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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1652 matches for " Hermann "
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All-in-One: Space-Time Body, Function and Metric — A Fundamentally New Approach to Computation  [PDF]
Hermann von Issendorff
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2013.65029

Every algorithm which can be executed on a computer can at least in principle be realized in hardware, i.e. by a discrete physical system. The problem is that up to now there is no programming language by which physical systems can constructively be described. Such tool, however, is essential for the compact description and automatic production of complex systems. This paper introduces a programming language, called Akton-Algebra, which provides the foundation for the complete description of discrete physical systems. The approach originates from the finding that every discrete physical system reduces to a spatiotemporal topological network of nodes, if the functional and metric properties are deleted. A next finding is that there exists a homeomorphism between the topological network and a sequence of symbols representing a program by which the original nodal network can be reconstructed. Providing Akton-Algebra with functionality turns it into a flow-controlled general data processing language, which by introducing clock control and addressing can be further transformed into a classical programming language. Providing Akton-Algebra with metrics, i.e. the shape and size of the components, turns it into a novel hardware system construction language.

The Cognitive Gap, Neural Darwinism & Linguistic Dualism —Russell, Husserl, Heidegger & Quine  [PDF]
Hermann G. W. Burchard
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2014.43032

Guided by key insigths of the four great philosophers mentioned in the title, here, in review of and expanding on our earlier work (Burchard, 2005, 2011), we present an exposition of the role played by language, & in the broader sense, λογοζ, the Logos, in how the CNS, the brain, is running the human being. Evolution by neural Darwinism has been forcing the linguistic nature of mind, enabling it to overcome & exploit the cognitive gap between an animal and its world by recognizing environmental structures. Our work was greatly influenced by Heidegger’s lecture notes on metaphysics (Heidegger, 1935). We found agreement with recent progress in neuroscience, but also mathematical foundations of language theory, equating Logos with the mathematical concept of structure. The mystery of perception across the gap is analyzed as radiation and molecules impinging on sensory neurons that carry linguistic information about gross environmental structures, and only remotely about the physical reality of elementary particles. The most important logical brain function is Ego or Self, guiding the workings of the brain as a logos machine. Ego or Self operates from neurons in frontopolar cortex with global receptive fields. The logos machine can function only by availing itself of global context, its internally stored noumenal cosmos NK, and the categorical-conceptual apparatus CCA, updated continually through the neural default mode network (Raichle, 2005). In the Transcendental Deduction, Immanuel Kant discovered that Ego or Self is responsible for conscious control in perception relying on concepts & categories for a fitting percept to be incorporated intoNK. The entire CNS runs as a “movie-in-the-brain” (Parvizi & Damasio, 2001), at peak speed processing simultaneously in a series of cortical centers a stack of up to twelve frames in gamma rhythm of 25 ms intervals. We equate global context, or NK, with our human world, Heidegger’s Dasein being-in-the-world, and are able to demonstrate that the great philosopher in EM parallels neuro-science concerning the human mind.

Modeling of a Cubic Antiferromagnetic Cuprate Super-Cage  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.53018
Abstract: Convex polyhedral cuprate clusters are being formed through lateral frustration when the a and c lattice parameters of the tetragonal ACuO2 infinite layer structure will become identical by substitution of a large cation (A = Ba2+). However, the corner-shared CuO2 plaquettes of the infinite network suffer a topotactic rearrangement forming edge-connected units, for instance Cu18O24 cages (polyhedron notation [4641238]) with <90° ferromagnetic super-exchange interaction as found in cubic BaCuO2. Cage formation via a hypothetical tetragonal BaCuO2 compound (space group P4/ nmm) will be discussed. The possibility to construct a cuprate super-cage with m3m symmetry (polyhedron notation [4641242438]) is being reported. This super-cage still consists of edge-connected CuO2 plaquettes when fully decorated with copper ions, but with different curvatures, arranged in circles of 9.39 ? of diameter with 139.2° Cu-O-Cu antiferromagnetic super-exchange interaction. On the one hand, the realization of such a quite stable cuprate super-cage as a candidate for high-Tc superconductivity depends on whether a template of suitable size such as the \"\"cation or C(CH3)4 enables its formation, and on the other hand the cage can further be stabilized by highly charged cations located along the [111] direction. Synthesis options will be proposed based on suggested cage formation pathways. An X-ray powder pattern was calculated for a less dense cluster structure of Im3m space group with a lattice parameter of a = 14.938 ? and two formula units of Cu46O51 to facilitate future identification. Characteristic X-ray scattering features as identification tool were obtained when the electron distribution of the hollow polyhedron was approximated with electron density in a spherical shell.
