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Does Comorbidity Increase the Risk of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever and Dengue Shock Syndrome?
Shahid Mahmood,Saadia Hafeez,Hiba Nabeel,Urooj Zahra,Hammad Nazeer
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/139273
Abstract: Background. Dengue fever is an emerging public health problem in Pakistan. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between comorbid conditions in individuals suffering from dengue fever and the development of dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. Methods. In this age- and sex-matched case control study, total of 132 cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome and 249 randomly selected controls were recruited from two major teaching hospitals of Lahore, Pakistan. A semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data through interview and by reviewing clinical records. SPSS version 18 was utilized for statistical analysis including conditional logistic regression. Results. Odds of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) among diabetics are higher than in controls, but this association was not found statistically significant (OR. 1.26; 95% CI. 0.78–2.03; ). Similarly, no association was observed in individuals suffering from hypertension (OR. 0.93; 95% CI. 0.57–1.49; ). Odds of developing DHF and DSS were higher for bronchial asthma (adjusted OR. 1.34) and pulmonary tuberculosis (adjusted OR. 1.41); however P values were insignificant. Conclusion. Presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and bronchial asthma among patients contracted dengue fever will not increase the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. 1. Background Dengue fever is an emerging public health problem prevalent mostly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is an arbovirus infection transmitted through Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquito species. Four dengue virus serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4) have yet been identified and are responsible for most of the clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic disease to symptomatic dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). In majority of patients, infection is self-limiting, but in small proportions, the resultant dengue shock syndrome (DSS) may increase morbidity and mortality. Infection with one serotype does not give protection against other dengue viruses, yet sequential infections increase the risk of developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) [1, 2]. Dengue is endemic in many Southeast Asian countries and Western pacific region [2]. About 2.5 billion people (40% of world’s population) are at risk of dengue transmission. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 50 to 100 million infections occur yearly, including 500,000 DHF
Seroprevalence of Dengue IgG Antibodies among Healthy Adult Population in Lahore, Pakistan
Shahid Mahmood,Hiba Nabeel,Saadia Hafeez,Urooj Zahra,Hammad Nazeer
ISRN Tropical Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/521396
Abstract: Background. Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Aim of this study was to determine seroprevalence of anti-dengue IgG antibodies in healthy adult population of Lahore and also describe risk factors in relation to dengue seropositivity. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, 274 healthy adult individuals aged 15 years and above were randomly selected using multistage sampling technique. These individuals were interviewed between July–September 2012, using a semistructured questionnaire, followed by drawing 3?mL of their venous blood for dengue IgG test. Nova Tech ELISA kit with sensitivity and specificity of 96.5% and 97.5%, respectively, was used for serology. Results. Out of 274 participants, 184 (67.2%) were found to be positive for dengue IgG antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher among individuals with poor awareness about potential breeding sites for dengue mosquito (63.6%), followed by the subjects who had poor knowledge about dengue signs/symptoms and complications (52.2% and 68.5%, resp.). Conclusion. About two-third of healthy population of Lahore was also seropositive for anti-dengue IgG during July–September 2012, indicating a considerable burden of subclinical dengue infection in the city. Males were predominantly affected than the females. We found no statistical association between dengue IgG seropositivity and socioeconomic status, occupation, and knowledge about the disease. 1. Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, and it has emerged as an important global public health challenge. In recent years, disease transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semiurban areas owing to economic reasons and migration. There are four distinct but closely related serotypes (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4) of the dengue virus known; however, DEN-2 infection is more prevalent in South Asian region including Pakistan [1, 2]. Recovery from one type of virus infection, though, provides lifelong immunity against that particular serotype, but there is a strong evidence suggesting the occurrence of severe clinical manifestations of dengue fever in subsequent infection from other serotypes [3]. Infective female Aedes aegypti mosquito species is the primary vector for dengue which transmits the virus through biting humans. On the other hand, Aedes albopictus is responsible for maintaining the endemicity in the population [4]. Absence of an effective vaccine, vector control measures, and personal
A New Theory of Light  [PDF]
Nabeel Fattah
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.64041
Abstract: Fundamentally, in the past, photons were thought to deliver light and other electromagnetic radiation, with dual physical properties, namely, waves and particles. However, in reality the theory of photons did not answer all the questions about electromagnetic waves. A new theory of light propagation, which in this study was named the seaton theory, might in the future be able to answer the questions about light propagation and electromagnetic waves. Seaton theory more accurately redefines electromagnetic radiation delivery by a new interpretation. Moreover, a further unique contribution of this study is that the electromagnetic field produced from the coil antenna can be seen if it is oscillated in the range of light frequency.
