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Five Independents Variables Affecting Bullying: Neighborhood, Family, School, Gender-Age and Mass Media  [PDF]
Teodoro Hernandez de Frutos
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.34041

It is probably true to say that bullying is the psychosocial phenomenon which has attracted the most attention in academic circles over the last ten years. It affects approximately three to five percent of adolescents from twelve to eighteen years of age worldwide to a serious degree and up to twenty percent of this population to a lesser degree. The long and short term effects of bullying are considered to be extremely damaging. The importance of this phenomenon is that it may give rise to low self-esteem, anomie, depression, isolation, psychosomatic symptoms, failure at school and in extreme cases, it may result in suicide and future incidences of bullying in the workplace and within the home. As the number and the seriousness of incidents increases, many parents worry that the problem is spiralling out of control. In recent years, there has been a proliferation of publications on bullying, with an emphasis on how, when and where it occurs, but not on the factors which cause it. This meta-analysis studies the influence of five social environmental variables: neighborhood, family, school, gender-age and the mass media, considered on both an individual and interactional level, as their effects are often augmented when two or more variables are examined together. The concept “bullying” encompasses both individual and collective aggression and individual and collective victimization.

An Option Pricing Analysis of Exotic Bonus Certificates—The Case of Bonus Certificates PLUS  [PDF]
Rodrigo Hernandez, Pu Liu
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.45044

In this paper we introduce a new financial product named Bonus Certificates PLUS and we provide detailed descriptions of the product specifications. We show that the payoff of a Bonus Certificates PLUS can be duplicated by the combination of a long position in the underlying asset, a short position on zero coupon bonds, a long position in down-and-out call options on the underlying asset, a long position in down-and-in call options on the underlying asset, and a long position in the down-and-out put options. We develop a pricing formula to price the certificates. A sample of ten Bonus Certificates PLUS outstanding on December 2007 is presented as an example to examine how well the model fits empirical data. The profitability in the primary market is examined and the results show that issuing Bonus Certificates PLUS is a profitable business. The results are in line with previous studies pricing other structured products. Finally, we simulate and present the sensitivities of the certificates to changes in different pricing inputs.

Valuation of Certificates on a Straddle with Forward Start—Theory and Evidence  [PDF]
Rodrigo Hernandez, Yinying Shao
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.45045

This paper introduces a new financial product named Certificates on a Straddle with Forward Start and provides detailed descriptions of the product specifications. It shows that the payoff of a Certificate on a Straddle with Forward Start can be duplicated by the combination of long positions in call and put options on the underlying asset. A pricing formula is developed to price the certificates. A certificate issued by Credit Suisse is presented as an example to examine how well the model fits empirical data. The results show that issuing Certificates on a Straddle with Forward Start is a profitable business and the results are in line with previous studies pricing other structured products.

Upgrading Tests Using PSIM Tool of MPPT-PV Feedback-Current Controller  [PDF]
Herman Enrique Fernandez Hernandez
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2016.84022
Abstract: This paper presents improvement tests based in a feedback-current controller designed to Tracking Maximum Power Point in photovoltaic system (MPPT-PV). Previously, a version was developed exhibiting results satisfactory in simulation and through of a low cost prototype. Now, using a sophisticated physical model of solar cell available in PSIM program is shown other cases, considering variations both irradiation and temperature to evaluate successfully the controller. The results show that its system is suitable under dynamical changing atmospheric conditions operating with effectiveness acceptable.
Distance Measure Based Rules for Voltage Regulation with Loss Reduction  [PDF]
Y. Rosales Hernandez, T Hiyama
Journal of Electromagnetic Analysis and Applications (JEMAA) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jemaa.2009.12013
Abstract: This paper presents a rule-based technique to control the voltage in a power transmission network. Transformers with a tap changer installed in the system are selected by the proposed technique as control devices. For each bus under volt-age violation, the most effective control device is selected by using the minimum electric distance criteria. In order to demonstrate the efficiency of the method, several simulations were performed using an IEEE 30-bus network as a model system. The distance measure technique is compared with classic voltage regulation approach and a genetic algorithm based. The results obtained show the robustness of the proposed method.
Evaluation of 20 Macro and Trace Mineral Concentrations in Commercial Goat Milk Yogurt and Its Cow Milk Counterpart  [PDF]
Karen Hernandez, Young W. Park
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.510098