Pyroelectric Bi5-x(Bi2S3)39I12S: Fibonacci Superstructure, Synthesis Options and Solar Cell Potential  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2015.52010
Abstract: Previously, synthetic hexagonal bismuth sulfide iodide (polar space group P63, a = 15.629(3) ?, c = 4.018(1) ?, Z = 2) has been described by the rather unsatisfactory fractional formula Bi19/3IS9 [1]-[3]. A redetermination of the structure using old but reliable photographic intensity data indicated the presence of additional split positions and reduced atomic occupancies. From the observed pattern of this “averaged” structure a consistent model of a superstructure with lattice parameters of a' = √13·a = 56.35(1) ?, c' = c, and a formula Bi5-x(Bi2S3)39I12S emerged, with 2 formula units in a cell of likewise P63 space group. Structural modulation may be provoked by the space the lone electron pair of Bi requires. When Bi on the 0, 0, z position of the “averaged” cell is transferred to two general six-fold sites and one unoccupied twofold one of the super-cell, more structural stability is guaranteed due to compensation of its basal plane dipole momentum. Owing to the limited intensity data available, more details of the superstructure are not accessible yet. Some physical properties and solar cell application are discussed together with suggestions of ambient temperature synthesis routes of c-axis oriented nano-rod sheets.
Philosophy and Science, the Darwinian-Evolved Computational Brain, a Non-Recursive Super-Turing Machine & Our Inner-World-Producing Organ  [PDF]
Hermann G. W. Burchard
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.61002
Abstract: Recent advances in neuroscience lead to a wider realm for philosophy to include the science of the Darwinian-evolved computational brain, our inner world producing organ, a non-recursive super-Turing machine combining 100B synapsing-neuron DNA-computers based on the genetic code. The whole system is a logos machine offering a world map for global context, essential for our intentional grasp of opportunities. We start from the observable contrast between the chaotic universe vs. our orderly inner world, the noumenal cosmos. So far, philosophy has been rehearsing our thoughts, our human-internal world, a grand painting of the outer world, how we comprehend subjectively our experience, worked up by the logos machine, but now we seek a wider horizon, how humans understand the world thanks to Darwinian evolution to adapt in response to the metaphysical gap, the chasm between the human animal and its environment, shaping the organism so it can deal with its variable world. This new horizon embraces global context coded in neural structures that support the noumenal cosmos, our inner mental world, for us as denizens of the outer environment. Kant’s inner and outer senses are fundamental ingredients of scientific philosophy. Several sections devoted to Heidegger, his lizard debunked, but his version of the metaphysical gap & his doctrine of the logos praised. Rorty and others of the behaviorist school discussed also.
A Different Approach to High-Tc Superconductivity: Indication of Filamentary-Chaotic Conductance and Possible Routes to Room Temperature Superconductivity  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2016.63023
Abstract: The empirical relation of \"\" between the transition temperature of optimum doped superconductors Tco and the mean cationic charge \"\" , a physical paradox, can be recast to strongly support fractal theories of high-Tc superconductors, thereby applying the finding that the optimum hole concentration of σo = 0.229 can be linked with the universal fractal constant δ1 = 8.72109… of the renormalized quadratic Hénon map. The transition temperature obviously increases steeply with a domain structure of ever narrower size, characterized by Fibonacci numbers. However, also conventional BCS superconductors can be scaled with δ1, exemplified through the energy gap relation kBTc ≈ 5Δ01, suggesting a revision of the entire theory of superconductivity. A low mean cationic charge allows the development of a frustrated nano-sized fractal structure of possibly ferroelastic nature delivering nano-channels for very fast charge transport, in common for both high-Tc superconductor and organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar materials. With this backing superconductivity above room temperature can be conceived for synthetic sandwich structures of \"\" less than 2+. For instance, composites of tenorite and cuprite respectively tenorite and CuI (CuBr, CuCl) onto AuCu alloys are proposed. This specification is suggested by previously described filamentary superconductivity of “bulk” CuO1x samples. In addition, cesium substitution in the Tl-1223 compound is an option.
Meteorite Impact Origin of Yellowstone Hotspot  [PDF]
Hermann G. W. Burchard
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2016.64038
Abstract: Origin of the Yellowstone hotspot & Columbia River Basalts has remained uncertain until now. Here, we present evidence of meteorite impact origin. The hotspot is shallow, only 200 km deep, invalidating a theory of mantle plume origin. The hotspot track runs from the Yellowstone National Park in NW Wyoming to the volcanic Modoc Plateau in NE California. We present evidence of apparent remnants of an impact crater existing in the Modoc, a large multi-ring structure at least 160 km diameter. Much of the complex crater has become obliterated by later Cascadia and Sierra orogenies. The crater has a tall 4,100 foot central uplift cone, locally known as Chalk Mountain, consisting of diatomaceous earth, presumably the rebound cone of a meteorite impact. This falsifies a theoretical prohibition of cosmic impact volcanism. Based on recent insights into explosive volcanism a plausible mechanism is proposed for how meteorite impacts can lead to resurgent calderas of the Yellowstone type, & of apparent LIP origin from thin crust ET impacts, invalidating theoretical constructs of mantle plumes. We mention chaotic terrains, including plutons, arising antipodal to impacts.
