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Fatty acids such as oleic and stearic acids having a long hydrocarbon chain are known to exist as dimers in their melt and even in a non-polar solvent. In their melt the dimers arrange longitudinally and alternately to form clusters which resemble a smectic liquid crystal. The clusters determine the liquid properties of the fatty acids such as density, viscosity and fluidity. Then, do the dimers of fatty acid having a moderate-length hydrocarbon chain construct such the clusters? In the present study the dynamic molecular behavior and assembly structure of octanoic acid in its melt and also in CCl4 solution have been investigated by the X-ray diffraction, near infrared spectroscopy, 1H-NMR chemical shift, self-diffusion coefficient and 13C-NMR spin-lattice relaxation time measurements. From these results it has been revealed that the clusters of octanoic acid exist in its melt and also in CCl4 and that the clusters in the melt disintegrate with an increase in temperature. The dissociation profile of dimers of octanoic acid into monomers in CCl4 also has been clarified.
A compression wave is generated ahead of a high-speed train, while entering a tunnel. This compression wave propa- gates to the tunnel exit and spouts out as a micro pressure wave, causing an exploding sound. In order to estimate the magnitude correctly, the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of a compression wave propagating along a tunnel must be understood and experimental information on these phenomena is required. An experimental and numerical in- vestigation is carried out to clarify the mechanism of the propagating compression wave in a tube. The final objective of our study is to understand the mechanism of the attenuation and distortion of propagating compression waves in a tun- nel. In the present paper, experimental investigations are carried out on the transition of the unsteady boundary layer induced by a propagating compression wave in a model tunnel by means of a developed laser differential interferometry technique.