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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8000 matches for " Helena; Tubella "
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Prospective analysis of clinician accuracy in the diagnosis of benign anorectal pathology: the value of clinical information Análisis prospectivo de la precisión diagnóstica en la patología anorrectal benigna: importancia de la información clínica
Jaime Jimeno,Helena Vallverdú,Jaume Tubella,Cristina Sánchez-Pradell
Revista Espa?ola de Enfermedades Digestivas , 2012,
Abstract: Aim: the prevalence of anorectal disorders in general population is high. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of clinical symptoms on diagnostic accuracy for benign anorectal pathology among different specialists and evaluate the relationship between diagnostic accuracy and years of professional experience. Methods: seven typical cases were selected. In a first interview, participants were shown images and asked to make a diagnosis. Afterwards, images with additional information (clinical symptoms) were used. Two groups (group 1 = general surgeons and group 2 = medical specialists who attended emergency department) completed both phases of the study to analyze the influence of clinical symptoms on the final diagnosis. Results: forty four specialists were interviewed. The percentage of participants making a correct diagnosis in groups 1 and 2, respectively, was as follows: case 1 (perianal abscess): 100 vs. 80.6%, (p = 0.157); case 2 (fissure): 92.3 vs. 51.6% (p = 0.015); case 3 (thrombosed hemorrhoid): 92.3 vs. 74.2% (p = 0.321); case 4 (anal condyloma): 100 vs. 87.1% (p = 0.302); case 5 (rectal prolapse): 100 vs. 83.9% (p = 0.301); case 6 (prolapsed hemorrhoid): 92.3 vs. 29% (p = 0.001), and case 7 (fistula): 100 vs. 67.7% (p = 0.021). There were significant differences in the number of correctly diagnosed cases between groups (p < 0.001). Information about clinical symptoms significantly increased overall and specific accuracy. There was no correlation between experience and accuracy. Conclusions: clinical symptoms are important for diagnostic accuracy in anorectal pathology. Training in anorectal pathology in medical specialists is warranted. Objetivo: la prevalencia de los trastornos anorrectales benignos en la población general es alta. El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la influencia de los síntomas clínicos en la precisión diagnóstica de la patología benigna anorrectal entre los diferentes especialistas y evaluar la relación entre el diagnóstico de la enfermedad y los a os de experiencia profesional entre los profesionales participantes. Pacientes y métodos: se seleccionaron 7 casos típicos. En una primera entrevista, se mostró a los participantes las imágenes clínicas de cada caso y se les pidió que formularan un diagnóstico. Posteriormente, se volvió a mostrar las mismas imágenes con información clínica adicional. Dos grupos (grupo 1 = especialistas en cirugía general y digestiva y grupo 2 = especialistas de especialidades médicas con asistencia en el área de urgencias) completaron las dos fases del estudio para analizar la i
Prospective analysis of clinician accuracy in the diagnosis of benign anorectal pathology: the value of clinical information
Jimeno,Jaime; Vallverdú,Helena; Tubella,Jaume; Sánchez-Pradell,Cristina; Comajuncosas,Jordi; Orbeal,Rolando; Hermoso,Judit; Gris,Pere; López-Negre,José Luis; Urgellés,Joan; Parés,David;
Revista Espa?ola de Enfermedades Digestivas , 2012, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-01082012000300004
Abstract: aim: the prevalence of anorectal disorders in general population is high. the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of clinical symptoms on diagnostic accuracy for benign anorectal pathology among different specialists and evaluate the relationship between diagnostic accuracy and years of professional experience. methods: seven typical cases were selected. in a first interview, participants were shown images and asked to make a diagnosis. afterwards, images with additional information (clinical symptoms) were used. two groups (group 1 = general surgeons and group 2 = medical specialists who attended emergency department) completed both phases of the study to analyze the influence of clinical symptoms on the final diagnosis. results: forty four specialists were interviewed. the percentage of participants making a correct diagnosis in groups 1 and 2, respectively, was as follows: case 1 (perianal abscess): 100 vs. 80.6%, (p = 0.157); case 2 (fissure): 92.3 vs. 51.6% (p = 0.015); case 3 (thrombosed hemorrhoid): 92.3 vs. 74.2% (p = 0.321); case 4 (anal condyloma): 100 vs. 87.1% (p = 0.302); case 5 (rectal prolapse): 100 vs. 83.9% (p = 0.301); case 6 (prolapsed hemorrhoid): 92.3 vs. 29% (p = 0.001), and case 7 (fistula): 100 vs. 67.7% (p = 0.021). there were significant differences in the number of correctly diagnosed cases between groups (p < 0.001). information about clinical symptoms significantly increased overall and specific accuracy. there was no correlation between experience and accuracy. conclusions: clinical symptoms are important for diagnostic accuracy in anorectal pathology. training in anorectal pathology in medical specialists is warranted.