Younger Dryas Comet 12,900 BP  [PDF]
Hermann G. W. Burchard
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2017.72013
Abstract: Deep troughs in Lake Superior support the hypothesis of Younger Dryas Boundary (YDB) comet impact 12,900 BP. The impact theory explains the megafauna extinction, a black mat across the Northern hemisphere, nanodiamonds, platinum and iridium, and the enigmatic Carolina Bays (CB). While the CB were thought to predate Clovis cultural remains, but this must now be seen as spurious as the CB occur on Long Island, an LGM terminal moraine & on end-glacial flood plains, according to Allen West. The CB sand rims are exceptionally pure quartz with large phenocrysts, and also they exude hydrogen (H). This suggests origin from deep granitic plutons, the granite typically being over-saturated with silica. When the Russian Kola Peninsula Superdeep Borehole had reached 40,000 ft, H was boiling from the borehole. This H is among volatiles copiously dissolved in the mantle, from the primitive solar nebula. The granite is from the Lake Superior Province. Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron & Ontario have deep holes, reaching to below sea level. Bathymetry exhibits a ~145 km circular contour in Eastern L. Superior, where deep troughs occur, eroded in breccias infilling impact explosion cavities many kms deep, as much as 15 to 35 km, the comet fragments coming in from the NW, with the holes lined up along the trajectory. This was an oblique impact with an extremely low angle of incidence, so the ejected granite quartz sands ended up in the CB along the Eastern seaboard principally.
Crystal Growth of Cu6(Ge,Si)6O18·6H2O and Assignment of UV-VIS Spectra in Comparison to Dehydrated Dioptase and Selected Cu(II) Oxo-Compounds Including Cuprates  [PDF]
Hans Hermann Otto
World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics (WJCMP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/wjcmp.2017.73006
Abstract: Low-dimensional quantum spin systems with the Cu2+ central ion are still in the focus of experimental and theoretical research. Here is reported on growth of mm-sized single-crystals of the low-dimensional S = 1/2 spin compound Cu6(Ge,Si)6O18·6H2O by a diffusion technique in aqueous solution. A route to form Si-rich crystals down to possible dioptase, the pure silicate, is discussed. Motivated by previously reported incorrect assignments of UV-VIS spectra, the assignment of dd excitations from such spectra of the hexahydrate and the fully dehydrated compound is proposed in comparison to dioptase and selected Cu(II) oxo-compounds using bond strength considerations. Non-doped cuprates as layer compounds show higher excitation energies than the title compound. However, when the antiferromagnetic interaction energy as Jz·ln(2) is taken into account for cuprates, a single linear relationship between the Dqe excitation energy and equatorial Cu(II)-O bond strength is confirmed for all compounds. A linear representation is also confirmed between 2A1g energies and a function of axial and equatorial Cu-O bond distances if auxiliary axial bonds are used for four-coordinated compounds. The quotient Dt/Ds of experimental orbital energies deviating from the general trend to smaller values indicates the existence of H2O respectively Cl axial ligands in comparison to oxo-ligands, whereas larger Dt/Dqe values indicate missing axial bonds. The quotient of the excitation energy
Spratlies Archipelago as the Australasian Tektite Impact Crater, Details of Formation & Richard Muller’s Dust Cloud Explanation for the Mid-Pleistocene Ice Age Cycle Transition  [PDF]
Hermann G. W. Burchard
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2018.81001
Abstract: Several significant events of a geological nature occurred approximately 800 ka before the present: (1) Australasian tektite fall (AA), (2) Brunhes-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal (BMR), (3) mid-Pleistocene changes in ice age cycles. Add to these the undated fault system (4) in the South-West (SW) of the South China Sea (SCS). Here we offer a unified cause for all four of these in (5), an impact in the SCS of a large, massive cosmic object, likely a comet, obliquely coming from the SW at an extremely shallow angle, striking the Sunda shelf yet unexploded with the shock of its compressed air bow wave, and causing the continual shelf and slope to collapse, resulting in the fault system (4), then traveling almost tangentially to the surface, exploding at impact with the sea surface, ejecting the tektites (1), creating the formation underlying the later atolls of Spratlies Archipelago (6), Nansha Islands in Chinese, & causing the BMR (2). An explanation of event (3) was Richard Muller’s hypothesis of planet Earth passing through an interplanetary dust cloud periodically due to ecliptic precession. Here we hypothesize this cloud actually is a belt of Australasian tektites ejected into space at super-orbital velocities that Earth encounters about every 100 ka.
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