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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2823 matches for " Herman Claus "
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Credibility and Signaling as Strategic Drivers in China’s African Security Engagement  [PDF]
Fanie Herman
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.41005
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show that strategic interaction provides a fruitful way to understand China’s decision-making behavior. States are actors in global politics and frequently have to make choices that are strategic. Credibility and uncertainty are central issues in this environment of incomplete information. This raises the question how China signals its motivations along this strategic chessboard. Strategic interaction assumes purposeful behavior from China in the African security environment. Signaling allows China to consider the problem of unknown motivations, making choices based in part, on what other actors are likely to do in the future. Knowing the choices of other African actors can help China judge what likely responses are.
Simultaneous Echo Refocused Magnetization Transfer Imaging  [PDF]
Claus Kiefer
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2014.43021
Abstract: Purpose: To increase the efficiency of densely encoded magnetization transfer imaging of the brain, we time-multiplex multiple slices within the same readout using simultaneous echo refocusing FLASH imaging with magnetization transfer (MT) preparation (MT-SER-FLASH). Materials and Methods: Inefficiency in total scan time results from the number of frequency samples needed for sufficient quality of quantitative parameter maps for a binary spin bath model. We present a highly efficient multiplexing method, simultaneous echo refocused magnetization transfer imaging (MT-SER-FLASH) for reducing the total scan time of MT imaging by one-third. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was also reduced by reducing the number of MT-pulses per volume. Results: 2D-MT-SER-FLASH is performed in 19 minutes rather than 1 hour, acceptable for routine clinical application. The SAR could be reduced to 69% instead of more than 100% with a standard 2D or 3D-FLASH with MT-preparation. Conclusion: The net reduction of scan time and SAR enables the use of quantitative model based magnetization transfer imaging within a clinical environment.
Modelling Magnetization Transfer Considering Spin-Locking Effects  [PDF]
Claus Kiefer
Open Journal of Medical Imaging (OJMI) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmi.2014.44027
Abstract: Purpose: Recently it was demonstrated that spin-locking (SL) effects can manifest as pseudo magnetization transfer (MT). To our best knowledge the MT models proposed so far cannot distinguish between saturation effects caused by the MT preparation pulses and SL phenomena. Therefore a new MT model is proposed. Materials and Methods: A binary spin-bath model for magnetization transfer was extended in that sense that SL effects are considered. The new modified spin bath model was tested for a phantom with different agar concentrates (2%, 4%, 8%) and a MnCl2 (0.3 mM) solution. Results: The mean fitting error is 3.2 times lower for the modified model compared to the original model. Especially the parameter F for the fractional part of the bounded proton pool describes the situation for the MnCl2 (F = 0) better than the original model (F = 0.004). Conclusion: The proposed mathematical modifications of the binary spin-bath model considering SL seem to be a step in the right direction in that sense that the effects associated with SL are not interpreted as magnetization transfer.
Electronic Outbreak Surveillance in Germany: A First Evaluation for Nosocomial Norovirus Outbreaks
Anja M. Hauri,Hans-Jürgen Westbrock,Herman Claus,Steffen Geis,Siegfried Giernat,Michael Forβbohm,Helmut Uphoff
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0017341
Abstract: In Germany, surveillance for infectious disease outbreaks is integrated into an electronic surveillance system. For 2007, the national surveillance database contains case-based information on 201,224 norovirus cases, three-quarters of which are linked to outbreaks. We evaluated the data quality of the national database in reflecting nosocomial norovirus outbreak (NNO) data available in 19 Hessian local public health authorities (LPHAs) and the influence of differences between LPHA's follow-up procedures for laboratory notifications of Norovirus positive stool samples on outbreak underascertainment.
Oil Streak Visualisation of Fluid Flow Over Single D-Type Cylinder  [PDF]
Astu Pudjanarsa, Herman Sasongko
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.24024
Abstract: An experimental study on the effect of cut angle on circular cylinders to the drag force is performed. Six cylinders were cut at different angles and the air flow impinges perpendicular to the cut surface of the cylinder. The cut angles applied include: 0°, 30°, 45°, 53°, 55°, and 75°. The shear layer visualisation on the surface of cylinder was conducted as well. Drag force was measured using a wind tunnel force balance and the wind speed was set so that a corresponding Rey-nolds number of 5.3 × 104 was achieved. Visualisation was carried out by covering the cylinder with paper wetted by mixture of oil and titanium dioxide powder. Experimental results show that drag force has similar trend to that of previous experiment results. The minimum drag coefficient is attained at the cut angle of 53°. From oil streak visualisation the streamlines pattern of the flow over the cylinder could be reconstructed.
