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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 5187 matches for " Helmut Meyer "
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Flexible Mild Heaters in Structural Conservation of Paintings: State of the Art and Conceptual Design of a New Carbon Nanotubes-based Heater
Tomas Markevicius,Nina Olsson,Rocco Furferi,Helmut Meyer
Journal of Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Thermal treatments constitute the core in the success for most structural treatments, such as consolidation, treating planar deformations, reinforcing degraded support and others. Among the wide range of devices for thermal treatments of paintings proposed in scientific and technical literature, flexible heaters appear to be the most promising technology, especially for working with large painting or in situ. The present study provides a comprehensive review of flexible mild heater systems devised for structural conservation of paintings in the last decades, bringing forward the issues related to the instrumentation used for thermal treatments, stressing the importance of accurate control and the inadequateness of available devices. By highlighting the actual limitations of existing devices, a different approach, which employs Carbon Nanotubes-based flexible heaters is then proposed in its conceptual form. The design of such device, called IMAT (Intelligent Mobile Accurate Thermo-electrical device) is supported by the European Community in the context of the EC-FP7 Environment Theme (ENV-NMP.2011.2.2-5) into a three-year project started on November 2011.
Stabilization of Circadian Rhythm, Its Augmentation by Bright Light Treatment and Its Importance for ADHD and Depression of Adolescents  [PDF]
Helmut Niederhofer
Neuroscience & Medicine (NM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/nm.2013.43024
Abstract:

Objective: ADHD is characterized by the progressive development of, impulsiveness, attentional difficulties and sometimes also excessive hyperactivity. Main biological reason is a quantitative reduction of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the forebrain. A lack of dopamine is also typical for depressive disorders. Methods: Bright light therapy is proven to be effective in treating depression. Purpose of our study is to verify the therapeutic effectiveness of Bright light therapy in subjects affected by ADHD. Results: Results show a significant improvement which lasts for at least 4 weeks, which is superposed by regulation of the circadian rhythm. Initial decrease of especially morning saliva melatonin levels, due to regular sleep under in-patient conditions, is followed by symptom improvement and a raising evening melatonin level, due to activation during the day. This level decreases as soon as activation is ceased. Conclusion: Bright light therapy seems to be effective as add-on therapy for ADHD, but in fact, stabilization of the circadian rhythm is the most important therapeutic intervention, either for ADHD or for depression, as demonstrated in another study.

Recent Developments and Current Issues in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer  [PDF]
Helmut Oettle
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2013.410A003
Abstract:

Presently, many questions exist about what the optimal regimen comprises for all stages and treatment settings for pancreatic cancer. Since the CONKO-001 trial, adjuvant therapy following resection has become standard of care; however, outcomes are poor, with most patients experiencing disease recurrence, and new therapies have yet to be validated. Furthermore, the value of adjuvant radiotherapy has still not been clearly defined. Targeted treatment in combination with chemotherapy has been mostly disappointing so far in the adjuvant setting but immunotherapy holds potential for improving survival outcomes. Neoadjuvant treatment does not appear to provide much benefit in resectable patients but in the small subgroup of patients with borderline resectable/unresectable locally advanced disease it may increase the possibility of an R0 resection and, consequently, a substantial increase in survival duration. Use of capecitabine-based radiotherapy in patients with unresectable locally advanced disease appears to be more efficacious and better tolerated than gemcitabine-based chemoradiotherapy, with respect to survival outcomes. However, as with adjuvant treatment, the benefit of adding radiotherapy has not yet been definitively demonstrated. In patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, targeting the stroma with nab-paclitaxel has shown promising results in a phase III trial setting when administered in combination with gemcitabine and, furthermore, this regimen is suitable for a broad range of patients due to its generally good tolerability profile. Because of its high toxicity, FOLFIRINOX is more suitable for younger patients with an excellent performance status who can withstand aggressive treatment and in patients with a worse performance status, gemcitabine monotherapy is considered to be a more appropriate treatment. Alternatively, gemcitabine in combination with erlotinib, the only targeted compound that has resulted in significant albeit small improvements in survival in patients with advanced disease, could be selected. However, the benefit-risk profile of this regimen is only favorable in a strictly defined, small patient subgroup who develop a treatment-related rash. Finally, with the elucidation of prognostic and predictive markers, treatment is expected to become ever more individualized, leading to improved efficacy outcomes and less unnecessary

Analysis of the Navier-Stokes Equations  [PDF]
Helmut Martin
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2014.210106
Abstract: The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible fluid flows with impervious boundary and free surface are analyzed by means of a perturbation procedure involving dimensionless variables and a dimensionless perturbation parameter which is composed of kinematic viscosity of fluid, the acceleration of gravity and a characteristic length. The new dimensionless variables are introduced into the equation system. In addition, the perturbation parameter is introduced into terms for deriving approximations systems of different orders. Such systems are obtained by equating coefficients of like powers of perturbation parameter for the successive coefficients in the series. In these systems several terms are analyzed with regards to size and significance. Based on those systems, suitable solutions of NS equations can be found for different boundary conditions. For example, a relation for stationary channel flow is obtained as approximation to the NS equations of the lowest order after transformation back to dimensional variables.
