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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7992 matches for " Helena Gylling "
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Dose-dependent LDL-cholesterol lowering effect by plant stanol ester consumption: clinical evidence
Laitinen Kirsi,Gylling Helena
Lipids in Health and Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-511x-11-140
Abstract: Elevated serum lipids are linked to cardiovascular diseases calling for effective therapeutic means to reduce particularly LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Plant stanols reduce levels of LDL-C by partly blocking cholesterol absorption. Accordingly the consumption of foods with added plant stanols, typically esterified with vegetable oil fatty acids in commercial food products, are recommended for lowering serum cholesterol levels. A daily intake of 1.5 to 2.4 g of plant stanols has been scientifically evaluated to lower LDL-C by 7 to 10% in different populations, ages and with different diseases. Based on earlier studies, a general understanding is that no further reduction may be achieved in intakes in excess of approximately 2.5 g/day. Recent studies however suggest that plant stanols show a continuous dose–response effect in serum LDL-C lowering. This review discusses the evidence for a dose-effect relationship between plant stanol ester consumption and reduction of LDL-C concentrations with daily intakes of plant stanols of 4 g/day or more. We identified five such studies and the overall data demonstrate a linear dose-effect relationship with the most pertinent LDL-Cholesterol lowering outcome, 18%, achieved by a daily intake of 9 to 10 g of plant stanols. Along with reduction in LDL-C, the studies demonstrated a decrease in cholesterol absorption markers, the serum plant sterol to cholesterol ratios, by increasing the dose of plant stanol intake. None of the studies with daily intakes up to 10 g of plant stanols reported adverse clinical or biochemical effects from plant stanols. In a like manner, the magnitude of decrease in serum antioxidant vitamins was not related to the dose of plant stanols consumed and the differences between plant stanol ester consumers and controls were minor and insignificant or nonexisting. Consumption of plant stanols in high doses is feasible as a range of food products are commercially available for consumption including spreads and yoghurt type drinks. In conclusion, a dose-effect relationship of plant stanols in higher doses than currently recommended has been demonstrated by recent clinical studies and a meta-analysis. Further studies are called for to provide confirmatory evidence amenable for new health claim applications and dietary recommendations.
A review of clinical trials in dietary interventions to decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease
Helena Gylling, Tatu A Miettinen
Trials , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/cvm-2-3-123
Abstract: The literature concerning the associations between various dietary elements and CAD extends from antioxidants to alcohol and from mice to humans, through data from large observational studies to clinical trials. The largest body of information deals with dietary cholesterol and fat. Indeed, the only evidence-based means identified thus far by which atherosclerotic lesions can be retarded or even regressed is by lowering the serum cholesterol concentration. The effects of vitamins, provitamins and/or other antioxidants on atherosclerosis are still controversial. Elevated serum homocyst(e)ine concentration, which has an unquestionable association with the risk for CAD in epidemiological studies, still lacks definitive confirmation as a causal factor in development of atherosclerosis. We must await the results of ongoing clinical trials, which will determine whether lowering homocyst(e)ine by treatment with vitamin therapy will reduce the incidence of CAD. Therefore, the present review is limited to the evidence regarding dietary fats and cholesterol, including that related to 'functional foods' that contain certain newcomers to the dietary fats - phytostanol and phytosterol esters.During the 1950s and 1960s, an indisputable relationship between diet and CAD was identified in most of the large epidemiological follow-up studies conducted [1]. The abundance of dietary total fat [[2-4]], especially that of saturated fatty acids [2,3,5,6] and cholesterol [3,4,7], was independently related to mortality associated with CAD. In a recent prospective cohort study in healthy women (n = 80,082) aged 34-59 years [8], the amount of saturated and trans-unsaturated fat intake was significantly associated with increased risk for CAD during a follow-up period of 14 years. Dietary intakes of cholesterol and total fat were not associated with the risk for CAD in that study. It was estimated that replacement of 5% of energy from saturated fat and 2% from trans-unsaturated fatty acids by u
