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Assessment of Helminths Health Risk Associated with reuse of Raw and Treated Wastewater of the Settat City (Morocco)
Resources and Environment , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.re.20120205.03
Abstract: Settat is an example of Moroccan arid area with severe water scarcity. Wastewater’s agricultural reuse represents a vast potential to remove pressures on freshwater resources of the region. The present study aimed to identify helminth eggs in wastewaters to which both human and animal populations are exposed when they are reused in agriculture and to evaluate removing of those pathogens by Wastewater Treatment Plant lagoons. The technique of concentration adopted for the Helminth eggs research in the wastewaters is that of Arther Fitzgerald and al. The analysis of the results showed that 87.5% of raw wastewater samples and 31.2% of treated wastewater samples are contaminated by the Helminth eggs with a mean concentration of 9 eggs/L and less than 1eggs/L respectively. Helminth eggs found are: Nematodes, Cestodes and several digestive strongyles. Nematodes are mainly represented by Ascaris sp., Toxocara sp and Capillaria sp., for Cestodes, species identified were Hymenolepis nana, Hymenolepis diminuta and Spirometra sp. This study also highlighted the qualitative and quantitative seasonal variations of helminth eggs in wastewater.According to WHO[14], the presence of intestinal nematodes and mainly Ascaris sp, Trichuris and Ancylostoma sp in waste water is considered a major risk for the reuse of water in agriculture. In its new version[43], water reuse guidelines helminth ova are considered one of the main target pollutants to be removed from wastewater reuse for agriculture and aquaculture purposes.
Parasitic load of wastewater of the gouro collector crossing the municipalities of Abobo, Adjamé and Cocody (District of Abidjan)
Technologies de Laboratoire , 2011,
Abstract: Domestic sewage is an usual vehicle for human pathogens including parasitic helminth eggs. Our aim is the parasitological characterisation of the wastewater of the gouro collector of Abidjan city in C te d'Ivoire. The Bailenger's method for detection and quantification helminths eggs was used to process samples four sampling sites of the collector during five months. We observed ten taxa that are member of the nematod, cestod and trematod classes. A taxonomic variability was observed from a sampling site to another. During The local rainy season an increase of the parasitic load was noted.
Primer hallazgo en Venezuela de huevos de Schistosoma mansoni y de otros helmintos de interés en salud pública, presentes en heces y secreción mucosa del molusco terrestre Achatina fulica (Bowdich, 1822)
Liboria,Matinella; Morales,Gustavo; Carmen,Sierra; Isbelia,Silva; Luz A,Pino;
Zootecnia Tropical , 2010,
Abstract: in order to determine the presence of parasites in faeces as well as in mucous secretion of achatina fulica snails (452) snails were collected. twelve (12) groups from aragua state and 2 from portuguesa state were conformed. of 253 evaluated snails corresponding to el limón sector, mario brice?o iragorry municipality, maracay, aragua state, 8,70% turned out positive to eggs of schistosoma mansoni, 2,77% trichuris spp. and 5,93% hymenolepis spp., when analyzing the faeces samples. whereas for the 90 a. fulica snails from la pedrera sector, girardot municipality, aragua state, in 10,42% was evidenced the presence of strongyloides spp. larvae in faeces and in 9,52% of the same, when evaluating mucous secretion. the mucous secretion parasitological evaluation performed on every a. fulica snails groups, from aragua state as well as from portuguesa state, did not evidenced the presence of angiostrongylus spp. infecting larvae. however, it was confirmed the viability of s. mansoni eggs, which demonstrated the maintenance of the biological cycle of the parasite. based on the obtained results it is concluded that a. fulica it is a species of medical importance in venezuela, due to it?s value as a mechanic transporter of different helminths species and as an indicator for parasitic infections within the human population
Frequency of geohelminths in public squares in Pelotas, RS, Brazil Frequência de geohelmintos em pra as públicas de Pelotas, RS, Brasil
Micaele Quintana de Moura,Sabrina Jeske,Juliana Nunes Vieira,Tiago Gallina Corrêa
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária , 2013,
