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Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part II: Meteorological characterisation
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: While in Paper I of four papers a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was deduced, in the present Paper II the model capability to predict the evolution of meteorological CBL parameters is demonstrated. Based on a model setup to simulate typical CBL conditions, predicted first-, second- and third-order moments were shown to agree very well with those obtained from in situ and remote sensing turbulence measurements such as aircraft, SODAR and LIDAR measurements as well as with those derived from ensemble-averaged large eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments. The results show, that the model is able to predict the meteorological CBL parameters, required to verify or falsify, respectively, previous hypothesis on the interaction between CBL turbulence and new particle formation.
Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part I: Modelling approach
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: A high-order modelling approach to interpret "continental-type" particle formation bursts in the anthropogenically influenced convective boundary layer (CBL) is proposed. The model considers third-order closure for planetary boundary layer turbulence, sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as aerosol dynamics. In Paper I of four papers, previous observations of ultrafine particle evolution are reviewed, model equations are derived, the model setup for a conceptual study on binary and ternary homogeneous nucleation is defined and shortcomings of process parameterisation are discussed. In the subsequent Papers II, III and IV simulation results, obtained within the framework of a conceptual study on the CBL evolution and new particle formation (NPF), will be presented and compared with observational findings.
Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs) and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF), whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT) is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3). Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated, that observations from the surface layer alone are not conclusive to elucidate the origin of newly formed particles. This is also true with respect to the interpretation of box modelling studies. The binary and ternary NPF bursts observed in the surface layer differ with respect to burst amplitude and phase. New particles simulated in the binary scenario are formed in the forenoon in the upper part of the growing CBL, followed by turbulence-induced top-down transport. Hence, with respect to the burst observation site in the surface layer, new particles are formed ex situ. In opposite to this, the ternary case reveals a much more complex pattern. Here, NPF is initiated in the early morning hours in the surface layer, when temperature (T) is low and relative humidity (RH), sulphur dioxide (SO2) and NH3 concentrations are high, hence new particles are formed in situ. Shortly after that, ex situ NPF in the free troposphere sets in, followed by entrainment and top-down diffusion of newly formed particles
Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2006,
Abstract: In the preceding Papers I, II and III a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to model gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was proposed, and simulation results of two synthetic nucleation scenarios (binary vs. ternary) on new particle formation (NPF) in the anthropogenically influenced CBL were presented and discussed. The purpose of the present finishing Paper IV is twofold: Firstly, an attempt is made to compile previous observational findings on NPF bursts in the CBL, obtained from a number of field experiments. Secondly, the scenario simulations discussed in Paper III will be evaluated with respect to the role of CBL turbulence in NPF burst evolution. It was demonstrated, that completely different nucleation mechanisms can lead to the occurrence of NPF bursts in the surface layer, but the corresponding evolution patterns strongly differ with respect to the origin, amplitude and phase of the NPF burst as well as with respect to the time-height evolution of turbulent vertical fluxes and double correlation terms of physicochemical and aerosoldynamical variables. The large differences between the binary and ternary case scenario indicate, that ammonia (NH3) can not be considered as a time-independent tuning parameter in nucleation modelling. Its contribution to the evolution of the NPF burst pattern is much more complicated and reflects the influence of CBL turbulence as well as the strong non-linearity of the ternary nucleation rate. The impact of water (H2O) vapour on the nucleation rate is quite varying depending on the considered nucleation mechanism. According to the classical theory of binary nucleation involving H2O and sulphuric acid (H2SO4), H2O vapour favours NPF, according to the classical theory of ternary nuncleation involving H2O, H2SO4 and NH3 and according to organic nucleation via chemical reactions involving stabilised Criegee intermediates (SCIs), H2O vapour disfavours nucleation, and according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996), H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyyti l (Southern Finland) or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany), can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not co
Conceptual study on nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – Part I: Modelling approach
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: A high-order modelling approach to interprete 'continental-type' particle formation bursts in the anthropogenically influenced convective boundary layer (CBL) is proposed. The model considers third-order closure for planetary boundary layer turbulence, sulfur and ammonia chemistry and aerosol dynamics. In part I of the present paper, previous observations of ultrafine particle evolution are reviewed, model equations are derived, the model setup for a conceptual study on binary and ternary homogeneous nucleation is defined, and shortcomings of process parameterization are discussed. In subsequent parts of the paper simulation results obtained within the framework of a conceptual study on the CBL evolution and new particle formation (NPF) will be presented and compared with observational findings.
Conceptual study on nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – Part II: Meteorological characterization
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: While in part I of the present paper a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to investigate gas-aerosol interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was deduced, in the present part the model capability to predict the evolution of meteorological CBL parameters is demonstrated. Based on a model setup to simulate typical CBL conditions, predicted first-, second- and third-order moments were shown to agree very well with those obtained from in situ and remote sensing turbulence measurements such as aircraft, SODAR and LIDAR measurements as well as with those derived from ensemble-averaged large-eddy simulations and wind tunnel experiments. The results show that the model is able to predict the meteorological CBL parameters, required to verify or falsify, respectively, previous hypothesis on the interaction between CBL turbulence and new particle formation.