The Role of the Chinese Media in Establishing Common Ground between Sino-African Philosophical Traditions: A Case Study on Peacekeeping Operations  [PDF]
Fanie Herman, Andrew Szanajda
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.21006
Abstract: This work examines the role of the Chinese media in African peacekeeping operations (PKOs) in view of Chinese and African traditions that are combined through the concept of communitarianism. The values and belief systems of Confucianism and the African philosophy of Ubuntu in the peacekeeping environment stress the importance of focusing on collective achievements and producing results for the common good. Meanwhile, positive reporting is used as media approach to harmonize interaction between the peacekeepers and the parties in a conflict. As a result, as similar communal features are emphasized, value is added to China’s peacekeeping presence and confidence-building is encouraged. The Chinese media also has a good resonance on the perspectives of Africans toward China’s PKOs.
Upgrading Tests Using PSIM Tool of MPPT-PV Feedback-Current Controller  [PDF]
Herman Enrique Fernandez Hernandez
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2016.84022
Abstract: This paper presents improvement tests based in a feedback-current controller designed to Tracking Maximum Power Point in photovoltaic system (MPPT-PV). Previously, a version was developed exhibiting results satisfactory in simulation and through of a low cost prototype. Now, using a sophisticated physical model of solar cell available in PSIM program is shown other cases, considering variations both irradiation and temperature to evaluate successfully the controller. The results show that its system is suitable under dynamical changing atmospheric conditions operating with effectiveness acceptable.
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Penetrates the Basement Membrane in Human Nasal Respiratory Mucosa
Sarah Glorieux, Claus Bachert, Herman W. Favoreel, Annelies P. Vandekerckhove, Lennert Steukers, Anamaria Rekecki, Wim Van den Broeck, Joline Goossens, Siska Croubels, Reginald F. Clayton, Hans J. Nauwynck
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022160
Abstract: Background Herpes simplex virus infections are highly prevalent in humans. However, the current therapeutics suffer important drawbacks such as limited results in neonates, increasing occurrence of resistance and impeded treatment of stromal infections. Remarkably, interactions of herpesviruses with human mucosa, the locus of infection, remain poorly understood and the underlying mechanisms in stromal infection remain controversial. Methodology/Principal Findings A human model consisting of nasal respiratory mucosa explants was characterised. Viability and integrity were examined during 96 h of cultivation. HSV1-mucosa interactions were analysed. In particular, we investigated whether HSV1 is able to reach the stroma. Explant viability and integrity remained preserved. HSV1 induced rounding up and loosening of epithelial cells with very few apoptotic and necrotic cells observed. Following 16–24 h of infection, HSV1 penetrated the basement membrane and replicated in the underlying lamina propria. Conclusions/Significance This human explant model can be used to study virus-mucosa interactions and viral mucosal invasion mechanisms. Using this model, our results provide a novel insight into the HSV1 stromal invasion mechanism and for the first time directly demonstrate that HSV1 can penetrate the basement membrane.
Introduction to the new editorial series, notes of allergy watchers: erratum
Herman Eisen
World Allergy Organization Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1097/wox.0b013e3181b0e428
Building a Solid Foundation: CCS in Developing Skeleton and the CCN Family Role
Herman Yeger
Cell Communication and Signaling , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1478-811x-1-2
Abstract: In its simplest organizational perspective, a committed mesenchyme initiates formation of cartilage where differentiating chondroblasts progress to become chondrocytes and in doing so lay down a highly specialized extracellular matrix. Hypertrophy of one zone of chondrocytes and death through apoptosis set the framework for ensuing stages in osteogenesis, beginning with a scaffold for growing bone, and then vascularization of the territory which then brings in osteoblasts and osteoclasts to initiate formation of trabecular bone further remodeling and therein the development of a second prominent and unique extracellular matrix. The list of morphogenetic factors, growth factors, steroids and key transcription factors that orchestrate this complex process is already extensive and continues to grow, almost mimicking the process itself [1,2]. Outside to inside and vice versa signaling events are critical to the process of cartilage and bone formation since the different cell populations involved must coordinate their activities in order to realize the ultimate anatomical structure. Thus it is not surprising that disruptions in these intricate communications and loss of factors would lead to development of mild to severe abnormalities. Add to this the importance of precise timing of signaling events and attention to physiologically effective concentrations of factors that dictate growth, differentiation and apoptosis, it is evident that specific molecules are needed to assist in 'pacing' the developmental steps. In this first Commentary we highlight a number of reviews and studies that address the complex biology of cartilage and bone formation, a prime example of cell-cell interaction, communication through diffusible factors, and critical signaling pathways of cell behavior that are inimical to the development of the skeleton. While these processes require a variety of growth factors and hormones we bring attention to one member of the CCN family of genes [3], CCN2(CTG
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