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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3605 matches for " Henrik Reinhard "
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Plasma NT-proBNP and white matter hyperintensities in type 2 diabetic patients
Henrik Reinhard, Ellen Garde, Arnold Skimminge, Per ?keson, Thomas Rams?y, Kaj Winther, Hans-Henrik Parving, Peter Rossing, Peter K Jacobsen
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-119
Abstract: We measured P-NT-proBNP(ng/l) in 20 diabetic patients without prior stroke but with(n?=?10) or without(n?=?10) asymptomatic coronary artery disease(CAD) in order to include patients with a wide-ranging CV risk profile. All patients and 26 controls had a 3D MRI and brain volumes(ml) with WMH and brain parenchymal fraction(BPF), an indicator of brain atrophy, were determined.P-NT-proBNP was associated with WMH in linear regression analysis adjusted for CV risk factors(r?=?0.94, p?=?0.001) and with BPF in univariate analysis(r?=?0.57, p?=?0.009). Patients divided into groups of increased P-NT-proBNP levels were paralleled with increased WMH volumes(geometric mean[SD];(2.86[5.11] ml and 0.76[2.49] ml compared to patients with low P-NT-proBNP 0.20[2.28] ml, p?=?0.003)) and also when adjusted for age, sex and presence of CAD(p?=?0.017). The association was strengthened by CV risk factors and we did not find a common heart or brain specific driver of both P-NT-proBNP and WMH. Patients and particular patients with CAD had higher WMH, however no longer after adjustment for age and sex.P-NT-proBNP was associated with WMH in type 2 diabetic patients, suggesting a linkage between heart and brain disease.Manifest atherosclerosis that includes strokes is the most important determinant of the excessive morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes, especially in patients with microalbuminuria [1]. Although medical treatment aimed at reduction of established conventional risk factors is effective in reducing the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes, there is still excess morbidity and mortality compared to the background population [2]. Detection of subclinical atherosclerotic manifestations in patients with diabetes in order to be able to identify patients at risk and start appropriate intervention at an early stage therefore seems evident.Elevated plasma N-terminal-proBNP (P-NT-proBNP) levels released from the heart as well as whit
NT-proBNP levels, atherosclerosis and vascular function in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: peripheral reactive hyperaemia index but not NT-proBNP is an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis
Henrik Reinhard, Niels Wiinberg, Peter R Hansen, Andreas Kj?r, Claus L Petersen, Kaj Winther, Hans-Henrik Parving, Peter Rossing, Peter K Jacobsen
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-71
Abstract: P-NT-proBNP was measured in 200 asymptomatic type 2 patients without known cardiac disease that received intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Patients were examined for coronary, carotid and peripheral atherosclerosis, as defined by coronary calcium score ≥400, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) > 0.90 mm, ankle-brachial index < 0.90, and/or toe-brachial index < 0.64, respectively. Carotid artery compliance was also determined and the reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) measured by peripheral artery tonometry was used as a surrogate for endothelial function.P-NT-proBNP was associated with atherosclerosis in the unadjusted analysis, but not after adjustment for conventional risk factors. P-NT-proBNP was not associated with vascular dysfunction. The prevalence of atherosclerosis in the coronary, carotid and peripheral arteries was 35%, 10% and 21% of all patients, respectively. In total 49% had atherosclerosis in one territory and 15.6% and 1.0% in two and three territories. Low RHI was an independent predictor of coronary atherosclerosis (odds ratio [CI], 2.60 [1.15-5.88] and systolic blood pressure was the only independent determinant of CIMT (0.02 mm increase in CIMT per 10 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure [p = 0.003]).Half of asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and microalbuminuria had significant atherosclerosis in at least one vascular territory despite receiving intensive multifactorial treatment for CV risk reduction. Coronary atherosclerosis was most prevalent, whereas carotid disease was more rarely observed. RHI but not plasma NT-proBNP was predictive of coronary atherosclerosis.Atherosclerosis is the most important determinant of the excessive morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in patients with albuminuria. Medical treatment aimed at reduction of established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors is effective in reducing the increased CV morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients with mic
NT-proBNP, echocardiographic abnormalities and subclinical coronary artery disease in high risk type 2 diabetic patients
Henrik Reinhard, Peter R Hansen, Niels Wiinberg, Andreas Kj?r, Claus L Petersen, Kaj Winther, Hans-Henrik Parving, Peter Rossing, Peter K Jacobsen
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-11-19
Abstract: Echocardiography including tissue Doppler imaging and P-NT-proBNP measurements were performed in 200 patients without prior CAD. Patients with P-NT-proBNP > 45.2 ng/L and/or coronary calcium score ≥ 400 were stratified as high risk patients for CAD(n = 133) and examined for significant CAD by myocardial perfusion imaging and/or CT-angiography and/or coronary angiography.LV mass index was 41.2 ± 10.9 g/m2.7 and 48 (24%) patients had LV hypertrophy. LA and RA dilatation were found in 54(27%) and 45(23%) patients, respectively, and LV diastolic dysfunction was found in 109(55%) patients. Patients with increased P-NT-proBNP levels did not have more major echocardiographic abnormalities. In 70(53%) of 133 high risk patients significant CAD was demonstrated and patients with LV hypertrophy had increased risk of significant CAD(adjusted odd ratio[CI] was 4.53[1.14-18.06]).Among asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria that received intensive multifactorial treatment, P-NT-proBNP levels is not associated with echocardiographic abnormalities. LV diastolic dysfunction was frequently observed, whereas LV hypertrophy was less frequent but associated with significant CAD.Current multifactorial treatment strategies for cardiovascular (CV) disease aimed at reduction of established conventional risk factors are effective [1], but not sufficient to overcome the increased CV mortality in diabetic patients [2]. We have previously identified elevated plasma N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (P-NT-proBNP) as a strong predictor of CV mortality in type 2 diabetic patients [3]. The causes of poor prognosis associated with elevated P-NT-proBNP levels are not known in detail but P-NT-proBNP levels correlate with echocardiography measurements in diabetic populations not receiving multifactorial treatment [4]. Echocardiography in asymptomatic high CV risk type 2 diabetic patients may disclose heart abnormalities [5]. Selected echocardiographic abnormalities, including
Leading Multicultural Teams in the PR China  [PDF]
Reinhard Meckl, Matthias Johanning
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2013.31007