Vegetable and Mineral Used Oils as Cutting Fluids: Effect on Surface Roughness of Aluminum Alloy  [PDF]
Nabeel Gharaibeh
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2016.64016
Abstract: The use of cutting fluids in mechanical machining operation is important to make cutting easy, produce low surface roughness, increase the rate of productivity, and alleviate the negative effect on work environment and operators. In this project the effect of using different cutting fluids on the surface roughness of aluminum alloy (T6-6061) was studied. The experiment involved the use of constant cutting parameters (cutting speed of 860 rpm, depth of cut at 1.5 mm, and feed rate of 0.12 mm/rev). Three local cutting fluids: mineral used oil, kerosene, and natural used oil (refined sunflower oil) mixed with water at different ratios (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) were used to study their effect on the surface roughness compared to a common lubricate oil used in the cooling process. Results revealed that mineral used oil gave the lowest (best) roughness coefficient at 5% water ratio followed by lubricate oil. Kerosene and natural oil had the highest roughness coefficients. Mineral oil could be recommended for use with local cutting machines reducing the huge amounts of waste oil produced in the country.
Down-regulation of Rho-kinases induce tolerance in Ischemic preconditioning model after transient cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats  [PDF]
Hiba A. Awooda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.57A5002

Background: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) is a brief episode of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) that protects the brain from the damage induced by subsequent prolonged ischemia. Aim: To study the neuroprotective mechanism of IPC. Methods: 30 adult male Wistar rats (150-250 g) were divided into three groups 10 rats in each; the first group was sham-operated and served as a control, I/R group of rats subjected to 30 minutes of left common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) followed by 24-hour of reperfusion, IPC group were treated with three episodes of 5-minutes of CCAO with 10 minutes of reperfusion in between, followed by 30 minutes of CCAO and then allowed for reperfusion for 24 hours. Neurobehavioral assessments were evaluated; Rhokinases (ROCK) and nitrite were measured in affected cerebral hemisphere. Results: Rats’ neurological deficits were significantly decreased in the I/R compared with the control group (P < 0.001) whereas rats treated by precondition stimuli showed significant improvement in neurological deficit compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). Nitrite level was significantly increased in the IPC rats compared to both control and I/R groups (P < 0.001). In contrast, the ROCK level was significantly higher in I/R group compared to control group and its level significantly decreased in IPC rats when compared to I/R group (P < 0.001). ROCK correlates negatively with the nitrite (CC = -0.695, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Downregulation of ROCK level following preconditioning stimuli with the potential involvement of Nitric oxide (NO) appear to be one of the neuroprotective mechanisms of IPC protection against a subsequent I/R challenge evidence by improvement in the neurological deficits.

