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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 488 matches for " Hirokazu Kakuda "
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Short-Term Effect of Pitavastatin Treatment on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Fasting and Postprandial State Using a Test Meal in Japanese Men
Hirokazu Kakuda,Junji Kobayashi,Mio Nakato,Noboru Takekoshi
Cholesterol , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/314170
Abstract: Introduction. The objective of this study was to clarify how pitavastatin affects glucose and lipid metabolism, renal function, and oxidative stress. Methods. Ten Japanese men (average age of 33.9 years) were orally administered 2?mg of pitavastatin for 4 weeks. Postprandial glucose, lipoprotein metabolism, and oxidative stress markers were evaluated at 0 and 4 weeks of pitavastatin treatment (2?mg once daily) with a test meal consisting of total calories: 460?kcal, carbohydrates: 56.5?g (226?kcal), protein: 18?g (72?kcal), lipids: 18?g (162?kcal), and NaCl: 1.6?g. Metabolic parameters were measured at 0, 60, and 120 minutes after test meal ingestion. Results. After administration of pitavastatin, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, arachidonic acid, insulin, and adjusted urinary excretion of uric acid decreased, whereas creatinine clearance ( ) and uric acid clearance ( ) increased. And postprandial versus fasting urine 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine remained unchanged, while postprandial versus fasting isoprostane decreased after pitavastatin treatment. Next, we compared postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism after test meal ingestion before and after pitavastatin administration. Incremental areas under the curve significantly decreased for triglycerides ( ) and remnant-like particle cholesterol ( ), while those for apolipoprotein E (apoE), glucose, insulin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein remained unchanged. Conclusion. Pitavastatin improves postprandial oxidative stress along with hyperlipidemia. 1. Introduction It has been generally recognized that postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia are highly related to the development of atherosclerosis [1–5]. Hyperglycemia is known to damage vascular endothelial cells, increase oxidative stress, promote the expression of adhesion molecules, and inhibit Nitric Oxide (NO) production [6]. Remnant lipoprotein, an important component of postprandial hyperlipidemia, promotes foam cell formation of macrophages and proliferation of smooth muscle cells [7]. A very recent study on a large number of subjects demonstrated that remnant cholesterol was a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease [8]. Lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins, fibrates, and ezetimibe are considered to be useful for the treatment of postprandial hyperlipidemia [9–15]. Pitavastatin, a member of the medication class of statins, has been available in the market in Japan since 2003. It has been well recognized that this statin is markedly effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein
Effective Life and Area Based Data Storing and Deployment in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks  [PDF]
Hirokazu Miura, Hideki Tode, Hirokazu Taki
Communications and Network (CN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/cn.2015.73014
Abstract: In vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs), store-carry-forward approach may be used for data sharing, where moving vehicles carry and exchange data when they go by each other. In this approach, storage resource in a vehicle is generally limited. Therefore, attributes of data that have to be stored in vehicles are an important factor in order to efficiently distribute desired data. In VANETs, there are different types of data which depend on the time and location. Such kind of data cannot be deployed adequately to the requesting vehicles only by popularity-based rule. In this paper, we propose a data distribution method that takes into account the effective life and area in addition to popularity of data. Our extensive simulation results demonstrate drastic improvements on acquisition performance of the time and area specific data.
Diagnosis of Cancer Spread Using Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Cholangioscopy-guided Ultrasonography for Malignant Bile Duct Stenosis
Hirokazu Inoue
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Endoscopy , 2001, DOI: 10.1155/dte.7.159
Abstract: The characteristics of sites of intramural cancer spread were examined by comparing the intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) and wall thickening findings at sites of intramural cancer spread and non-spread, in patients with malignant bile duct stenosis who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).
Controlling Size in Multicellular Organs: Focus on the Leaf
Hirokazu Tsukaya
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060174
Abstract:
Beneficial Effects of Ethanol Consumption on Insulin Resistance Are Only Applicable to Subjects Without Obesity or Insulin Resistance; Drinking is not Necessarily a Remedy for Metabolic Syndrome
Hirokazu Yokoyama
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8073019
Abstract: Although moderate drinking has been shown to lower insulin resistance levels, it is still unclear whether alcoholic beverages could be remedies for insulin resistance. To elucidate this, the correlation between levels of ethanol consumption and insulin resistance were cross-sectionally examined in 371 non-diabetic male Japanese workers. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the ethanol consumption level was inversely correlated with the insulin resistance level assessed by homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR, p = 0.0014), the serum insulin level (p = 0.0007), and pancreatic β-cell function, also assessed by HOMA (HOMA-β, p = 0.0002), independently from age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure, liver function tests, and lipid profiles status, as well as serum adiponectin. The correlations were true in subjects with normal BMIs (up to 25.0 kg/m 2, n = 301) or normal HOMA-IR (up to 2.0 μIU·mg/μL·dL n = 337), whereas all of them were non-significant in those with excessive BMIs (n = 70) or in those with HOMA-IR of more than 2.0 (n = 34). Although it is still unclear whether the reductions of these parameters by ethanol consumption are truly due to the improvement of insulin resistance, at least, these effects are not applicable to subjects with obesity and/or insulin resistance. Thus, alcoholic beverages could not be remedies for insulin resistance or metabolic syndrome.
Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant
Hirokazu Toju
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-9-273
Abstract: I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica). In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km). At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes.These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.Evolutionary biologists have recently acknowledged that interspecific interactions and coevolutionary processes are structured across geographic populations [1-6]. In his geographic mosaic theory of coevolution, Thompson [7,8] argued that the forms and strength of natural selection on interacting species vary among populations (geographic selection mosaic; [9-13]), and therefore reciprocal selection on traits important for interspecific interactions mediates the coevolution of interacting species in so
Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant
Toju Hirokazu
BMC Evolutionary Biology , 2009,
Abstract: Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica). In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km). At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.
Controlling Size in Multicellular Organs: Focus on the Leaf
Hirokazu Tsukaya
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060174
Abstract:
Does Ploidy Level Directly Control Cell Size? Counterevidence from Arabidopsis Genetics
Hirokazu Tsukaya
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0083729
Abstract: Ploidy level affects cell size in many organisms, and ploidy-dependent cell enlargement has been used to breed many useful organisms. However, how polyploidy affects cell size remains unknown. Previous studies have explored changes in transcriptome data caused by polyploidy, but have not been successful. The most na?ve theory explaining ploidy-dependent cell enlargement is that increases in gene copy number increase the amount of protein, which in turn increases the cell volume. This hypothesis can be evaluated by examining whether any strains, mutants, or transgenics show the same cell size before and after a tetraploidization event. I performed this experiment by tetraploidizing various mutants and transgenics of Arabidopsis thaliana, which show a wide range in cell size, and found that the ploidy-dependent increase in cell volume is genetically regulated. This result is not in agreement with the theory described above.
Induction of nuclear fission by high-voltage application
Hirokazu Maruyama
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: In nuclear power generation, fissile materials are mainly used. For example, $U^{235}$ is fissile and therefore quite essential for use of nuclear energy. However, the material $U^{235}$ has very small natural abundance less than 1 %. We should seek possibility of utilizing fissionable materials such as $U^{238}$ because natural abundance of such fissionable materials is generally much larger than fissile ones. In this paper, we show that thermal neutrons with vanishing kinetic energy can induce nuclear fission when high voltage is applied to fissionable materials. To obtain this result, we use the liquid-drop model for nuclei. Finally, we propose how fissionable materials can be utilized.
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