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This work dealt with a chemical stabilization of an expansive high plastic soil of Pliocene deposits exposed at El-Kawther quarter using cement kiln dust (CKD) and cement kiln dust with lime (L) to reduce their swelling and improve their geotechnical properties. Several specimens of the studied expansive soil were collected from El-Kawther quarter. Chemical analysis of the used cement kiln dust and the lime was conducted. Microstructural changes were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after chemical treatment of the studied soil. Geotechnical properties including plasticity, compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength (qu), ultrasonic velocities and free swelling of the studied soil were measured before and after the treatment. An optimum content of the cement kiln dust was 16% (CKD). The optimum content of the cement kiln dust with the lime was 14% (CKD) with 3% (L) according to pH-test. The results showed that the addition of cement kiln dust and cement kiln dust with lime led to a decrease in maximum dry density and an increase in optimum water content. Unconfined compressive strength values were increased using cement kiln dust and cement kiln dust with lime at 7 days curing time. Ultrasonic longitudinal (Vp) and shear (Vs) velocities values were also increased by addition of the cement kiln dust and the cement kiln dust with lime at 7 days curing time. Increment of the curing time from 7 to 28 days led to an increase in both unconfined compressive strength and ultrasonic velocities values. Free swelling percent of the studied soil was reduced from 80.0% to 0.0% after the treatment.
Study of the impact of traffic emissions on air quality around the Haram Mosque in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, was conducted experimentally, numerically and statistically. Experimental study was performed to measure existing air quality. Numerical study was done to model the extent of air movement and pollutant dispersion within and around the Haram area. Statistical study was conducted to determine correlation coefficients, auto-correlation and time lags of each pollutant. Pollutant measurements were carried out using an air quality mobile laboratory at three sites. Numerical calculations were made using an ISC-AERMOD dispersion model. Concentrations of traffic emissions including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and airborne particulate material under 10 μm diameter (PM10) are presented and analyzed. The calculated concentrations are validated by comparing with observed values at the three sites. The results indicate good agreement between calculated concentrations and observed values, which demonstrate satisfactory model performance. Results show that the Haram area is experiencing high concentrations of dust. High buildings around the Haram Mosque act as flow obstacles. Mean pollutant dispersion was toward the south and southeast during January and June. Highest mean concentrations were observed in January and June.
ozone (O3) and its precursor’s gases (nitrogen monoxide (NO),
nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide
(CO), methane (CH4) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), and sulfur
dioxide (SO2) were measured in Yanbu, Saudi Arabia from January
2004-December 2004. The annual average concentrations of O3, NO, NO2,
NOx, SO2, CO, CH4, TNMHCs and THC were 22.51 ppb, 15.58
ppb, 17.25 ppb, 23.84 ppb, 6.66 ppb, 165.13 ppb, 3.44 ppm, 0.56 ppm and 3.88
ppm, respectively. The SO2/NOx and SO2/NO2 concentration ratios during the period of study indicate that the mobile
emissions are the predominant sources in yanbu. The diurnal cycles of O3 concentrations revealed highest levels in the daytime and lowest levels in
night time. The diurnal variations of NO, NO2, NOx, SO2,