Whole-Body Vibration in Automated Residential Solid Waste Collection  [PDF]
Helmut Paschold
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2015.54011
Abstract: Drivers of residential solid waste collection trucks are exposed to a wide variety of physical and health hazards. Automated robotic arm collection methods are intended to eliminate physical and ergonomic hazards associated with manual waste collection. However, whole-body vibration (WBV) exposure is a hazard that may be significant and greater than being found in semi-automated or manual methods. WBV is measured in a pilot field study of automated waste collection trucks during normal operation for nearly eight-hour periods on two consecutive days. All four trials are run under similar route conditions. Vibrations are measured at the seat-driver interface using a tri-axial accelerometer seat pad and portable vibration monitors. Measured WBV levels are compared with prior published data from waste collection trucks and health standards. The average WBV exposure value, corresponding to 0.99 m.s-2 for frequency-weighted r.m.s. acceleration, is above the ISO 2631-1 action value of 0.50 m.s-2 and below a limit value of 1.15 m.s-2 as given in the European Parliament Directive 2002/44/EC. This exposure level suggests the presence of potential health risks.
On the Fundamental Meaning of the Principle of Least Action and Consequences for a “Dynamic” Quantum Physics  [PDF]
Helmut Tributsch
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.74037
Abstract: The principle of least action, which has so successfully been applied to diverse fields of physics looks back at three centuries of philosophical and mathematical discussions and controversies. They could not explain why nature is applying the principle and why scalar energy quantities succeed in describing dynamic motion. When the least action integral is subdivided into infinitesimal small sections each one has to maintain the ability to minimize. This however has the mathematical consequence that the Lagrange function at a given point of the trajectory, the dynamic, available energy generating motion, must itself have a fundamental property to minimize. Since a scalar quantity, a pure number, cannot do that, energy must fundamentally be dynamic and time oriented for a consistent understanding. It must have vectorial properties in aiming at a decrease of free energy per state (which would also allow derivation of the second law of thermodynamics). Present physics is ignoring that and applying variation calculus as a formal mathematical tool to impose a minimization of scalar assumed energy quantities for obtaining dynamic motion. When, however, the dynamic property of energy is taken seriously it is fundamental and has also to be applied to quantum processes. A consequence is that particle and wave are not equivalent, but the wave (distributed energy) follows from the first (concentrated energy). Information, provided from the beginning, an information self-image of matter, is additionally needed to recreate the particle from the wave, shaping a “dynamic” particle-wave duality. It is shown that this new concept of a “dynamic” quantum state rationally explains quantization, the double slit experiment and quantum correlation, which has not been possible before. Some more general considerations on the link between quantum processes, gravitation and cosmological phenomena are also advanced.
A Fundamentally Irreversible World as an Opportunity towards a Consistent Understanding of Quantum and Cosmological Contexts  [PDF]
Helmut Tributsch
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.712133
Abstract: In a preceding publication a fundamentally oriented and irreversible world was shown to be derivable from the important principle of least action. A consequence of such a paradigm change is avoidance of paradoxes within a “dynamic” quantum physics. This becomes essentially possible because fundamental irreversibility allows consideration of the “entropy” concept in elementary processes. For this reason, and for a compensation of entropy in the spread out energy of the wave, the duality of particle and wave has to be mediated via an information self-image of matter. In this publication considerations are extended to irreversible thermodynamics, to gravitation and cosmology with its dependence on quantum interpretations. The information self-image of matter around particles could be identified with gravitation. Because information can also impose an always constant light velocity there is no need any more to attribute such a property to empty space, as done in relativity theory. In addition, the possibility is recognized to consider entropy generation by expanding photon fields in the universe. Via a continuous activation of information on matter photons can generate entropy and release small energy packages without interacting with matter. This facilitates a new interpretation of galactic redshift, emphasizes an information link between quantum- and cosmological phenomena, and evidences an information-triggered origin of the universe. Self-organized processes approach maximum entropy production within their constraints. In a far from equilibrium world also information, with its energy content, can self-organize to a higher hierarchy of computation. It is here identified with consciousness. This appears to explain evolution of spirit and intelligence on a materialistic basis. Also gravitation, here identified as information on matter, could, under special conditions, self-organize to act as a super-gravitation, offering an alternative to dark matter. Time is not an illusion, but has to be understood as flux of action, which is the ultimate reality of change. The concept of an irreversible physical world opens a route towards a rational understanding of complex contexts in nature.
