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In this paper some
photovoltaic, PV, conversion chains architectures for on-grid applications have
been proposed and the advantage of the direct use of a Low Voltage Direct
Current (LVDC) bus for the DC loads has been shown. The evaluation of the
efficiency of the proposed chains compared to the classical one was performed.
It is shown that LVDC use instead of standard AC plugs, in numerous
applications, is promising in future. The registered annual saved energy can
exceed 25% of the PV generated energy. This important rate, the need of better
services at lower economic cost and environmental burden will incite to make
reflection about industry and supplies’ future standards.
This research provides some answers to the question
of the limited presence of African companies in the bond markets. Indeed, from
a sample of companies listed on the BRVM and panel models tested by the
Generalized Moment Method (GMM) developed by Blundell and Bond , we
study the behavior of the variables usually retained in the work on the
determinants of bond issues. We show that the reputation, renegotiability and
maturity of the debt, as well as the level of wealth created, determine the
debt behavior of companies. Also, any financing strategy by bond issues should
take into account these determinants.