight: Meta-Analysis  [PDF]
Eita Goto
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2017.72015
Abstract: Background: The cut-off points of newborn anthropometric variables to identify low birthweight (i.e., birthweight < 2500 g) have varied between studies or even within the same study. Methods: Meta-analysis was performed to summarize cut-off points in studies judged as good quality based on the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool (QUADAS). PubMed (MEDLINE) and nine other databases were searched (January, 2015). PubMed related-citations and references of potentially eligible articles and related reviews were also investigated. The Egger test was used to assess publication bias. Results: With respect to head, chest, and arm circumferences, the cut-off points that involved no publication bias could be summarized based on the data from large numbers of newborns (=21,793, 8917, and 12,912, respectively) in relatively sufficient numbers of studies (=17, 15, and 19, respectively). The optimal cut-off points to identify low birthweight were 33.0 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.8 - 33.2), 30.4 cm (95% CI, 30.3 - 30.6), and 9.3 cm (95% CI, 9.1 - 9.4) for head circumference, chest circumference, and arm circumference, respectively. The summarized cut-off point of birth height, i.e., 47.2 cm (95% CI, 46.7 - 47.7), used to identify low birthweight involved publication bias (n = 13). Conclusion: The cut-off points were determined to identify low birthweight using head, chest, and arm circumferences.
Genetic dissection of medial habenula–interpeduncular nucleus pathway function in mice
Yuki Kobayashi,Yoshitake Sano,Elisabetta Vannoni,Hiromichi Goto,Hitomi Suzuki,Atsuko Oba,Hiroaki Kawasaki,Shigenobu Kanba,Hans-Peter Lipp,Niall P. Murphy,David P. Wolfer,Shigeyoshi Itohara
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2013.00017
Abstract: The habenular complex linking forebrain and midbrain structures is subdivided into the medial (mHb) and the lateral nuclei (lHb). The mHb is characterized by the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isoforms and the release of acetylcholine to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), the sole output region of the mHb. The specific function of this circuit, however, is poorly understood. Here we generated transgenic mice in which mHb cells were selectively ablated postnatally. These lesions led to large reductions in acetylcholine levels within the IPN. The mutant mice exhibited abnormalities in a wide range of behavioral domains. They tended to be hyperactive during the early night period and were maladapted when repeatedly exposed to new environments. Mutant mice also showed a high rate of premature responses in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), indicating impulsive and compulsive behavior. Additionally, mice also exhibited delay and effort aversion in a decision-making test, deficits in spatial memory, a subtle increase in anxiety levels, and attenuated sensorimotor gating. IntelliCage studies under social housing conditions confirmed hyperactivity, environmental maladaptation, and impulsive/compulsive behavior, delay discounting, deficits in long-term spatial memory, and reduced flexibility in complex learning paradigms. In 5-CSRTT and adaptation tasks, systemic administration of nicotine slowed down nose-poke reaction and enhanced adaptation in control but not mutant mice. These findings demonstrate that the mHb–IPN pathway plays a crucial role in inhibitory control and cognition-dependent executive functions.
Analytical Solution to the Fokker-Planck Equation with a Bottomless Action
Hiromichi Nakazato
Physics , 1993, DOI: 10.1016/0370-2693(94)91013-8
Abstract: A new Langevin equation with a field-dependent kernel is proposed to deal with bottomless systems within the framework of the stochastic quantization of Parisi and Wu. The corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is shown to be a diffusion-type equation and is solved analytically. An interesting connection between the solution with the ordinary Feynman measure, which in this case is not normalizable, is clarified.
Time development of a wave packet and the time delay
Hiromichi Nakazato
Physics , 1997, DOI: 10.1007/BF02551447
Abstract: A one-dimensional scattering problem off a $\delta$-shaped potential is solved analytically and the time development of a wave packet is derived from the time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation. The exact and explicit expression of the scattered wave packet supplies us with interesting information about the "time delay" by potential scattering in the asymptotic region. It is demonstrated that a wave packet scattered by a spin-flipping potential can give us quite a different value for the delay times from that obtained without spin-degrees of freedom.
Dynamical entropy of generalized quantum Markov chains on gauge invariant $C^*$-algebras
Hiromichi Ohno
Mathematics , 2005, DOI: 10.1007/s11005-006-0106-2
Abstract: We prove that the mean entropy and the dynamical entropy are equal for generalized quantum Markov chains on gauge-invariant $C^*$-algebras.
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