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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 150833 matches for " Hendrik H?lscher "
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Advanced atomic force microscopy techniques
Thilo Glatzel,Hendrik Hlscher,Thomas Schimmel,Mehmet Z. Baykara
Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology , 2012, DOI: 10.3762/bjnano.3.99
Projektbericht: Neuer religionsgeschichtlicher Schwerpunkt in Bochum
Hlscher, Lucian
Zeitenblicke , 2006,
Studienreform in Bochum: Design und Erfahrung nach elf Jahren
Hlscher, Lucian
Zeitenblicke , 2005,
Abstract: Der Beitrag referiert den Stand der Studienreform an der Universit t in Bochum, die sich noch in der Erprobungsphase befindet. Akzeptanz seitens der Studierenden und eine allgemeine Straffung im Studierverhalten schlagen positiv zu Buche, problematisch bleiben nach wie vor die planerische Koordination des Lehrangebots sowohl für die Lehrenden als auch die Studierenden, die stete Gefahr der überlastung der Studierenden und damit zusammenh ngend die Schwierigkeit, Arbeitszeit für Arbeitspensen zuverl ssig einsch tzen zu k nnen. Auch die Umorientierung von Lehrinhalten auf zu lernende Kompetenzen steht noch weitgehend aus. Die Betreuungsrelation bleibt schlecht, zumal Prüfungen und universit re Selbstverwaltung Ressourcen binden. Wünschenswert sind daher gr ere Finanzspielr ume, der Erhalt der universit ren Lehr- und Lernfreiheit gegenüber weitergehender Regulierung. Studienordnungen sollten überregional standardisierte Lehrformate aufgreifen, wobei die gewünschte inhaltliche Flexibilit t mit der Vergleichbarkeit der Studienleistung abzustimmen w re.
Drugs developed to treat diabetes, liraglutide and lixisenatide, cross the blood brain barrier and enhance neurogenesis
Kerry Hunter, Christian Hlscher
BMC Neuroscience , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2202-13-33
Abstract: In the present study we profiled the GLP-1 receptor agonists liraglutide (Victoza) and lixisenatide (Lyxumia). We measured the kinetics of crossing the blood brain barrier (BBB), activation of the GLP-1R by measuring cAMP levels, and physiological effects in the brain on neuronal stem cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Both drugs were able to cross the BBB. Lixisenatide crossed the BBB at all doses tested (2.5, 25, or 250 nmol/kg bw ip.) when measured 30 min post-injection and at 2.5-25 nmol/kg bw ip. 3 h post-injection. Lixisenatide also enhanced neurogenesis in the brain. Liraglutide crossed the BBB at 25 and 250 nmol/kg ip. but no increase was detectable at 2.5 nmol/kg ip. 30 min post-injection, and at 250 nmol/kg ip. at 3 h post-injection. Liraglutide and lixisenatide enhanced cAMP levels in the brain, with lixisenatide being more effective.Our results suggest that these novel incretin analogues cross the BBB and show physiological activity and neurogenesis in the brain, which may be of use as a treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by insulin resistance resulting in glucose intolerance and hyperglycaemia [1].Since insulin effectiveness is reduced in diabetes, research into other signalling pathways that support insulin actions or that reduce blood glucose is ongoing. One of these strategies focus on the use of the incretins, a class of peptide hormones that helps to normalise insulin signaling and also improves blood sugar levels. Incretins increase the release of insulin during high blood sugar levels, the so-called 'incretin effect'. Drugs that mimic incretin hormones can maintain glucose homeostasis and improve multiple symptoms of type 2 diabetes like the risk of hypoglycaemia, inadequate post-prandial blood glucose control, glucose fluctuations, β-cell failure, and weight gain [1,2].GLP-1 is an endogenous 30-amino acid peptide hormone. Numerous novel long-lasting GLP-1 receptor agonists have been develop
Chronic Treatment with the GLP1 Analogue Liraglutide Increases Cell Proliferation and Differentiation into Neurons in an AD Mouse Model
Vadivel Parthsarathy, Christian Hlscher
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058784
Abstract: Neurogenesis is a life long process, but the rate of cell proliferation and differentiation decreases with age. In Alzheimer's patients, along with age, the presence of Aβ in the brain inhibits this process by reducing stem cell proliferation and cell differentiation. GLP-1 is a growth factor that has neuroprotective properties. GLP1 receptors are present on neuronal progenitor cells, and the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide has been shown to increase cell proliferation in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. Here we investigated acute and chronic effects of liraglutide on progenitor cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and their subsequent differentiation into neurons in wild type and APP/PS-1 mice at different ages. APP/PS1 and their littermate controls, aged 3, 6, 12, 15 months were injected acutely or chronically with 25 nmol/kg liraglutide. Acute treatment with liraglutide showed an increase in cell proliferation in APP/PS1 mice, but not in controls whereas chronic treatment increased cell proliferation at all ages (BrdU and Ki67 markers). Moreover, numbers of immature neurons (DCX) were increased in both acute and chronic treated animals at all ages. Most newly generated cells differentiated into mature neurons (NeuN marker). A significant increase was observed with chronically treated 6, 12, 15 month APP/PS1 and WT groups. These results demonstrate that liraglutide, which is currently on the market as a treatment for type 2 diabetes (VictozaTM), increases neurogenesis, which may have beneficial effects in neurodegenerative disorders like AD.