Staphylococcus aureus Can Produce Catalase Enzyme When Adding to Human WBCs as a Source of H2O2 Productions in Human Plasma or Serum in the Laboratory  [PDF]
Hiba Siddig Ibrahim Mustafa
Open Journal of Medical Microbiology (OJMM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmm.2014.44028
Abstract: Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most virulent gram positive bacteria. It produces a lot of toxins and enzymes, most of which are virulent factors. Among the enzyme that produces is the catalase which is very useful in differentiating staphylococci from streptococci [1]. Catalase is nearly ubiquitous among some of organisms that can grow in the presence of oxygen (air). It promotes the conversion of hydrogen peroxide, a powerful and potentially harmful oxidizing agent, to water and molecular oxygen; so the major function of catalase within cells is to prevent the accumulation of toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide formed as a by-product of metabolic processes—primarily that of the electron transport pathway. Objectives: The main aim of this study is to prove that human WBCs can produce H2O2. This H2O2 when reacting with catalase producing S. aureus can easily be degraded to H2O + O2. Methodology: In this study a total of 40 subjects were included. Aliquots of 2.5 ml of venous blood were collected by venous puncture after disinfecting the site of collection with 70% alcohol and the collected blood was drawn into EDITA containers (20 subject) and anticoagulant free containers (other 20 subject), centrifugation for 5 minute at 1500 RPM. The separated sera and plasma were converted to new sterile eppendrof tubes and freezing until used (we leaved the eppendrof tubes that contained sera and plasma at room temperature before using it for DE freezing). Standard catalase producing S. aureus were used by taking 1 colony from Macconkey media by using applicator wooden stick, and inserted in eppendrof tube, then air bubbles would appear to indicate occurrence of the reactions. Results: According to this study, it was proved that WBCs in human plasma or serum can produce H2O2; this H2O2 was reacted with catalase enzyme produce from colony of S. aureus to produce air bubbles and water. There were no differences between using H2O2 or human plasma/serum that contains WBCs to detect and identify S. aureus by both techniques. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, we can use WBCs that are found in human plasma or serum to identify catalase producing S. aureus.
Pathophysiology of Cerebral Ischemia: Role of Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress  [PDF]
Hiba A. Awooda
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2019.73003
Abstract: Stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology; it ranks second to ischemic heart disease as a cause of death and long-term disability. Tissue damage results from diverse mechanisms with central involvement of free radicals’ overproduction that results in oxidative stress and hence contributes to brain damage. Free radicals [Reactive oxygen species/Reactive nitrogen species] play central a role in the diverse normal physiological processes and as defense mechanisms against harmful substances. When the rate of their production exceeds the anti-oxidant capacity of the body, oxidative stress occurs. Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and cancer; they mediate damage to cell structures, lipid peroxidation, protein denaturation, nucleic acid and DNA damage.
Mobile Application for GBAS Air Traffic Status Unit
Hiba Zaidi
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: At present, the Air Traffic Status Unit is a windows PC based application, which receives the status of ground based augmentation system station over Ethernet and displays on the screen. The objective of this project is to convert the PC based Application into Mobile application using Android OS.
A consistent estimator of the smoothing operator in the functional Hodrick-Prescott filter
Hiba Nassar
Statistics , 2015,
Abstract: In this paper we consider a version of the functional Hodrick-Prescott ?filter for functional time series. We show that the associated optimal smoothing operator preserves the 'noise-to-signal' structure. Moreover, we propose a consistent estimator of this optimal smoothing operator.
Tanzila NABEEL
The Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education , 2009,
Abstract: Special education is a mode of education in which specially designed instruction material and environment is required to meet the diverse requirements of children with special needs. In Pakistan, Open University (AIOU) exclusively initiated a program for teacher preparation for Special Children through distance learning. This was a unique program of its kind with no precedence of defined services for Special Teachers’ Preparation. Dept of Special Education AIOU - through Distance learning system, offers study/training at graduate, masters and Ph. D. levels. Teachers are prepared in 6 specialized areas of Visual Impairment, Physical Disabilities, Hearing Impairment, Intellectual Disability, Learning Disability and Inclusive Education. The Open University has a well established regional network, outreach system providing educational counseling and guiding services to its students. University has 32 regional campuses with 86 part-time regional coordinating officers throughout the country for providing assistance to the Regional campuses. Over 900 study centers are established during the semester and are managed through the university’s regional campuses. Each student is assigned to a tutor who is a subject specialist. To maintain consistency of on and off campus observations, University faculty conducts reliability observations with adjunct Supervisors. Their professional growth impacts the quality of the teaching cadre. It was for the first time in the history of teacher training institutes of Pakistan that a teacher training program at Masters Level in the area of Special Education was offered through distance education. This paper gives the experiences, methodology and successes as outcome of the Distance- learning Special-Educator Program in Pakistan. Also highlighted is the Special Teacher Preparation Model through Distance Education System. Increased program completion rates support the fact that Open University faculty have become better distance educators, that more effective student support systems have been constructed, that distance education delivery methods and technologies have improved and the remote areas in Pakistan have become stronger partners in producing quality teachers.
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