Apparent Solubility of Natural Products Extracted with Near-Critical Carbon Dioxide  [PDF]
Helena Sovová
American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (AJAC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.312A127
Abstract:

The apparent solubility controls the initial stage of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products, which is most important for the process economics. Based on the literature, data on CO2 apparent solubility of volatile substances from different matrices as leaves, flowers, rhizomes and seeds were collected and compared with their thermodynamic solubility. The adsorption isotherm derived by del Valle and Urrego as a modification of the isotherm proposed by Perrut et al. is universal enough to interpret these data as well as the apparent solubility of vegetable oils from seeds, for which it was originally proposed. When the apparent solubility of minor extract components in CO2 is compared with their thermodynamic solubility, their fraction in the extracted mixture should be taken into account.

The Performance as Educator in the Health System: Implications for Brazilian Health Workers Education Process  [PDF]
Alva Helena De Almeida
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.511106
Abstract:

This paper has the purpose of discussing the performance as health educators in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) and also emphasizing the importance of the educational process for health workforce qualification as well as management device of health systems. This performance has been a strong strategy for SUS implementation process in Brazil.

Chromium as an Environmental Pollutant: Insights on Induced Plant Toxicity
Helena Oliveira
Journal of Botany , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/375843
Abstract: In the past decades the increased use of chromium (Cr) in several anthropogenic activities and consequent contamination of soil and water have become an increasing concern. Cr exists in several oxidation states but the most stable and common forms are Cr(0), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) species. Cr toxicity in plants depends on its valence state. Cr(VI) as being highly mobile is toxic, while Cr(III) as less mobile is less toxic. Cr is taken up by plants through carriers of essential ions such as sulphate. Cr uptake, translocation, and accumulation depend on its speciation, which also conditions its toxicity to plants. Symptoms of Cr toxicity in plants are diverse and include decrease of seed germination, reduction of growth, decrease of yield, inhibition of enzymatic activities, impairment of photosynthesis, nutrient and oxidative imbalances, and mutagenesis. 1. Introduction Chromium (Cr) is the 17th most abundant element in the Earth’s mantle [1]. It occurs naturally as chromite (FeCr2O4) in ultramafic and serpentine rocks or complexed with other metals like crocoite (PbCrO4), bentorite Ca6(Cr,Al)2(SO4)3 and tarapacaite (K2CrO4), vauquelinite (CuPb2CrO4PO4OH), among others [2]. Cr is widely used in industry as plating, alloying, tanning of animal hides, inhibition of water corrosion, textile dyes and mordants, pigments, ceramic glazes, refractory bricks, and pressure-treated lumber [1]. Due to this wide anthropogenic use of Cr, the consequent environmental contamination increased and has become an increasing concern in the last years [3]. Chromium exists in several oxidation states, but the most stable and common forms are Cr(0), the trivalent Cr(III), and the hexavalent Cr(VI) species. Cr(0) is the metallic form, produced in industry and is a solid with high fusion point usually used for the manufacturing of steel and other alloys. Cr(VI) in the forms of chromate ( C r O 4 2 ? ), dichromate ( C r O 4 2 ? ), and CrO3 is considered the most toxic forms of chromium, as it presents high oxidizing potential, high solubility, and mobility across the membranes in living organisms and in the environment. Cr(III) in the forms of oxides, hydroxides, and sulphates is less toxic as it is relatively insoluble in water, presents lower mobility, and is mainly bound to organic matter in soil and aquatic environments. Moreover, Cr(III) forms tend to form hydroxide precipitates with Fe at typical ground water pH values. At high concentrations of oxygen or Mn oxides, Cr(III) can be oxidized to Cr(VI) [4, 5]. As Cr(VI) and Cr(III) present different chemical, toxicological, and
Among Synthetic, Supramolecular and Theoretical Chemistry Stabilization of Short-lived Species in “Molecular’ or ‘Supramolecular Flasks’
Helena Dodziuk
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2002, DOI: 10.3390/i3070814
Abstract: The recent advances in the syntheses of short-lived species inside cages of ‘molecular’ or ‘supramolecular flasks’ lead their more involved studies. Moreover, they open prospects for much closer and fruitful cooperation among organic synthetic, theoretical and supramolecular chemists that will allow one to obtain and study numerous, exciting highly strained molecules, ions and/or radicals.