This paper examines the effect of transformational, transactional and passive leadership on the performance of multicultural teams in the People’s Republic (PR) of China. 42 multicultural teams with a total of 158 team members employed at German companies in the PR China completed a questionnaire which has been analyzed to show the extent to which these three leadership styles moderate the relationship between cultural diversity and social integration, satisfaction, communication effectiveness and conflict. To evince an explanation for discrepancies it has also been examined whether all three leadership styles justified mediating effects. The relationship between cultural diversity and several team variables has been explained through the resource-oriented theory, the information processing theory, the similarity-attraction theory and the social identity and social categorization theory. The effect of transformational, transactional and passive leadership is based on the theory of charismatic leadership from Bass and its related “Full Range of Leadership”. Results suggest transformational, transactional and passive leadership moderate the relationship between cultural diversity and conflict. In addition, it has been shown that transactional leadership mediates all four group variables. This study identifies practical implications and proposes an agenda for future research.

Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions in Depressive Patients—A Randomized Control Study  [PDF]
Reinhard Pietrowsky, Johannes Mikutta
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.312158
Abstract: Effects of Positive Psychology (PP) have been shown in several studies to alleviate depressive symptoms in patients suffering from major depression or dysthymia when administered within psychotherapy. The present study served to test for the effects of two interventions from PP (best possible self, three good things) when practised by depressive patients for three weeks without any other concomitant psychotherapy. Seventeen depressive patients were randomly assigned to either the PP group or the control group. Patients in the PP group wrote down the best possible self for one week and then three good things for another two weeks. Patients in the control group wrote down images of the future of mankind for one week and early memories for two weeks. Prior to the intervention and again after it had finished, depressive symptoms, satisfaction with life, positive and negative affect, optimism, and resilience were assessed. While in both groups of patients well-being and resilience increased and depressive symptoms declined, the decline of depressive symptoms and the increase of positive affect and resilience were more pronounced in the PP group. The results support the notion that even a short intervention using PP alone alleviates depressive symptoms and increases well-being. Although the effects were of marginal significance, this may be attributed to the relatively small sample size. Likewise, the use of an Intent-to-Treat analysis may have affected the PP group more than the control group, indicating an underestimation of the potency of PP in the present study.
Optimizing the Timing of M&A Decisions—An Analysis of Pro- and Anticyclical M&A Behavior in Germany  [PDF]
Irmi Eisenbarth, Reinhard Meckl
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.49060
Abstract: If one looks at the market for corporate control from a research perspective, it is especially interesting to analyze whether the decision-makers in the companies take advantage of phases with low asset prices to buy out other companies (behaving anticyclically), or whether they tend to buy during phases with high asset prices—buying procyclically. The aim of this article is to test whether there is a correlation between a company’s M&A behavior and the situation in the capital market. Whether M&A success can be seen as dependent on different market valuations and whether differences in terms of the various factors which influence pro- and anticyclical M&A transactions can be determined. The analysis is done with regard to the development of the DAX, the German stock exchange market index. 78 transactions by German purchasing companies during the period 1998 to 2009 were analyzed. The results show that M&A behavior is a procyclical phenomenon and that anticyclical transactions are more successful than procyclical ones in the long term.
Osteoprotegerin and coronary artery disease in type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria
Henrik Reinhard, Mads Nybo, Peter R Hansen, Niels Wiinberg, Andreas Kj?r, Claus L Petersen, Kaj Winther, Hans-Henrik Parving, Lars M Rasmussen, Peter Rossing, Peter K Jacobsen
Cardiovascular Diabetology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2840-10-70
Abstract: P-OPG was measured in 200 asymptomatic diabetic patients without known cardiac disease. Patients with P-NT-proBNP >45.2 ng/l and/or coronary calcium score (CCS) ≥400 were stratified as high risk of CAD (n = 133), and all other patients as low risk patients (n = 67). High risk patients were examined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI; n = 109), and/or CT-angiography (n = 20), and/or coronary angiography (CAG; n = 86). Significant CAD was defined by presence of significant myocardial perfusion defects at MPI and/or >70% coronary artery stenosis at CAG.Significant CAD was demonstrated in 70 of the high risk patients and of these 23 patients had >70% coronary artery stenosis at CAG. Among high risk patients, increased P-OPG was an independent predictor of significant CAD (adjusted odds ratio [CI] 3.11 [1.01-19.54] and 3.03 [1.00-9.18] for second and third tertile vs.first tertile P-OPG, respectively) and remained so after adjustments for NT-proBNP and CCS. High P-OPG was also associated with presence of >70% coronary artery stenosis(adjusted odds ratio 14.20 [1.35-148.92] for third vs. first tertile P-OPG), and 91% of patients with low (first tertile) P-OPG did not have >70% coronary artery stenosis.Elevated P-OPG is an independent predictor of the presence of CAD in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria.Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most important determinant of the excessive morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetic patients, especially in patients with albuminuria[1]. Plasma osteoprotegerin (P-OPG) is a promising predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in high risk diabetic populations, as well as in other populations [2-5]. Osteoprotegerin is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily acting as a soluble decoy receptor for the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κβ ligand (RANKL) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) preventing osteoclast activation and bone resorption, and participating in immune
"Integrated Design Process" a Concept for Green Energy Engineering  [PDF]
Christian Koch, Henrik Buhl
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.53039

