Abstract:
Background: It is postulated that the concentrations of the major strong ions (Na, K, and Cl) in oral electrolyte solutions play a major role in clinical efficacy of these solutions for rehydration and corrections of metabolic acid base derangements. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to test prospectively the efficacy of an OES (OES_{exp}) formulated based on concentration of strong ion difference (SID) and propionate in a group of calves with naturally occurring neonatal diarrhea and clinically detectable dehydration and acid base abnormalities. Animals: Ten client owned calves of varying breeds, 2 - 22 days old, presented to a veterinary teaching hospital with a history of naturally occurring acute undifferentiated diarrhea, progressive depression and dehydration for treatment. Methods: Clinical and laboratory parameters were measured pre and post two oral electrolyte treatments to assess efficacy of the experimental OES to correct clinical and clinico pathological parameters. For the clinical trial the calves served as their own controls. For control of safety of medication 4 normal calves were force fed 4 L of OES_{exp} and followed over a 24 hour period. Results: All calves had severe diarrhea and metabolic acidosis. The metabolic acidosis observed in the plasma of these calves
and reflected by pH, HCO_{3}^{-} SID and base deficit was corrected significantly towards reference ranges (p < 0.05) with two 2 L feedings 12 hours apart. Dehydration was significantly corrected and all calves were discharged 1 - 3 days post admission. Conclusion and Clinical Importance: The use of SID is a valid approach when formulating oral electrolytes solutions for use in calves with acute diarrhea and metabolic derangement. Sodium propionate is valid substitute for commonly used sodium base equivalents in North America in oral electrolyte solutions.

Abstract:
Let $\mathcal{G}$ be an ind-group and let $\mathcal{U} \subseteq \mathcal{G}$ be a unipotent ind-subgroup. We prove that an abstract group automorphism $\theta \colon \mathcal{G} \to \mathcal{G}$ maps $\mathcal{U}$ isomorphically onto a unipotent ind-subgroup of $\mathcal{G}$, provided that $\theta$ fixes a closed torus $T \subseteq \mathcal{G}$, which normalizes $\mathcal{U}$ and the action of $T$ on $\mathcal{U}$ by conjugation fixes only the neutral element. As an application we generalize a result by Hanspeter Kraft and the author as follows: If an abstract group automorphism of the affine Cremona group $\mathcal{G}_3$ in dimension 3 fixes the subgroup of tame automorphisms $T{\mathcal G}_3$, then it also fixes a whole family of non-tame automorphisms (including the Nagata automorphism).

Abstract:
We prove that any two algebraic embeddings of $\mathbb{C}$ into $\textrm{SL}_n(\mathbb{C})$ are the same up to an algebraic automorphism of $\textrm{SL}_n(\mathbb{C})$, provided that $n$ is at least $3$. Moreover, we prove that two algebraic embeddings of $\mathbb{C}$ into $\textrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{C})$ are the same up to a holomorphic automorphism of $\textrm{SL}_2(\mathbb{C})$.

Abstract:
Let $\rho$ be an algebraic action of the additive group $\mathbb{C}^+$ on the three-dimensional affine space $\mathbb{C}^3$. We describe the group $\textrm{Cent}(\rho)$ of polynomial automorphisms of $\mathbb{C}^3$ that commute with $\rho$. A particular emphasis lies in the description of the automorphisms in $\textrm{Cent}(\rho)$ coming from algebraic $\mathbb{C}^+$-actions. As an application we prove that the automorphisms in $\textrm{Cent}(\rho)$ that are the identity on the algebraic quotient of $\rho$ form a characteristic subgroup of $\textrm{Cent}(\rho)$.

Abstract:
In the literature there are two ways of endowing an affine ind-variety with a topology. One possibility is due to Shafarevich and the other to Kambayashi. In this paper we specify a large class of affine ind-varieties where these two topologies differ. We give an example of an affine ind-variety that is reducible with respect to Shafarevich's topology, but irreducible with respect to Kambayashi's topology. Moreover, we give a counter-example of a supposed irreducibility criterion of Shafarevich which is different from a counter-example given by Homma. We finish the paper with an irreducibility criterion similar to the one given by Shafarevich.

Abstract:
We prove that two algebraic embeddings of a smooth variety $X$ in $\mathbb{C}^m$ are the same up to a holomorphic coordinate change, provided that $2 \dim X + 1$ is smaller than or equal to $m$. This improves an algebraic result of Nori and Srinivas. For the proof we extend a technique of Kaliman using generic linear projections of $\mathbb{C}^m$.

Abstract:
Let $\textbf{k}$ be an algebraically closed field. We classify all maximal $\textbf{k}$-subalgebras of $\textbf{k}[t, t^{-1}, y]$. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first such classification result for an algebra of dimension $> 1$. In the course of this study, we classify also all maximal $\textbf{k}$-subalgebras of $\textbf{k}[t, y]$ that contain a coordinate of $\textbf{k}[t, y]$. Furthermore, we give examples of maximal $\textbf{k}$-subalgebras of $\textbf{k}[t, y]$ that do not contain a coordinate.

Abstract:
We show that every automorphism of the group $\mathcal{G}_n:= \textrm{Aut}(\mathbb{A}^n)$ of polynomial automorphisms of complex affine $n$-space $\mathbb{A}^n=\mathbb{C}^n$ is inner up to field automorphisms when restricted to the subgroup $T \mathcal{G}_n$ of tame automorphisms. This generalizes a result of \textsc{Julie Deserti} who proved this in dimension $n=2$ where all automorphisms are tame: $T \mathcal{G}_2 = \mathcal{G}_2$.

Abstract:
A full global geodynamical reconstruction model has been developed at the University of Lausanne over the past 20 years, and is used herein to re-appraise the evolution of the Australides from 600 to 200 Ma. Geological information of geodynamical interest associated with constraints on tectonic plate driving forces allow us to propose a consistent scenario for the evolution of Australia–Antarctica–proto-Pacific system. According to our model, most geodynamic units (GDUs) of the Australides are exotic in origin, and many tectonic events of the Delamerian Cycle, Lachlan SuperCycle, and New England SuperCycle are regarded as occurring off-shore Gondwana.

Abstract:
The present work, derived from a full global geodynamic reconstruction model over 600 Ma and based on a large database, focuses herein on the interaction between the Pacific, Australian and Antarctic plates since 200 Ma, and proposes integrated solutions for a coherent, physically consistent scenario. The evolution of the Australia–Antarctica–West Pacific plate system is dependent on the Gondwana fit chosen for the reconstruction. Our fit, as defined for the latest Triassic, implies an original scenario for the evolution of the region, in particular for the “early” opening history of the Tasman Sea. The interaction with the Pacific, moreover, is characterised by many magmatic arc migrations and ocean openings, which are stopped by arc–arc collision, arc–spreading axis collision, or arc–oceanic plateau collision, and subduction reversals. Mid-Pacific oceanic plateaus created in the model are much wider than they are on present-day maps, and although they were subducted to a large extent, they were able to stop subduction. We also suggest that adduction processes ( i. e., re-emergence of subducted material) may have played an important role, in particular along the plate limit now represented by the Alpine Fault in New Zealand.