Abstract: The frequency of parasitic contamination of public areas in the municipality of Pelotas, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, was studied between June 2010 and May 2011, when soil samples were collected from eight city squares. Out of 400 samples submitted to centrifugal floatation technique in solution of sodium dichromate with density of 1.35, 176 (44%) proved positive for at least one parasite; 29 (16.5%) samples were multi-infested. The results showed that there was a significant soil contamination rate in all the parks included in the study. The positivity rate was higher for hookworms eggs (13.5%) and Toxocara eggs (8.8%); Trichuris, Ascaris and Capillaria eggs were also detected. This study shows the risks to which the population is exposed in relation to zoonotic geohelminths, and suggests that sanitation and health education measures should be implemented in the municipality. A frequência de contamina o parasitária de áreas públicas de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, foi avaliada entre junho de 2010 e maio de 2011, com coletas mensais de amostras de solo de oito pra as. Das 400 amostras submetidas à técnica de centrífugo-flutua o em solu o de dicromato de sódio com densidade de 1,35, 176 (44%) apresentaram pelo menos uma forma parasitária e, das amostras positivas, 29 (16,5%) estavam poliparasitadas. Os resultados demonstraram relevante índice de contamina o do solo em todas as pra as avaliadas, com maiores índices de positividade para ovos de ancilostomídeos (13,5%) e ovos de Toxocara (8,8%), sendo também identificados ovos de Trichuris, Ascaris e Capillaria. O estudo demonstrou a contamina o ambiental de pra as públicas e os riscos a que a popula o está exposta em rela o a doen as causadas por geoparasitos zoonóticos e sugere que medidas de saneamento e educa o em saúde devem ser implementadas no município.
Primeiro registro de Syncuaria squamata (Linstow) (Nematoda, Acuariidae) em biguás, Phalacrocorax brasilianus (Gmelin) (Aves, Phalacrocoracidae) no Brasil
Monteiro, Cassandra M.;Amato, José F. R.;Amato, Suzana B.;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752006000400041
Abstract: the nematodes of the genus syncuaria gilbert, 1927 are parasites of birds of the orders pelecaniformes, ciconiiformes, and podicipediformes. eleven species are considered valid in this genus, however, two species, syncuaria buckleyi (ali, 1957) wong, anderson & bartlett 1986 and syncuaria squamata (linstow, 1883) wong, anderson & bartlett, 1986 are parasites of birds of the genus phalacrocorax brisson, 1760. between 1999 and 2003, 47 neotropical cormorants, phalacrocorax brasilianus (gmelin, 1789) were collected at lago guaíba, municipality of guaíba, rio grande do sul, brazil. eigth of these birds were infected with s. squamata. the prevalence and the mean intensity of infection were 8.5% (8 of 47) and 2.5 helminths/host, respectively. this communication extends the known geographical distribution of nematodes of the genus syncuaria to brazil.
Spatial Distribution and Modeling of Soil Transmitted Helminthes Infection in Nigeria  [PDF]
Clement Ameh Yaro, Ezekiel Kogi, Sodangi Abdulkarim Luka
Advances in Infectious Diseases (AID) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aid.2018.82010
Abstract: Background and Objective: Soil transmitted helminthes (STH) infection affects more than two billion people worldwide with Nigeria having the highest burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the spatial and potential distribution of STHs in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Secondary data were assessed from 98 journals and the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms were extracted from them. The spatial distribution of the parasites was performed using DIVA-GIS software. The climatic variables (temperature and precipitation) and elevation variable (altitude) were used in the modeling of the parasites using Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) modeling tool. Results: The average prevalence of A. lumbricoides, Hookworms and T. trichiura in Nigeria is 25.17%, 16.86% and 9.74% respectively. Delta State (62.08%) had the highest infection of A. lumbricoides followed by Oyo (55.50%) and Kano (44.40%) while 14 states had prevalence of below 20.0%. Akwa Ibom and Kano States had the highest average prevalence of 55.80% for hookworm infections. Delta, Oyo and Benue States had prevalence of 38.08%, 35.80%, and 35.40% respectively while 22 states had prevalence of hookworm below 20.0%. T. trichiura had the least average prevalence among the three STHs. Akwa Ibom State had the highest prevalence for this parasite with 40.40% followed by Lagos, Delta and Kwara States with prevalence values of 24.85%, 24.05% and 23.37% respectively. Other states in the Federation had prevalence values of less than 12% with Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja and Borno States having the least prevalence of 0.80 and 0.90% respectively. The potential distribution that reveals than southern Nigeria has been at high risk of infections. Precipitations of the wettest month, altitude, precipitation of the warmest quarter are the major environmental variables that affect the distribution of STH. Conclusion: Nigeria is characterized by varying prevalence of STHs. All states in Nigeria are endemic for STHs. Southern Nigeria was observed to have higher prevalence of STHs due to the high level of precipitation and low altitude of these regions. “The higher the altitude, the lower the prevalence of STH infections. The higher the temperature and precipitation, the higher the prevalence of STH infections.
