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Diet supplementation with green tea extract epigallocatechin gallate prevents progression to glucose intolerance in db/db mice
Henrik Ortster, Nina Grankvist, Swen Wolfram, Nicolas Kuehn, ?ke Sj?holm
Nutrition & Metabolism , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-7075-9-11
Abstract: Young (7 week-old) db/db mice were randomized and assigned to receive diets supplemented with or without EGCG or rosiglitazone for 10 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, body weight and food intake was measured along the treatment. Glucose and insulin levels were determined during an oral glucose tolerance test after 10 weeks of treatment. Pancreata were sampled at the end of the study for blinded histomorphometric analysis. Islets were isolated and their mRNA expression analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR.The results show that, in db/db mice, EGCG improves glucose tolerance and increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. EGCG supplementation reduces the number of pathologically changed islets of Langerhans, increases the number and the size of islets, and heightens pancreatic endocrine area. These effects occurred in parallel with a reduction in islet endoplasmic reticulum stress markers, possibly linked to the antioxidative capacity of EGCG.This study shows that the green tea extract EGCG markedly preserves islet structure and enhances glucose tolerance in genetically diabetic mice. Dietary supplementation with EGCG could potentially contribute to nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.The WHO and CDC (U.S. Center for Disease Control) predict that by today some 26 million people in the U.S. only are afflicted by diabetes (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ webcite). Previously viewed as a disease of the elderly, type 2 diabetes is now seen in ever-younger age groups. In the U.S. about one third of all newly diagnosed diabetes in children and adolescents (age 10-19 years) now is type 2, an alarming scenario considering the magnitude of premature cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity in these individuals. Recent estimates by the CDC indicate that the life-time risk of getting diabetes is not less than 40% for people born in 2000 in the U.S., with certain ethnic groups being significantly overrepresented (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes web
Neuroinflammation in Lyme neuroborreliosis affects amyloid metabolism
Niklas Mattsson, Daniel Bremell, Rolf Anckars?ter, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Anckars?ter, Henrik Zetterberg, Lars Hagberg
BMC Neurology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-10-51
Abstract: The first part of the study was a cross-sectional cohort study in 61 patients with acute facial palsy (19 with LNB and 42 with idiopathic facial paresis, Bell's palsy) and 22 healthy controls. CSF was analysed for the β-amyloid peptides Aβ38, Aβ40 and Aβ42, and the amyloid precursor protein (APP) isoforms α-sAPP and β-sAPP. CSF total-tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau) and neurofilament protein (NFL) were measured to monitor neural cell damage. The second part of the study was a prospective cohort-study in 26 LNB patients undergoing consecutive lumbar punctures before and after antibiotic treatment to study time-dependent dynamics of the biomarkers.In the cross-sectional study, LNB patients had lower levels of CSF α-sAPP, β-sAPP and P-tau, and higher levels of CSF NFL than healthy controls and patients with Bell's palsy. In the prospective study, LNB patients had low levels of CSF α-sAPP, β-sAPP and P-tau at baseline, which all increased towards normal at follow-up.Amyloid metabolism is altered in LNB. CSF levels of α-sAPP, β-sAPP and P-tau are decreased in acute infection and increase after treatment. In combination with earlier findings in multiple sclerosis, cerebral SLE and HIV with cerebral engagement, this points to an influence of neuroinflammation on amyloid metabolism.The trans-membranous protein amyloid precursor protein (APP) has been intensely studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD), since it is the source of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, recognized as key-components in AD pathophysiology [1]. Although ubiquitously expressed, the physiological role of APP in the adult organism remains largely unknown. APP may undergo non-amyloidogenic cleavage at the α-site, which inhibits formation of Aβ and releases an extracellular soluble α-sAPP fragment. Alternatively, APP is processed by combined cleavages by β-secretase and γ-secretase, releasing Aβ and β-sAPP. Aβ peptides vary in length due to variability in the γ-secretase cleavage site. Although CSF levels of α-sAPP
Confounding Factors Influencing Amyloid Beta Concentration in Cerebrospinal Fluid
Maria Bjerke,Erik Portelius,Lennart Minthon,Anders Wallin,Henrik Anckars?ter,Rolf Anckars?ter,Niels Andreasen,Henrik Zetterberg,Ulf Andreasson,Kaj Blennow
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease , 2010, DOI: 10.4061/2010/986310
Abstract: Background. Patients afflicted with Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibit a decrease in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of the 42 amino acid form of -amyloid ( ). However, a high discrepancy between different centers in measured levels reduces the utility of this biomarker as a diagnostic tool and in monitoring the effect of disease modifying drugs. Preanalytical and analytical confounding factors were examined with respect to their effect on the measured level. Methods. Aliquots of CSF samples were either treated differently prior to measurement or analyzed using different commercially available xMAP or ELISA assays. Results. Confounding factors affecting CSF levels were storage in different types of test tubes, dilution with detergent-containing buffer, plasma contamination, heat treatment, and the origin of the immunoassays used for quantification. Conclusion. In order to conduct multicenter studies, a standardized protocol to minimize preanalytical and analytical confounding factors is warranted. 1. Introduction By the year of 2000, it was estimated that more than 25 million people suffered from dementia, with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) being the most common subtype accounting for around 50 percent of all cases [1, 2]. Histopathological hallmarks of AD include intracellular neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau protein and extracellular deposits of neurotoxic -amyloid (A ) visualized as amyloid plaques [3–5]. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of A peptides in combination with the tau protein and its hyperphosphorylated forms have been found to support the clinical diagnosis of AD [6]. Not only do these biomarkers fulfill the criteria for an ideal diagnostic test according to the guidelines of the Working group on molecular and biochemical markers of Alzheimer’s disease [7], but A have also been suggested to be a driving force in the disease process. The amyloid cascade hypothesis proposes that an imbalance in A production and clearance leads to an increase in A load and that this initiates taupathology and neuronal degeneration which ultimately causes dementia [8]. The hypothesis is derived from cases affected by rare familial forms of AD wherein mutations in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) gene or in the presenilin-encoding (PSEN1 and PSEN2) genes, which are involved in metabolizing the APP protein, invariably lead to AD pathology. The 42 amino acid long form of A (A 42) has also proven to be the best established CSF biomarker for amyloid pathology in the brain. A has therefore become the primary target of many clinical trials
Violent Recidivism: A Long-Time Follow-Up Study of Mentally Disordered Offenders
Thomas Nilsson, M?rta Wallinius, Christina Gustavson, Henrik Anckars?ter, Nóra Kerekes
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0025768
Abstract: Background In this prospective study, mentally disordered perpetrators of severe violent and/or sexual crimes were followed through official registers for 59 (range 8 to 73) months. The relapse rate in criminality was assessed, compared between offenders sentenced to prison versus forensic psychiatric care, and the predictive ability of various risk factors (criminological, clinical, and of structured assessment instruments) was investigated. Method One hundred perpetrators were consecutively assessed between 1998 and 2001 by a clinical battery of established instruments covering DSM-IV diagnoses, psychosocial background factors, and structured assessment instruments (HCR-20, PCL-R, and life-time aggression (LHA)). Follow-up data was collected from official registers for: (i) recidivistic crimes, (ii) crimes during ongoing sanction. Results Twenty subjects relapsed in violent criminality during ongoing sanctions (n = 6) or after discharge/parole (n = 14). Individuals in forensic psychiatric care spent significantly more time at liberty after discharge compared to those in prison, but showed significantly fewer relapses. Criminological (age at first conviction), and clinical (conduct disorder and substance abuse/dependence) risk factors, as well as scores on structured assessment instruments, were moderately associated with violent recidivism. Logistic regression analyses showed that the predictive ability of criminological risk factors versus clinical risk factors combined with scores from assessment instruments was comparable, with each set of variables managing to correctly classify about 80% of all individuals, but the only predictors that remained significant in multiple models were criminological (age at first conviction, and a history of substance abuse among primary relatives). Conclusions Only one in five relapsed into serious criminality, with significantly more relapses among subjects sentenced to prison as compared to forensic psychiatric care. Criminological risk factors tended to be the best predictors of violent relapses, while few synergies were seen when the risk factors were combined. Overall, the predictive validity of common risk factors for violent criminality was rather weak.
Radiología pediátrica en Atención Primaria
Cortina Orts,H.;
Pediatría Atención Primaria , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S1139-76322010000500008
Abstract: revision and update of decisive imaging keys in pulmonary, gastroenterological and musculoskeletal conditions, especially significative for their frequency and present interest.
Rese a de "Diccionario Jurídico-Económico Francés-Espa ol / Espa ol-Francés"
María ángeles Orts
Ibérica , 2006,
Review of "Interdisciplinarity and Languages. Current Issues in Research, Teaching, Professional Applications and ICT"
María ángeles Orts
Ibérica , 2012,
Legal genres in English and Spanish: some attempts of analysis
Ma ángeles Orts Llopis
Ibérica , 2009,
Abstract: Understanding the differences and subtleties between the legal communication of the English-speaking world, and the Continental law countries –and, more specifically, Spain- has become a necessary practice in the global context. For the most part, it involves unravelling the differences and concomitances between the array of legal genres produced by the professionals of the specialist communities within these two traditions (i.e., Common Law and Continental Law). This paper attempts an analysis in layers –generic or pragmatic, textual or cognitive, and formal or superficial– of two types of genre within the domain of public and private law, namely delegated legislation and tenancy agreements or leases, the study of which has been seldom attempted, despite the customary presence of these instruments in the legal routine. The result of such analysis will, hopefully, cast some light on the way these communities interact within themselves and with the rest of the world, providing new clues to tackle the application of those genres and making it possible to draw new conclusions about the way in which linguistic interaction takes place in the context of these specialist communities in English and Spanish.
Rese a de "Problemas lingüísticos en la traducción especializada"
Ma ángeles Orts Llopis
Ibérica , 2008,
La cúpula de la iglesia cartujana de Ara Christi (El Puig, Valencia). Génesis, evolución y artífices de su construcción
Ferrer Orts, Albert
Archivo Espa?ol de Arte , 2005,
Abstract: The author offers a detailed account of the construction of the cupola of the Carthusian monastery of Ara Cristi in El Puig (Valencia) from its conception in the sixteenth century through the various restorations it underwent in the seventeenth, and includes specific information on the artisans responsible for the distinct stages of construction. Se ofrece un pormenorizado relato de la construcción de la cúpula de la cartuja de Ara Christi, desde su concepción hasta las diversas reparaciones de las que fue objeto en el siglo xvii y se especifican los artífices de las diversas fases de su construcción.
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