Concentrations of 20 different minerals in commercial goat milk yogurt (CGY) and its cow milk yogurt (CCY) counterpart were evaluated in reference to goat milk yogurt manufactured from Fort Valley State University (FVGY), Fort Valley, GA, USA. Three different lots of CGY and CCY each were purchased from local retail stores at Warner Robins, GA, and 3 batches of FVGY were made using goat milk from the University milking herd. All 3 types of experimental yogurts were stored at 4°C refrigerator for 4 weeks. Twenty major and trace minerals were analyzed by an Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emissions Spectrometer (Thermo Jarrel Ash Enviro 36, Worchester, MA), using argon as the carrier gas and the EPA method 6010. Total solids (TS) content (%) of FVGY, CGY and CCY products were 11.03, 13.1 and 11.3, respectively, indicating CGY had higher TS than the CCY and FVGY yogurt. Respective mean mineral concentrations (ppm, wet basis) of FVGY, CGY and CCY were: Ca 1057, 1162, 1160; P 838, 974, 929; K 1327, 1717, 1208; Mg 102, 133, 113; Na 545, 449, 475; Fe 4.28, 3.33, 2.11; Mn 0.24, 0.19, 0.13; Cu 10.5, 9.85, 7.22; Zn 17.5, 11.7, 11.8. Levels of all macro minerals except potassium were higher in commercial goat and cow yogurts than FVGY, which may be due to the higher TS contents. FVGY had higher Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn than both commercial products. The heavy metal (Pb, Cd and Ni) contents (ppm) appeared to be normal range, while Al contents of FVGY, CGY and CCY were 11.9, 8.66 and 7.65, respectively, which were higher than those of Pb, Cd and Ni. Both commercial products contained higher major mineral contents than the university yogurt, which might be attributable to the differences in diet, breed, and stage of lactation of milking animals, as well as the tapioca additive used in the commercial products.

Competitive Pressures and Access to Infertility Treatments by Single Women  [PDF]
Drake Daniel Hernandez, Helen Schneider
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.811109
Abstract: With the increase in fertility problems and delayed childbearing, demand for infertility treatments has been rising. Today, in-vitro fertilization (IVF) is the most successful infertility treatment but access to IVF is uneven due to its high costs and personal and religious attitudes. To meet rising demand for infertility treatments many markets saw an increased entry of infertility clinics. This study examines the relationship between competitive pressures and access to IVF in the United States by single women. We use US data from 1995 and 2014 to show that competitive pressures improve access to infertility treatments for single women across markets and over time. Overall, this study finds that competition among IVF clinics has a beneficial effect on access to IVF.
A Phase Space Diagram for Gravity
Xavier Hernandez
Entropy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/e14050848
Abstract: In modified theories of gravity including a critical acceleration scale a 0, a critical length scale rM = (GM/a 0 )1/2 will naturally arise with the transition from the Newtonian to the dark matter mimicking regime occurring for systems larger than rM. This adds a second critical scale to gravity, in addition to the one introduced by the criterion v < c of the Schwarzschild radius, rS = 2GM/c2. The distinct dependencies of the two above length scales give rise to non-trivial phenomenology in the (mass, length) plane for astrophysical structures, which we explore here. Surprisingly, extrapolation to atomic scales suggests gravity should be at the dark matter mimicking regime there.
A Survey on Optimal Signal Processing Techniques Applied to Improve the Performance of Mechanical Sensors in Automotive Applications
Wilmar Hernandez
Sensors , 2007, DOI: 10.3390/s7010084
Abstract: In this paper a survey on recent applications of optimal signal processing techniques to improve the performance of mechanical sensors is made. Here, a comparison between classical filters and optimal filters for automotive sensors is made, and the current state of the art of the application of robust and optimal control and signal processing techniques to the design of the intelligent (or smart) sensors that today’s cars need is presented through several experimental results that show that the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques is the clear way to go. However, the switch between the traditional methods of designing automotive sensors and the new ones cannot be done overnight because there are some open research issues that have to be solved. This paper draws attention to one of the open research issues and tries to arouse researcher’s interest in the fusion of intelligent sensors and optimal signal processing techniques.
Input-output Transfer Function Analysis of a Photometer Circuit Based on an Operational Amplifier
Wilmar Hernandez
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8010035
Abstract: In this paper an input-output transfer function analysis based on the frequencyresponse of a photometer circuit based on operational amplifier (op amp) is carried out. Opamps are universally used in monitoring photodetectors and there are a variety of amplifierconnections for this purpose. However, the electronic circuits that are usually used to carryout the signal treatment in photometer circuits introduce some limitations in theperformance of the photometers that influence the selection of the op amps and otherelectronic devices. For example, the bandwidth, slew-rate, noise, input impedance and gain,among other characteristics of the op amp, are often the performance limiting factors ofphotometer circuits. For this reason, in this paper a comparative analysis between twophotodiode amplifier circuits is carried out. One circuit is based on a conventional currentto-voltage converter connection and the other circuit is based on a robust current-to-voltageconverter connection. The results are satisfactory and show that the photodiode amplifierperformance can be improved by using robust control techniques.
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