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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1524 matches for " Henri REYMOND "
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Carto-humeur, Carto humour. Avec mon petit atlas…
Mappemonde , 1989,
Images des élections présidentielles en France
Mappemonde , 1989,
Abstract: Les anamorphoses permettent de bien mettre en évidence les variations spatiales d'un phénomène grace aux formes caractéristiques qui apparaissent. Ainsi, les images des élections présidentielles en France, entre 1974 et 1988, soulignent-elles la stabilité de l'opposition entre une France de gauche , étirée selon un axe nord-sud, et une France de droite plut t étendue dans une direction est-ouest. Enfin, les votes de 1988 dégagent quelques différences complémentaires: peu de déformation concernant la carte du candidat Waechter à l'exception de l'extension marquée de la région Alsace, extension de la France du Sud et du Sud-Est pour le candidat Chirac entre le premier et le deuxième tour, en raison du report des voix Le Pen.
Global gene expression patterns in rice
Philippe Reymond
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-1-reports010
Abstract: The authors used 10 rice cDNA libraries represented in dbEST: database of expressed sequence tags. Each library contained at least 890 ESTs and was, in most cases, prepared from a different tissue or developmental stage. ESTs were organized into clusters and contig sequences, and expression profiles (EST counts) were derived for each of 707 contigs containing five or more constituent ESTs. In order to identify genes exhibiting a similar expression pattern, a statistical method (Pearson correlation coefficient) was used to calculate similarity between pairs of genes. These pairs of contigs were then organized into mutually matching clusters. The authors show, for example, that genes encoding storage proteins are clustered together and are predominantly found in libraries prepared from immature seed and panicle at ripening stage. The method is also successfully used to assess pairwise similarity between whole cDNA libraries and shows that two tissues expressing a similar complement of genes are clustered together. Finally, a two-dimensional graphical representation of expression measurements is presented which allows a rapid visualization of clusters of genes obeying similar expression patterns in different conditions (different libraries).A method for EST quality control and generation of contigs can be found at the Structural and genetic information server.Convincing evidence is provided that a rigorous statistical analysis of EST libraries allows fine-scale identification of sequences with correlated expression profiles. The application of this approach to a large collection of cDNA libraries prepared from different organisms at different developmental stages will certainly provide a valuable alternative to cDNA microarray studies in generating gene expression data. A limitation of such a technique is the need for standardization of the preparation of cDNA libraries to ensure that EST frequency tightly correlates with transcript abundance. As the method relies on t
Finding flavor genes
Philippe Reymond
Genome Biology , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2000-1-2-reports0057
Abstract: Aharoni et al. randomly isolated 1,701 cDNA clones from a strawberry fruit cDNA library and 480 clones from petunia corolla (as control) and printed the PCR-amplified clones on chemically modified glass slides using a robotic device. They used these microarrays to monitor changes in gene expression at three fruit developmental stages (from green to red). Using a rigorous statistical analysis, the authors found that 401 clones were differentially expressed between all three stages, with 177 clones being upregulated between the green and red stages. Sequences of the latter group of genes revealed that more than 50% were related to primary and secondary metabolism. From the other sequences potentially involved in flavor formation, Aharoni et al. identified a novel gene (SAAT) for an alcohol acetyltransferase, an enzyme that catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of volatile esters. This gene shows 16-fold greater expression during the red stage than the green stage of fruit development. The authors expressed recombinant SAAT in Escherichia coli and confirmed that the enzyme has alcohol acetyltransferase activity. Analysis of a series of potential substrates suggests that SAAT is responsible for formation of the predominant esters found in ripe strawberries.Access to Arabidopsis cDNA microarrays is provided by the Arabidopsis Functional Genomics Consortium (AFGC). Links to information on plant microarrays can also be found via the Virtual library: plant-arrays.Large-scale cDNA microarrays are now used with model systems to investigate global patterns of gene expression at the level of the whole organism. The utility of microarrays that cover a restricted portion of the genome, like that described in this paper, will become increasingly recognized, however. This paper is a first example of the use of customized plant cDNA microarrays from a non-model system. It provides a good example of how a small selected array can be used to study a particular developmental proces
Telling the Nation: A Postmodernist Reading of Tanure Ojaide’s God’s Medicine-Men and Other Stories  [PDF]
Henri Oripeloye
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.24016
Abstract: Postmodernist reasoning signifies a move from traditional viewpoint to an accelerated technological terrain, the implication of this diversion is noticeable in the eclectic nature of life in contemporary society; all things become a continual flickering without any recognizable or perpetual presence. As a literary concept, postmodernism fashions the problematic landscape for the appreciation of the disordered nature of the world as it focuses on the dismantling of traditional values and affirmation of a fragmented society. Postmodernism, with its subtle emphasis on capitalism, has greatly exacerbated the post-colonial tendencies in Tanure Ojaide’s God’s Medicine-Men and Other Stories as money becomes a recurrent motif and a chief signifier. The stories underpin the overarching effect of cultural materialism, individuals and the society as everyone is caught in its web; these stories could also be read as the author’s depiction of a society that is going through a cultural flux.
Natural Variation in Arabidopsis thaliana Revealed a Genetic Network Controlling Germination Under Salt Stress
Navot Galpaz,Matthieu Reymond
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015198
Abstract: Plant responses to environmental stresses are polygenic and complex traits. In this study quantitative genetics using natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana was used to investigate the genetic architecture of plant responses to salt stress. Eighty seven A. thaliana accessions were screened and showed a large variation for root development and seed germination under 125 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Twenty two quantitative trait loci for these traits have been detected by phenotyping two recombinants inbred line populations, Sha x Col and Sha x Ler. Four QTLs controlling germination under salt were detected in the Sha x Col population. Interestingly, only one allelic combination at these four QTLs inhibits germination under salt stress, implying strong epistatic interactions between them. In this interacting context, we confirmed the effect of one QTL by phenotyping selected heterozygous inbred families. We also showed that this QTL is involved in the control of germination under other stress conditions such as KCl, mannitol, cold, glucose and ABA. Our data highlights the presence of a genetic network which consists of four interacting QTLs and controls germination under limiting environmental conditions.
