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Effets de certains fongicides de synthèse et biologiques sur la croissance mycélienne et l'agressivité de Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
Hibar, K.,Daami-Remadi, M.,El Mahjoub, M.
Tropicultura , 2007,
Abstract: Effect of some Chemical and Biological Fungicides on Mycelial Growth and Disease Severity of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici. Fusarium is among the most aggressive telluric fungi causing wilt and root rots in several vegetable crops. A new disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was recorded in southern Tunisia in the "Cinquième Saison" farm, situated in Hammet Gabès during 2000-2001 crop season. It caused death of up to 90% of tomato plants in some greenhouses. In the present research, the effect of 3 chemical and 4 biological fungicides was tested in vitro on mycelial growth and in vivo on disease severity of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Hymexazol, benomyl and manebe were used as chemical fungicides whereas four biological products, i.e. two based on Trichoderma harzianum, one on Bacillus subtilis and another one on Bacillus thuringiensis were also tested. Among the chemical fungicides which were used, hymexazol and benomyl were the most effective in vitro and inhibited mycelial growth up to 80%. However, in vivo assays showed that only hymexazol was effective with a reduction in disease incidence of about 76%. In vitro, the product based on B. thuringiensis entailed a mycelial growth inhibition of less than 20%. This value is more than 75% higher than what was obtained through the other biological fungicides based on either T. harzianum or in B. subtilis. The efficacy of the latter 2 biological fungicides was more important in vivo assays using inoculated tomato plants. Indeed, by the use of the product based on B. subtilis, the reduction of disease incidence exceeded 95%. These results show that some biological fungicides can be used in controlling Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato.
Effects of Some Bacillus sp. Isolates on Fusarium spp. in vitro and Potato Tuber Dry Rot Development in vivo
Mejda Daami-Remadi,Fakher Ayed,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Khaled Hibar
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Four Bacillus sp. isolates were individually essayed against Fusarium solani, F. oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi, F. graminearum and F. sambucinum following an in vitro dual culture plate technique and in vivo pre-inoculation tuber treatment. All tested bacterial isolates significantly reduced radial mycelial growth of Fusarium spp., on PDA after 3 days of incubation at 25°C, comparatively to the untreated controls. Light microscopic studies of antagonist x Fusarium spp. in vitro interaction showed several hyphal abnomalies traduced particularly by lesser mycelium density, severe hyphal lysis, lesser sporulation, mycelial cords formation and early chlamydospores induction observed only at the confrontation zone. Potato tubers, cv. Spunta, treated by Bacillus sp. 24 h before individually inoculation by Fusarium species, showed reduced dry rot development after 21 days of incubation at 25-27°C comparatively to untreated controls.
Evaluation of Fungicides for Control of Fusarium Wilt of Potato
Fakher Ayed,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Khaled Hibar
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Four fungicides, which active ingredients are hymexazol, azoxystrobin, fludioxonil and quinoline, are tested in vitro and in vivo against five isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tuberosi, causal agent of potato Fusarium wilt. Pathogen radial growth noted on PDA amended with fungicides after incubation for four days at 25°C varied upon pathogen isolates. Mycelial growth of all pathogen isolates was significantly inhibited by fungicide PDA amendment; inhibition obtained by hymexazol treatment reached 77% comparatively to untreated control. All chemical fungicides reduced disease incidence compared to the untreated control. Hymexazol and azoxystrobin are the most active during all the bioassay period. Whereas, fludioxonil and quinoline showed a limited effect in controlling Fusarium wilt development.
Temperature Effect on Mycelial Growth and on Disease Incidence of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici
Khaled Hibar,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici is a new damaging disease of greenhouse crops in Tunisia. This pathogen was detected in Southern Tunisia, where temperature is usually high. Thus, temperature effect on its development was studied in vitro, on mycelial growth and in vivo, on disease incidence. Temperature effect on mycelial growth of Fusarium oxysporum. sp. radicis-lycopersici, evaluated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) media, revealed that this pathogen grows well at temperatures ranged from 20 to 30°C. However, the optimum of mycelial growth was recorded at 25°C (growth speed exceeded 13 mm D-1). On disease incidence, temperature effect was evaluated by breeding inoculated plants under two thermal conditions: 19 and 29°C. Damages observed, after an incubation period ranged between 30 and 50 days, were more important at 19°C than that at 29°C. Indeed, at 19°C, disease incidence exceeded 96% and it was always more than 70%. At 29°C, however, this value didn`t exceed 60% and this by using two inoculation methods.
Pathogenecity of Tunisian Isolates of Three Verticillium Species on Tomato and Eggplant
Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Khaled Hibar,Fakher Ayed
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In many surveys in the Tunisian Sahel, several isolates of Verticillium have been collected from vegetable crops showing symptoms of Verticillium wilt. These isolates were identified as V. dahliae, V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus on the basis of their morphological and cultural characteristics. Four isolates of V. dahliae, two isolates of V. albo-atrum and two isolates of V. tricorpus were examined for their mycelial growth at different incubation temperatures and their virulence against tomato and eggplant cultivars. Seedlings at the three leaf stage were root-dipped in a conidial suspension (107 conidia mL-1) and maintained in the glasshouse at 21-25°C. Disease severity was assessed through the index of leaf damage and plant height, recorded eight weeks after inoculation. Growth test showed that the majority of Verticillium isolates were able to grow from 10 to 30°C. All tomato and eggplant seedlings exhibited typical Verticillium symptoms compared to the non-inoculated control. The index of leaf damage, as well as plant height, differs significantly depending on cultivars and isolates. V. albo-atrum and V. tricorpus were moderately to highly pathogenic against eggplant and tomato plants. V. dahliae was the most aggressive against these hosts, showing a high level of pathogenicity to both eggplant and tomato plants.