Elementary Particles Subject to an Energy Driven Fundamental Time Arrow  [PDF]
Helmut Tributsch
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2018.97082
Abstract: The Standard Model of elementary particles and forces has grown considering time neutral behaviour and a Lagrangian function with non-oriented energy quantities. Basing on an evaluation of shortcomings and trends of the Model and a recent new, dynamic interpretation of the principle of least action, to which the Lagrangian is exposed, this time neutral approach is challenged. Subject to an energy driven fundamental time arrow elementary particles and forces can be considered to be products of self-organization of energy, thus directly reflecting the proportionality of energy and mass. Non-active viruses, virions, are discussed to demonstrate that the generation and maintenance of lifeless self-organized mass particles is compatible with laws of nature. This example from biology also allows understanding relevant peculiarities of the elementary particle family: excessive number, repetitive building stones, different stability and properties, largely variable size, change of reactivity when exposed to different environments and to energy. Such a “dynamic” version of the Standard Model has the potential of much less conflict with experimental reality in quantum physics and cosmology. Before all, it explains gravity, which the Standard Model could not incorporate, as information on matter, which has to be dealt with, in addition to the description of elementary particles themselves for a complete quantum portrayal. This eliminates the conflict between quantum theory and cosmology, but questions the need for a space-time structure of the universe which is here claimed to be mostly controlled by this kind of fundamental information on matter (identified with gravitation). It is argued that exploring and adapting the Standard Model towards fundamental irreversibility rooted in a “dynamic” Lagrangian and an energy driven time arrow is a much more obvious, realistic and experimentally promising strategy, compared to the increasingly accessed abstract world of counterintuitive interpretations, of strings, additional dimensions or multiple universes.
Shamanic Trance Journey with Animal Spirits: Ancient “Scientific” Strategy Dealing with Inverted Otherworld  [PDF]
Helmut Tributsch
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2018.83006
Abstract: Since palaeolithic times, shamans involved animal depictions in cave ceremonies and adopted animals as helping spirits during their trance journeys. This study aims at explaining the rituals with new evidence: the shamans were acting rationally to deal with an inverted otherworld, still rooted in many traditional beliefs, and seen as an impressive natural phenomenon in superior mirages. After experimenting with unhealthy upside down positions, shamans have adopted more convenient ways to “invert” their consciousness by generating oxygen deficiency and trance for entering the inverted world. San rock art from Brandberg, Namibia, is used as a model to learn more about the logic behind shamanistic trance travel, for example aimed at attracting rain. When travelling to an inverted otherworld San shamans used, besides trance-inverting their consciousness, symbols of inversion (inverted sex, inverted body posture and body painting) and were hiding their faces. Negative hand stencils, dotted (mirage) animals and hidden faces were correspondingly used in palaeolithic caves during trance ceremonies. The animals painted on cave walls were aimed at meeting their counterparts in the other world, a condition for the termination of earthly life, to enable their successful hunting. Animals seen to behave “supernaturally” in mirages and mirage phenomena themselves became helping spirits for the voyage. The mirage of earthly objects into the sky itself served as role model for shamanic travel. Voluptuous Venus figures were carved for the inverted world. They show an inversion of reality. The conclusion is that early spiritual and religious concepts developed rationally, like other strategies for survival, in attempts to deal with an occasionally but worldwide seen natural phenomenon which suggested an
Evolution Subject to an Energy Driven Fundamental Time Arrow  [PDF]
Helmut Tributsch
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2018.83008
Abstract: Adopting a fundamental time arrow in nature, a free energy aiming at decreasing its presence per state by generating a flow of action, as recently derived from the principle of least action, entrains significant consequences for understanding mechanisms in evolution and biology. Simultaneously, the presently favoured statistical, entropic time arrow is tolerated as a limiting case. The entropy law, which self-organized systems follow, is deducible and time reading for feedback processes is functioning at very short time scale during energy turnover, even during build-up of order (decrease of entropy). As a consequence, living systems can self-organize on molecular level and evolution has an aim. This aim is maximizing entropy and thus energy turnover, within given constraints. Genetic mechanisms, here seen as self-organized chemical information handling, had to deal with such a parallel entropy (energy) aim of self-organized living structures and should be considered superposed, adapted to it and controlling it. Since increasing energy turnover is paralleled by an increasing ability of self-organized systems for generating order, this explains evolution towards higher perfection and the trend towards symbiotic energy harvesting. Information as well, which has an energy content, can self-organize within the neuronal structure of the brain and create a higher hierarchy of information handling. It is recognized as consciousness and spirit, which thus can be explained on purely materialistic basis. Evolution towards maximum energy (entropy) turnover as a fate for human civilization, when restraints are further decreasing, is a pessimistic prospect due to unavoidable environmental consequences. However, evolution of spirit is a straightforward parallel consequence and this may be considered the ultimate aim of evolution. The introduction of a fundamental energy driven time arrow as a paradigm change is verifiable via convincing falsification conditions and would revolutionize our understanding of life and human evolution
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