The future is genome-wide
Samuel Deutsch, Alexandre Reymond
Genome Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2006-7-8-324
Abstract: More than 1,700 human geneticists from 59 countries congregated in Amsterdam in May for this year's meeting of the European Society of Human Genetics, which mainly focused on the use of post-genome analysis tools to dissect the causes of and mechanisms governing complex traits. Many of the exciting studies presented were based on two technologies: array-based methods for genome-wide genotyping or technologies for high-density comparative genome hybridization (CGH). A highlight of the meeting was the keynote lecture by Nobel laureate Sydney Brenner (Salk Institute for Biological Studies, La Jolla, USA) on 'humanity's genes', which focused on the challenges we face in transforming the information from the human genome into concrete benefits for our societies.This year has seen the success of several whole-genome association studies using genotyping for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to identify genes responsible for some common complex phenotypes for both discrete and quantitative traits. A plenary lecture by Kari Stefansson (deCODE Genetics, Reykjavik, Iceland) highlighted the tremendous potential of this approach. Several examples were discussed in which new genes have recently been identified using a combination of linkage and association analysis approaches. One example is a locus on human chromosome 8p12 that confers susceptibility to schizophrenia. Although nucleotide variation around the NRG1 gene has been known to be associated with schizophrenia for the past 4 years, the mechanism of action of the associated SNPs, located in noncoding regions 53 to the gene, has remained unclear. Recent evidence strongly suggests that these variants might influence the level of NRG1 expression. Stefansson suggested that many SNPs involved in the etiology of complex phenotypes are likely to affect gene expression or splicing, and that these variants are under strong selective pressure. A second, more recent, example presented by Stefansson concerns the genetics of myoc
The Integration of Formal and Non-formal Education: The Dutch “brede school”
du Bois-Reymond, Manuela
Social Work and Society , 2009,
Abstract: The Dutch “brede school” (BS) development originates in the 1990s and has spread unevenly since: quicker in the primary than secondary educational sector. In 2007, there were about 1000 primary and 350 secondary BS schools and it is the intention of the government as well as the individual municipalities to extend that number and make the BS the dominant school form of the near future. In the primary sector, a BS cooperates with crèche and preschool facilities, besides possible other neighborhood partners. The main targets are, first, to enhance educational opportunities, particularly for children with little (western-) cultural capital, and secondly to increase women’s labor market participation by providing extra familial care for babies and small children. All primary schools are now obliged to provide such care. In the secondary sector, a BS is less neighborhood-orientated than a primary BS because those schools are bigger and more often located in different buildings. As in the primary sector, there are broad and more narrow BS, the first profile cooperating with many non-formal and other partners and facilities and the second with few. On the whole, there is a wide variety of BS schools, with different profiles and objectives, dependent on the needs and wishes of the initiators and the neighborhood. A BS is always the result of initiatives of the respective school and its partners: parents, other neighborhood associations, municipality etc. BS schools are not enforced by the government although the general trend will be that existing school organizations transform into BS. The integration of formal and non-formal education and learning is more advanced in primary than secondary schools. In secondary education, vocational as well as general, there is a clear dominance of formal education; the non-formal curriculum serves mainly two lines and objectives: first, provide attractive leisure activities and second provide compensatory courses and support for under-achievers who are often students with migrant background. In both sectors, primary and secondary, it is the formal school organization with its professionals which determines the character of a BS; there is no full integration of formal and non-formal education resulting in one non-disruptive learning trajectory, nor is there the intention to go in that direction. Non-formal pedagogues are partly professionals, like youth- and social workers, partly volunteers, like parents, partly non-educational partners, like school-police, psycho-medical help or commercial leisure providers. Besides that, t
Temporal Large-Eddy Simulations of the Near-Field of an Aircraft Wake  [PDF]
Roberto Paoli, Henri Moet
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2018.82012
Abstract: The near-field dynamics of an aircraft wake is studied by means of temporal large-eddy simulations, with and without considering the effect of engine jets. In the absence of jets, the simulations showed the roll-up of the initial vorticity sheet shed by the wing and the occurrence of short-wavelength instability in a pair of primary co-rotating vortices. The main consequence of the instability is the modification of the internal structure of the vortex, compared to the two-dimensional stable behavior. The presence of engine jets affects the roll-up of the vorticity sheet and causes an enlargement of the final merged vortex core compared to the case without jets.
Positive and Negative Explanations of Uncertain Reasoning in the Framework of Possibility Theory
Henri Farrency,Henri Prade
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: This paper presents an approach for developing the explanation capabilities of rule-based expert systems managing imprecise and uncertain knowledge. The treatment of uncertainty takes place in the framework of possibility theory where the available information concerning the value of a logical or numerical variable is represented by a possibility distribution which restricts its more or less possible values. We first discuss different kinds of queries asking for explanations before focusing on the two following types : i) how, a particular possibility distribution is obtained (emphasizing the main reasons only) ; ii) why in a computed possibility distribution, a particular value has received a possibility degree which is so high, so low or so contrary to the expectation. The approach is based on the exploitation of equations in max-min algebra. This formalism includes the limit case of certain and precise information.
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