Perirhinal Cortex Neuronal Activity is Actively Related to Working Memory in the Macaque
Christian H lscher,Edmund T. Rolls
Neural Plasticity , 2002, DOI: 10.1155/np.2002.41
Abstract: Lesion studies suggest that the perirhinai cortex plays a role in object recognition memory. To analyze its role, we recorded the activity of single neurons in the perirhinal cortex in a rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) performing a delayed matching-to-sample task with up to four intervening stimuli. Certain neurons (40 of 90 analyzed) showed a smaller response to an image when it was shown the second time within a trial (as a match image) than when it had been shown (as a sample image) the first time. A new finding was that the perirhinal cortex neurons were actively reset between trials: when a particular image was shown as a sample on a succeeding trial, the response was much larger than when it had been shown as a match image a short time previously on the previous trial. This resetting between trials appears to reflect the operation of an active working memory process rather than a passive temporal decay in a neuronal response. The results thus provide evidence that the perirhinal cortex plays an active role in visual working memory, perhaps in association with other brain areas such as the prefrontal cortex.
Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus of a APP/PS1 Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease Is Impaired in Old but Not Young Mice
Simon Gengler,Alison Hamilton,Christian Hlscher
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009764
Abstract: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which there is no cure. We have investigated synaptic plasticity in area CA1 in a novel AD mouse model (APPPS1-21) which expresses the Swedish mutation of APP and the L166P mutation of human PS-1. This model shows initial plaque formation at 2 months in the neocortex and 4 months in the hippocampus and displays β?amyloid-associated pathologies and learning impairments.
Labour market inequalities and the role of institutions
Mirella Damiani,Jens Hlscher,Fabrizio Pompei
The European Journal of Comparative Economics , 2011,
Abstract: A large body of studies has documented the changing wage structure and increasing inequalities that in the last decades have characterised many OECD countries. The importance of these topics has been addressed by the workshop on "Comparing Inequalities" organised by the Italian Association for Comparative Economic Studies (AISSEC), and held in Assisi in June 2010. One session of the workshop was devoted to "Labour Market Institutions and Wage Inequalities: a Comparative Perspective". This special issue, which includes a selection of papers that were originally presented at the workshop, offers contributions which can be helpful to obtain an enriched view of ongoing changes and a broader spectrum of plausible explanations. In this paper a short appraisal of the large economic literature on wage inequality and institutions is offered with the main aim to clarify how the papers collected in this symposium contribute to related literature and in which directions they move
Regional lymphadenectomy strongly recommended in T1b gallbladder cancer
Ulrich Klaus Fetzner,Arnulf H Hlscher,Dirk L Stippel
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2011, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i38.4347
Abstract: This article discusses the adequate treatment of early gallbladder cancer (T1a, T1b) and is based on published studies extending over nearly 3 decades. Randomized studies and meta analyses comparing different surgical treatments do not exist. The literature shows that in up to 20% of patients lymph node metastasis are found in T1b gallbladder cancer. Due to high malignancy with early angiolymphatic spread and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation on the one hand, and the relative low operative risk of extended cholecystectomy (cholecystectomy and regional lymphadenectomy) on the other hand, we believe that this procedure is mandatory in early gallbladder cancer.
Role of retinoic acid receptors in squamous-cell carcinoma in human esophagus
Bergheim I,Wolfgarten E,Bollschweiler E,Hlscher AH
Journal of Carcinogenesis , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1477-3163-4-20
Abstract: Background Worldwide, cancer in the esophagus ranks among the 10 most common cancers. Alterations of retinoic acid receptors (e.g. RARα, β, γ, and RXRα, β, γ) expression is considered to play an important role in development of squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), which is the most common esophageal cancer. Alcohol consumption and smoking, which can alter retinoic acid receptor levels, have been identified as key risk factors in the development of carcinoma in the aero-digestive tract. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate protein levels of retinoic acid receptors (i.e. RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ) in esophageal SCC and surrounding normal tissue of patients with untreated SCC and controls. Methods All study participants completed a questionnaire concerning smoking and alcohol drinking habits as well as anthropometrical parameters. Protein levels of RARα, β, γ, and RXRβ were determined by Western Blot in normal esophageal tissue and tissue obtained from SCC of 21 patients with newly diagnosed esophageal SCC and normal esophageal tissue of 10 controls. Results Protein levels of RARγ were significantly lower by ~68% in SCC compared to normal surrounding tissue in patients with SCC that smoked and/or consumed elevated amounts of alcohol. Furthermore, RARα protein levels were significantly lower (~- 45%) in SCC in comparison to normal esophageal mucosa in patients with elevated alcohol intake. When comparing protein levels of retinoic acid receptors between normal tissue of patients with SCC and controls, RARγ protein levels were found to be significantly higher (~2.7-fold) in normal esophageal tissue of SCC patients than in esophageal tissue obtained from controls. No differences were found for RARα, β, and RXRβ protein levels between normal esophageal tissue of patients and that of controls. Conclusion In conclusion, results of the present study suggest that alterations of retinoic acid receptors protein may contribute in the development of SCC in esophagus and that in some patients life style (e.g. smoking and alcohol consumption) may be a critical component in the alteration of retinoic acid receptor levels in esophagus.
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