Conceptual study on nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – Part III: Physico-chemical characterization
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: In part I of the present paper a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was proposed. In part II the model capability to predict first-, second-, and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present part, the high-order modelling concept is extented to sulfur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, two conceptual scenarios of the evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCN) in an anthropogenically influenced CBL are investigated. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation, whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulfuric acid vapour, the second one on nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia. Here, the two scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the Prandtl layer.
Conceptual study on nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – Part IV: Comparison with previous observations
O. Hellmuth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions , 2005,
Abstract: In part I to III of the present paper a revised columnar high-order modelling approach to model gas-aerosol interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL) was proposed, and simulation results of two nucleation scenarios (binary vs. ternary) on new particle formation (NPF) in the anthropogenically influenced CBL were presented. It was demonstrated that both scenarios strongly differ with respect to the amplitude and phase of the NPF burst detectable in the Prandtl layer, as well as with respect to the time-height evolution of turbulent vertical fluxes and double correlation terms of physico-chemical and aerosoldynamical variables. In the present part, an attempt is made to re-evaluate previous observations of NPF bursts in the CBL in view of the scenario simulations discussed in part III. Special attention is payed to the role of CBL turbulence in NPF burst evolution. At first, a compilation of empirical findings and hypothesis on NPF in the CBL derived from a number of field experiments, is performed. Secondly, it is demonstrated, that the binary scenario simulated in part III corresponds well to a number of NPF burst events observed in Hyyti l (Finland) and Melpitz (Eastern Germany). Here, one of the key hypothesis on the role of turbulence in NPF is confirmed. Other NPF events, such as those observed at Hohenpeissenberg, a mountain site (Southern Germany), can not yet be conclusively explained. To note, that the results of previous box modelling studies to explain NPF events at Hohenpeissenberg are not unambiguous. Nonetheless, based on only two simulated scenarios it is demonstrated, that a columnar high-order model is a helpful tool to elucidate the genesis of NPF bursts frequently observed in the CBL. A comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments as well as further scenario simulations remain to be performed.
On the Complexity of Recognizing S-composite and S-prime Graphs
Marc Hellmuth
Computer Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1016/j.dam.2012.11.003
Abstract: S-prime graphs are graphs that cannot be represented as nontrivial subgraphs of nontrivial Cartesian products of graphs, i.e., whenever it is a subgraph of a nontrivial Cartesian product graph it is a subgraph of one the factors. A graph is S-composite if it is not S-prime. Although linear time recognition algorithms for determining whether a graph is prime or not with respect to the Cartesian product are known, it remained unknown if a similar result holds also for the recognition of S-prime and S-composite graphs. In this contribution the computational complexity of recognizing S-composite and S-prime graphs is considered. Klav\v{z}ar et al. [Discr. Math. 244: 223-230 (2002)] proved that a graph is S-composite if and only if it admits a nontrivial path-k-coloring. The problem of determining whether there exists a path-2-coloring for a given graph is shown to be NP-complete, which in turn is utilized to show that determining whether a graph is S-composite is NP-complete and thus, determining whether a graph is S-prime is CoNP-complete. A plenty of other problems are shown to be NP-hard, using the latter results.
National Service Center, St. Louis County, Missouri - USA
Hellmuth, -,Obata, -,Kassabaum, -
Informes de la Construccion , 1979,
Abstract: The new building housing the National Service Center stands in a 40 Ha property in the outskirts of the city and it resembles more a university campus than an administrative centre. The building has only two levels above grade in an attempt to blend into the eminently rural surroundings, avoiding any architectural aggression to the natural environment. With a similar intention, earth hues were used in the precast concrete fa ade panels finish, completed by the horizontal emphasis of the dark bronze fenestration. Interiorly, the building is outstanding by its flexible arrangement, creating open and integrated office spaces. The modular structure allows for future expansion that will eventually double its present size without affecting its architectural unity. La nueva sede del National Service Center, situada en una parcela de más de 40 Há en el extrarradio de la ciudad, parece un campus universitario más que un centro administrativo. El edificio, que consta de sólo dos plantas sobre rasante, procura su integración en un paisaje marcadamente rural evitando la posible imposición agresiva de la arquitectura en el entorno natural. Con este fin se emplearon colores terrosos, en el acat>ado de los paneles prefabricados de cemento, complementados por una carpintería de marcado trazado horizontal en tonos bronce oscuro. Interiormente el edificio destaca por su flexibilidad, constituyendo espacios de oficinas abiertos e integrados. Su estructura modular permite la ampliación futura de la construcción, hasta duplicar su dimensión actual, sin alterar la unidad arquitectónica.
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