Applied of HACCP System in the Eggs of Logistics Process

张玉华, 孟一
Hans Journal of Food and Nutrition Science (HJFNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.12677/hjfns.2012.11001
Abstract: 结合鸡蛋物流实际情况提出常温、多温和冷链物流三种方式,将HACCP管理体系应用于鸡蛋物流过程,以保证鸡蛋在流通过程中的品质与安全性。
With the actual situation of eggs logistics, room temperature logistics, multi-temperature logistics and cold- chain logistics were proposed. HACCP management system was applied to eggs logistics process to ensure the quality and safety of eggs in the logistics process.
Developmental stages and quality traits of giant African land snails [Archachatina marginata (swainson)] eggs  [PDF]
B. Okon, L. A. Ibom, I. E. Ebenso, A. E. Bassey
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.510137

Sixty sexually mature purebred black-skinned Archachatina marginata snails with weight ranging from 120.50 g to 135.70 g were used to generate eggs in this study. The eggs collected were incubated in a chamber filled with loamy soil for appropriate observation and assessment (cracking at four days intervals to check snailet’s development). Results obtained from the study showed that at laying snail egg weights ranged from 1.54 - 2.45 g (mean of 2.00 g). The egg lengths and widths ranged from 13.50 - 16.90 mm (mean of 15.20 mm) and 10.00 - 12.70 mm (mean of 11.40 mm) respectively. The results also revealed that at laying (day one) the egg content was translucent or clear (blank) when observed with light from a powered microscope. Observation of eggs on day four showed the formation of embryo with a semi-transparent cup attached to a long string body. On day 12, some specific organs of the snailet had developed, and there was a reduction in the liquid content. On day 28, the snailet was fully formed, but the shell still contained very small volume of liquid. The snailet hatched on day 29.

Enclosing the Air Gap from Formalin Delivery Tubing to Vertical-Flow Fish Egg Incubators Does Not Decrease Aerosolized Formaldehyde Levels  [PDF]
Jill M. Voorhees, Brian Fletcher, Michael E. Barnes
Open Journal of Safety Science and Technology (OJSST) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojsst.2018.83006
Abstract: Formalin treatments are frequently used to control water molds during hatchery incubation of salmonid eggs, creating potential occupational safety and health issues. This investigation evaluated the use of a novel technique to enclose the air gap from formalin treatment tubes to 16-tray vertical-flow incubation stacks. Standard formalin treatments of 1667 mg/L for 15-minutes were administered to one, three, or five stacks, both with, and without air gap enclosures. Enclosing the air gap did not significantly reduce aerosolized formaldehyde levels. Even during the treatment of five incubation stacks when formalin amounts were the greatest, mean (SE) peak airborne formaldehyde levels were 1.6 (0.2) mg/L and 1.5 (0.2)mg/L, either with or without air gap enclosure,respectively. The failure of air gap enclosure indicates other techniques are required to decrease aerosolized formaldehyde during formalin treatments of fish eggs in vertical-flow incubators.
Inter-rela??o entre asma, atopia e infec??es helmínticas
Ponte, Eduardo Vieira;Rizzo, José ?ngelo;Cruz, álvaro Augusto;
Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-37132007000300016
Abstract: to describe the principal evidence in the literature regarding the interrelationship among helminth infections, atopy, and asthma, a nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted. among the publications on the subject, we found a number in which there was controversy regarding the capacity of geohelminth infections to inhibit responsiveness to skin allergy tests and to minimize the symptoms of allergic diseases. however, although small in number, studies of patients infected with schistosoma spp. suggest that these helminths can inhibit the responsiveness to skin allergy testing and minimize asthma symptoms. evidence provided by in vitro studies suggests that helminthiases inhibit t helper 1- and t helper 2-type immune responses. this opens new therapeutic possibilities for the treatment of immune system diseases.
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