Effect of Temperature on Verticillium Wilts of Tomato in Tunisia
Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Khaled Hibar,Jane Robb
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum have been isolated from tomato cultivars possessing the Ve gene in many greenhouses in the Chott-Mariem region. Two isolates of Verticillium, one from each species, were examined for their mycelial growth at different incubation temperatures and their pathogenicity to three tomato cultivars. Seedlings at the three leaf stage were root-dipped in a conidial suspension (107 conidia mL-1) and maintained in two glasshouse cells at 17-21 C and 21-30 C. Disease severity was assessed through the index of leaf damage calculated 60 days after inoculation, at each temperature range. Growth test showed that V. albo-trum isolate as well as V. dahliae, were able to grow from 10 to 30 C. The three tomato cultivars exhibited typical Verticillium symptoms. The index of leaf damage differs significantly depending on cultivars, isolates and temperature ranges. V. albo-atrum was most virulent at 17-21 C; however, V. dahliae was more virulent at 21-30 C, despite the presence of the Ve-gene. These results confirmed the first report in Tunisia of a new pathotype of V. albo-atrum able to grow at 30 C and to infect cultivars having the Ve gene.
Control of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato, Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, by Grafting onto Resistant Rootstocks
Khaled Hibar,Mejda Daami-Remadi,Hayfa Jabnoun-Khiareddine,Mohamed El Mahjoub
Plant Pathology Journal , 2006,
Abstract: In this study, the efficacy of grafting two tomato cultivars onto two rootstocks was examined in growth chamber and in greenhouse conditions. The rootstock cultivars Beaufort F1 and He-Man F1, already known and confirmed as resistant to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, were evaluated during two crop seasons under greenhouse heated with geothermal water in South Tunisia. The cv. Durintha F1 showed the best plant growth, fruit yield and fruit quality when grafted onto Beaufort F1; while cv. Bochra F1 gave the best results when grafted onto He-Man F1. This study demonstrated that grafting tomato cultivars onto Fusarium resistant rootstocks is one of the best alternatives for controlling Fusarium crown and root rot of tomato.
Effet des extraits de compost sur la croissance mycélienne et l'agressivité du Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici
Hibar K.,Daami-Remadi M.,Jabnoun-Khiareddine H.,El Akram Zna?di I.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2006,
Abstract: Effect of compost tea on mycelial growth and disease severity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Simultaneous addition, on culture media, of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and compost teas revealed that the latest induced the inhibition of the mycelial growth of the pathogen. This inhibition, noted after an incubation period of about six days at 25°C, was more important when compost teas were enriched in PDB (Potato Dextrose Broth), where it may reach 70% compared to the control. Transplantation of tomato seedlings, previously inoculated by a conidial suspension of F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici, in a container media (peat, perlite or the mixture of the two substrates) treated by compost teas has signifi cantly reduced Fusarium crown and root rot incidence compared to inoculated and untreated control seedlings. Disease incidence is more reduced when tomato inoculated plants are transplanted in peat treated by compost teas; indeed, these plants don t show any wilting and present a vigorous root system and a better vegetative growth.
Effet inhibiteur in vitro et in vivo du Trichoderma harzianum sur Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Radicis-lycopersici
Hibar K.,,Daami-Remadi M.,Khiareddine H.,El Mahjoub M.
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement , 2005,
Abstract: In vitro and in vivo antagonistic effect of Trichoderma harzianum against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici. Tests of direct confrontation, on PDA medium or remote confrontation, between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicislycopersici and Trichoderma harzianum, revealed that the latest has inhibited mycelial growth of the pathogen by more than 65% compared to the control and this after an incubation period of about four days at 25°C. Moreover, beyond this period and after six days, T. harzianum invades and also sporulates on F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici colonies revealing its high myco-parasitism. Some interesting results have also been obtained in vivo: indeed, transplantation of tomato seedlings in a mixture of perlite inoculated by F. oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici and T. harzianum reduced Fusarium crown and root rot incidence compared to seedlings planted in perlite only inoculated by the pathogen. Even better, seedlings planted in perlite containing the pathogen and the studied antagonist present a better vegetative growth and a vigorous root system compared to those of the healthy control (not inoculated and untreated).
In vitro and in vivo Evaluation of Individually Compost Fungi for Potato Fusarium Dry Rot Biocontrol
M. Daami-Remadi,H. Jabnoun-Khiareddine,F. Ayed,K. Hibar
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Eight thermo-resistant fungi isolated from compost extracts are tested, for the first time in Tunisia, for their antagonistic activity, in vitro by dual culture with Fusarium spp. on PDA and in vivo by wound treatment prior to tuber inoculation. In vitro experiments showed that all tested compost fungi significantly inhibited mycelial growth of F. graminearum, F. sambucinum, F. solani and F. oxysporum f.sp. tuberosi, observed after incubation at 25°C during 6 days, revealing a higher competition. Light microscopic studies of tested pathogen mycelium, removed from the confrontation zone of both microorganisms, showed multiple mechanisms of action including mycoparasitism, lysis, early formation of chlamydospores and induction of mycelial cords via anatomosis between mycelial filaments. Tuber (cv. Spunta) treatment, 24 h before their inoculation by individually thermoresistant fungi suspensions, reduced development of dry rot after incubation for 21 days at 25-27°C, comparatively to the untreated control and this for the majority of the Fusarium complex tested.
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