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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 199081 matches for " Herman N. Nyanda "
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Impacts of Land Cover Change on Conservation, a Linkage of Spatial Analysis and Anthropogenic Activities in Tanzania  [PDF]
Herman N. Nyanda, Juma J. Kegamba, Kamaljit K. Sangha
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.83022
Abstract: We used spatial analysis to assess the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) changes, and studied the impacts of LC changes on conservation of buffer zone of the Selous Game Reserve (SGR) and their implication on community’s livelihood in Vikumbulu Ward of Kisarawe District, Tanzania. Socio-economic data from Kisarawe District and TNBS were linked to spatial data to offer an integrated perspetive of LULC change in the Ward. Three cloud free image dates of 1998, 2011 and 2015 were analysed using System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses (SAGA) GIS for three categories of land cover, i.e. forest, wooded grassland and bare land/settlements/cultivation. Vikumbulu demographic and socio-economic data were linked to spatial data applying distance as a function of LULC change. Spatial analysis has shown a decreasing trend of forest and woodland cover in Vikumbulu Ward between 1998 and 2015. The sharp decline indicates increasing social economic activities such as shifting agriculture and charcoal burning as an outcome of population growth and poverty. Rapid conversion of forest cover to wooded grassland occurred between 1998 and 2015 in Vikumbulu Ward. However, loss of forest cover was associated with a decreasing trend in wooded land in the ward between 2011 and 2015. As there was only 0.15% area under crop cultivation in Vikumbulu until 2015, it is highly likely that LC change is caused by charcoal burning and shifting cultivation. This study suggests developing integrated strategies that target LULC change, conservation and people’s livelihoods to effectively improve the current situation in rural areas of Tanzania.
Theoretical Design of Complex Molecule via Combination of Natural Lawsone and Synthetic Indoline D131 Dyes for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Application  [PDF]
Nyanda Madili, Alexander Pogrebnoi, Tatiana Pogrebnaya
Computational Chemistry (CC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cc.2018.64007
The dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been extensively studied due to their low production cost and simple fabrication process. Dye co-sensitization broadens the absorption spectrum of the sensitizer; thus enhances light harvesting efficiency; and contributes to the improvement of the DSSCs overall efficiency. In this study we performed theoretical design of complex molecule (C45H32N2O4) through combination (esterification reaction) of the natural dye lawsone and synthetic metal free indoline dye D131. The excitation energies, vibration spectra, molecular structures, electronic absorption spectra and electron transitions in individual dyes and complex molecule were investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) B3LYP5 methods, with 3-21G, 6-31G and 6-31G(d,p) basis sets. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the individual dyes and their mixture in chloroform solution were measured using spectrophotometer. For the complex formation reaction, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy were calculated and the results indicated the reaction was endothermic and non-spontaneous. Electron density distribution of the frontier and adjacent molecular orbitals and energy levels alignment were used for analysis of the electronic spectra and mechanism of transitions. The results indicated that the designed complex molecule satisfied the requirements for good photosensitizer of DSSCs.
Credibility and Signaling as Strategic Drivers in China’s African Security Engagement  [PDF]
Fanie Herman
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.41005
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show that strategic interaction provides a fruitful way to understand China’s decision-making behavior. States are actors in global politics and frequently have to make choices that are strategic. Credibility and uncertainty are central issues in this environment of incomplete information. This raises the question how China signals its motivations along this strategic chessboard. Strategic interaction assumes purposeful behavior from China in the African security environment. Signaling allows China to consider the problem of unknown motivations, making choices based in part, on what other actors are likely to do in the future. Knowing the choices of other African actors can help China judge what likely responses are.
Liolaemus robertoi, una nueva especie de los andes del norte de Chile perteneciente al grupo ruibali (Iguania: Tropiduridae: Liolaeminae)
Daniel Pincheira Donoso,Herman Nú?ez
Multequina , 2003,
Abstract: Una nueva especie del grupo ruibali es reportada y descrita en las áreas andinas de la Cuarta Región Administrativa de Chile. La nueva lagartija fue previamente confundida con la especie argentina Liolaemus vallecurensis. Liolaemus robertoi sp. nov. puede distinguirse de cualquier otra especie del grupo ruibali porque presenta una combinación diferencial de caracteres única, con 85-94 escamas alrededor del medio del cuerpo, con peque as escamas sobresalientes del margen anterior del meato auditivo, y un patrón de coloración peculiar. Un análisis zoogeográfico hipotético permite relacionar a L. robertoi sp. nov. con la lagartija cisandina Liolaemus rosenmanni.
Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of neonatal intestinal microbiota in relation to the development of asthma
Carl Vael, Liesbeth Vanheirstraeten, Kristine N Desager, Herman Goossens
BMC Microbiology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-68
Abstract: In a prospective birth cohort, 110 children were classified according to the API (Asthma Predictive Index). A positive index included wheezing during the first three years of life combined with eczema in the child in the first years of life or with a parental history of asthma. A fecal sample was taken at the age of 3 weeks and analysed with DGGE using universal and genus specific primers.The Asthma Predictive Index was positive in 24/110 (22%) of the children. Using universal V3 primers a band corresponding to a Clostridum coccoides XIVa species was significantly associated with a positive API. A Bacteroides fragilis subgroup band was also significantly associated with a positive API. A final DGGE model, including both bands, allowed correct classification of 73% (80/110) of the cases.Fecal colonisation at age 3 weeks with either a Bacteroides fragilis subgroup or a Clostridium coccoides subcluster XIVa species is an early indicator of possible asthma later in life. These findings need to be confirmed in a new longitudinal follow-up study.The increasing prevalence of asthma and other atopic diseases during the last decades was originally explained by the reduced exposure to infections early in life [1]. More recently Rautava et al.[2] suggested an extension of this "hygiene hypothesis" describing the importance of the initial composition of the infant gut microbiota as a key determinant in the development of atopic disease. This hypothesis is supported by studies demonstrating that the microbiota of allergic and non-allergic infants are different even before the development of symptoms, with a critical time window during the first 6 months of life [3]. The findings from these studies however are inconsistent: 4 different bacterial genera (Staphylococcus, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Enterobacteriaceae) are associated with an increased risk for atopic disease and 2 genera (Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus) show a protective effect [4]. Most studies conducted so far were
Preneoplastic lesions of the lung
Alissa K Greenberg, Herman Yee, William N Rom
Respiratory Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/rr170
Abstract: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide [1] and the number of cases continues to increase. Smoking is the primary cause in the great majority of these cases. In Asia, particularly China, smoking rates continue to increase. Despite advances in therapy, the overall survival rate for lung cancer patients remains only 15%. This poor survival is probably due to the relatively advanced stage of disease at diagnosis. To date, screening trials have had no significant impact on survival [2]. Screening can detect small (2–3 mm in size), asymptomatic nodules, but even these nodules may already be malignant, and therefore late in the course of the disease. Tumor cells have been found in the peripheral blood and bone marrow of patients with lung cancer of all sizes and stages [3,4].If lung cancer could be identified earlier – at a preneoplastic stage, before angiogenesis, invasion and micrometastases can occur – we might have a greater chance of improving survival. At this point, we have little information about possible progenitor lesions. Which lesions are preneoplastic? How and why do they progress? Is there any treatment that can prevent progression? Advances in molecular biology and microdissection techniques, and greater understanding of genetic changes involved in malignant transformation will aid in answering some of these questions. Advances in computerized tomography (CT), bronchoscopy and genomics technology raise the possibility that we may be able to detect these early lesions in vivo. Therefore, if preneoplastic lesions can be defined, and if appropriate therapies can be found, screening may then significantly improve survival.To define preneoplastic lesions, we need to understand the molecular events that occur during bronchogenic carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis is thought to be a multistep process consisting of the accumulation of gene mutations. Preneoplastic lesions may be morphological phenotypes of the different steps in this progression fr
Reducción de armónicos y mejora de la capacidad de aislamiento de un accionamiento para un motor de inducción de rotor devanado
Fernández,Herman; Hernández,Iván; Montilla,Francisco;
Universidad, Ciencia y Tecnología , 2008,
Abstract: this work presents technical improvements in the pulse generator circuit of wound rotor ac induction motor drive installed in a crane system. the three-phase pulse generator produces six output pulses, each displaced 60 electrical degrees to provide gate firing signals to ac thyristor controller. this original circuit exhibits two drawbacks: employs resistors in series for provide impedance isolation from 460vac voltage inputs directly connected to printed circuit board. additionally, the control have an excessive minimalshift- phase pulse for the activation of the thyristors, which produces current and voltage harmonics into utility system and ac motor terminals respectively. an efficient control circuit has been designed and constructed. the main advantages of the proposed pulse generator as compared with conventional system are: power reactive reduction and improve method for electric isolation.
Differential inhibition of polymorphonuclear leukocyte recruitment in vivo by dextran sulphate and fucoidan
N. Van Osselaer,M. Rampart,A. G. Herman
Mediators of Inflammation , 1996, DOI: 10.1155/s0962935196000506
Behavior-based Task Learning by Demonstration on Mobile Manipulation
Shu Huang, Erwin Aertbeli?n, Herman Bruyninckx, Hendrik Van Brussel
International Journal of Automation and Smart Technology , 2013, DOI: 10.5875/ausmt.v2i4.161
Abstract: Users should have the opportunity to teach new tasks on their robot to fit the specific needs in its own environment. Behaviors are good building blocks for complex tasks because they are in charge of a specific control objective and have an intuitive name. After encapsulating controls within a behavior, the task learning problem for behavior-based systems becomes a behavior recognition problem. Behavior-based task learning can be focused on either behavior segmentation, behavior recognition or behavior cooperation. The behavior diagram is expressed by an execution matrix, which consists of only numerical information referring to the parameters of the behaviors or transitions. The parameter values are determined by the behavior classification.A feature space is introduced to extract more meaningful information from sensory data. Geometric features, such as the plane feature or the line feature, detect whether the movement of points fulfills a certain geometric relationship. A combined machine learning approach, which consists of decision tree and support vector machine, is proposed for behavior-based task learning. The decision tree is used to select relevant features from the feature pool, and support vector machine is applied to find the mapping from the feature space to behaviors. This way, corresponding behaviors can be recognized during demonstration. This method also has the ability to handle the diversity of robot configurations and users. Post-processing techniques are proposed to improve the classifi-cation results.
A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children
Herman Allison N,Malhotra Khushi,Wright Gretchen,Fisher Jennifer O
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-132
Abstract: Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other adults in the family, and 3) having bad memories from childhood that made it hard to deny children’s food requests. Conclusions Although the primary aspirations of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children were not focused on children’s weight, these aspirations were compatible with obesity prevention strategies to limit children’s portion sizes and their intake of solid fats and/or added sugars.
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