American Society for Clinical Oncology 39th Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois, USA, 31 May to 3 June 2003: Breast cancer neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy – prognostic and predictive markers
Helena Earl
Breast Cancer Research , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/bcr647
Abstract: The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting is a leading educational and scientific event for oncologists, clinical researchers, academics and other health care professionals involved in multidisciplinary cancer care. This year the congress was held in Chicago, Illinois, from May 31 to June 3. The theme for the 39th annual meeting was 'Commitment, care, compassion: honouring people with cancer'. The goal of the meeting was to promote communication among cancer related medical specialities and the exchange of ideas arising from ongoing advances in oncology. This encompassed the areas of pathophysiology, diagnosis and management, and included innovations in therapies. For the first time this year, an oral presentation session was devoted to pharmacogenomics. A wide range of translational scientific research relevant to breast cancer was covered as well as new clinical data pertinent to breast oncology management.Worldwide, many research groups are concentrating on breast cancer gene expression and molecular profiling, and this area was given significant coverage at the ASCO meeting. The first presentation in the meeting's plenary session, given by Lajos Pusztai from the MD Anderson group, dealt with the predictive nature of profiling in terms of response to chemotherapy. Their group described the use of gene expression profiling in predicting complete pathological response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with a paclitaxel and anthracycline combination (abstract #1 [1]). In 21 patients the overall accuracy of response prediction based on a group of five genes (three oestrogen sulphotransferases, nuclear factor 1/A, and histone acetyltransferase) was 81% and the positive predictive value for pCR was 75%, with an overall specificity of 93%, although sensitivity fell to 50%.The group from Baylor College (abstract #32 [1]) presented their work on gene expression patterns for de novo and acquired resistance to docetaxel. Twenty-four patients had paired
Cancer of the Breast – a new edition of a classic reference text
Helena Earl
Breast Cancer Research , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/bcr764
Abstract: The review of epidemiology was excellent, and presumably the next edition will include the emerging evidence from the Million Woman Study on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and breast cancer risk. As a working clinician, I particularly enjoyed the excellent coverage of nutrition and breast disease (chapter 9), prevention (chapter 12), and exercise and weight control in prevention and rehabilitation (chapter 13). These provided a comprehensive review of evidence in the subject areas I am so often challenged on by my patients and friends, but of which I am relatively ignorant. 'What is your opinion, Doctor, of a healthy life-style to reduce the risk of breast cancer or breast cancer recurrence?' There was also a very comprehensive and up to date review of both hormone therapy and chemotherapy by authors of international repute, which I could not fault.The coverage of molecular and biological aspects of breast cancer was on the whole very good, thorough, up to date and readable, and again provides an excellent reference text. I enjoyed the chapter on the genetic basis for the emergence and progression of breast cancer (10), and the molecular biology of breast cancer (11), although the latter needs some good illustrations to improve its comprehensibility. The chapter on cellular kinetics (19) was interesting but probably too long and somewhat outdated. The chapter on growth rates (21) definitely had too few pictures, and as this is an important and interesting area of research, and pertinent to the general breast cancer researcher, it needs to be re-interpreted in a more readable style. Too many mathematical equations in a text usually lead to inattention in the reader, and this important information needs to be better presented.Where did the book disappoint? The chapter that covered prognosis (22) really needs to be separated and expanded to include information on the promise of the emerging technologies of molecular profiling, proteomics, and bio-informatics. Pregna
Orienta??o sexual em uma escola: recortes de corpos e de gênero
Altmann, Helena;
Cadernos Pagu , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332003000200012
Abstract: this article deals with sexual orientation in a municipal grade school (grades 5th to 8th) in rio de janeiro, brazil. the reflections about how a school develops this work are investigated from the perspective of the emergence of an image of gender during the making up of an ethnographic study. the fact that a larger number of girls than boys allowed themselves to be interviewed leads one to question who talks about these subjects with the adolescents and how the topic of sexuality is approached, limited and inserted into the school. it can be said that there are two central topics around which sex education classes are organized: pregnancy and std/aids, to which are linked the forms of prevention - the condom and birth control methods. this is followed by a discussion of issues about how the feminine and masculine bodies are viewed, which is in turn related to the historical process of the female body's medicalization. finally, a few issues about some paradoxes confronted by the adolescents in relation to birth control.
Globaliza??o e divis?o sexual do trabalho
Hirata, Helena;
Cadernos Pagu , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-83332002000100006
Abstract: the discussion about the caracteristics and the limits of the notion of "globalization" will conduct us to the analysis of the deep transformations of the world(s) of work during the nineties. three issues interest us: first, the effects of globalization on the sexual division of labour; second, the new trends of female employment in the crisis; third, the french debate about the institutional and juridical alternatives related to the previous discussion about the "end of work" or the "centrality of work"; in conclusion, we will refer to the alternatives coming from the social mouvements against the employment crisis and the development of precariousness.
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