Consulting Engineers and Architects are currently experimenting with the concept of “Integrated Design Process” (IDP). This paper views Integrated Design Process as a process tool and a concept for management and organization of the green energy engineering process. Moreover such a concept is understood both as systematic knowledge and a symbolic device for enabling change. The paper briefly review international variants, and focus on two variants present in Denmark: an architect and engineering variant of IDP. The differences between the concepts include different roles for main actors, the use of information technology, the relation to lean, and forms of collaboration. The paper discusses two building projects focusing on teams of engineers and architects in the early conceptual phase. One develops a solution focused on energy saving technologies, the other on energy producing. It is argued that in this practical context, IDP is viewed as ambiguous and not well defined, and the architects and engineer work hard understanding and using the concepts even when directly involved. It is difficult to reach consensus on how to do it. The various players agree that an increased interdisciplinary interaction in the design team is necessary in order to comply with the increased complexity of green energy building design. IDP shows potential as a driver for green energy engineering and technologies, as traditional roles and responsibilities in the design process is changed, and sustainable solutions for green buildings can reach a higher standard and quality and are integrated earlier in the design process.

Distribution of Solar Irradiance on Inclined Surfaces Due to the Plane of the Ground  [PDF]
Teolan Tomson, Henrik Voll
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2014.27001

Measurements of solar radiation are ordinarily made on horizontal planes recording global, diffuse and reflected components. The beam component and distribution of the global radiation on tilted planes can be calculated via the said components, as the position of the Sun in the sky’s sphere is known. Another ordinary procedure is measuring beam and diffuse components and calculating global radiation. These measurements require stationary equipment and in such a way it is difficult to study the influence of different grounds on the distribution of radiation on the inclined surfaces due to the ground. This distribution has some importance in civil engineering, but it is not popular in the field of solar radiation investigations. Present paper shows how this distribution can be calculated measuring only global irradiance on the horizontal and vertical planes. Such an approach, which is valid in clear-sky and overcast conditions, allows the use of a portable measuring device and studies of different grounds. The coincidence of the calculated values with the actual is good, except for snow-cover and discrete cloud, which do not correspond to the isotropic sky and ground models.

The Current HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies—Widely Outsmarted by Omitting Realities: A Socio-Critical Analysis in the Context of Powerless Law, Ethics and Asymmetric Interpretation of Human Rights  [PDF]
Reinhard H. Dennin, Arndt Sinn
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2015.53031
Abstract: The HIV pandemic seems to be fading to some degree—but there are regional exceptions. The current liberal prevention strategy with programs aimed at risk reduction interventions in particular for sexual behavior and injecting drug use has been expanded by antiretroviral treatment approaches. It was expected to keep the prevalence of infectious individuals below a certain threshold to curb self-sustaining chains of HIV infections. The introduction of biomedical approaches by ART/HAART with regard to practicing risk reduction behavior has been received as an exemption of responsibility by certain populations who are defined as “at-risk” population. Certain parts of the hard-to-reach, high-risk population have returned to unsafe sex practices leading to careless behavior which in turn has promoted the spread of HIV. This is supported by modern trends in risk societies where with regard to HIV basic principles of ethics and tenets of the Human Rights like “don’t harm other people” have lost any normative power. In addition, with the support of NGOs, legal norms such as protecting the “bodily integrity of individuals” have been ignored, allowing the “passing of HIV to partners” to become socially acceptable behavior. As a whole, in defiance of the endeavors of prevention applied so far, certain societies are exposed to an ongoing spread of HIV.
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