Low-Fat Nondairy Minidrink Containing Plant Stanol Ester Effectively Reduces LDL Cholesterol in Subjects with Mild to Moderate Hypercholesterolemia as Part of a Western Diet
Maarit Hallikainen,Johan Olsson,Helena Gylling
Cholesterol , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/192325
Abstract: The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of plant stanol ester (STAEST) added to fat- or milk-based products is well documented. However, their efficacy when added to nondairy liquid drinks is less certain. Therefore, we have investigated the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of STAEST added to a soymilk-based minidrink in the hypercholesterolemic subjects. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel study, the intervention group ( ) consumed 2.7?g/d of plant stanols as the ester in soymilk-based minidrink (65?mL/d) with the control group ( ) receiving the same drink without added plant stanols once a day with a meal for 4 weeks. Serum total, LDL, and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced by 8.0, 11.1, and 10.2% compared with controls ( for all). Serum plant sterol concentrations and their ratios to cholesterol declined by 12–25% from baseline in the STAEST group while the ratio of campesterol to cholesterol was increased by 10% in the controls ( for all). Serum precursors of cholesterol remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, STAEST-containing soymilk-based low-fat minidrink consumed once a day with a meal lowered LDL and non-HDL cholesterol concentrations without evoking any side effects in subjects consuming normal Western diet. The clinical trial registration number is NCT01716390. 1. Introduction It is known that the best way to reduce the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) is to lower the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level. It has been estimated that each 1% reduction in LDL cholesterol achieves a 1% reduction in the risk of CAD [1]. Phytosterols have attracted considerable interest as cholesterol-lowering agents since the 1950s [2] due to their ability to reduce the serum LDL cholesterol level by interfering with cholesterol absorption. In a recent meta-analysis, LDL cholesterol values were reduced by 9% with a 2?g daily dose of plant stanols, and furthermore increasing the daily intake of plant stanols was found to dose-dependently reduce LDL cholesterol [3]. Most of the studies included in the plant stanol ester (STAEST) meta-analysis have been performed with solid food format, and only in four studies out of 61 has the plant stanol been in liquid dairy and one in a nondairy form [3]. The EFSA NDA Panel concluded in its heath claim dossier that STAEST at a daily intake of 3?g plant stanols (range of 2.7?g to 3.3?g) in matrices approved by Regulation (EC) No 376/2010 (yellow fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise, and salad dressings) can lower LDL cholesterol by 11.4% (95% CI: 9.8–13.0) and STAEST added
Cholesterol Metabolism and Weight Reduction in Subjects with Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: A Randomised, Controlled Study
Maarit Hallikainen,Henri Tuomilehto,Tarja Martikainen,Esko Vanninen,Juha Sepp?,Jouko Kokkarinen,Jukka Randell,Helena Gylling
Cholesterol , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/769457
Abstract: To evaluate whether parameters of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) associate with cholesterol metabolism before and after weight reduction, 42 middle-aged overweight subjects with mild OSA were randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention ( ) or to control group ( ) with routine lifestyle counselling only. Cholesterol metabolism was evaluated with serum noncholesterol sterol ratios to cholesterol, surrogate markers of cholesterol absorption (cholestanol and plant sterols) and synthesis (cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol) at baseline and after 1-year intervention. At baseline, arterial oxygen saturation ( ) was associated with serum campesterol ( ) and inversely with desmosterol ratios ( ) independently of gender, BMI, and homeostasis model assessment index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) was not associated with cholesterol metabolism. Weight reduction significantly increased and serum cholestanol and decreased AHI and serum cholestenol ratios. In the groups combined, the changes in AHI were inversely associated with changes of cholestanol and positively with cholestenol ratios independent of gender and the changes of BMI and HOMA-IR ( ). In conclusion, mild OSA seemed to be associated with cholesterol metabolism independent of BMI and HOMA-IR. Weight reduction increased the markers of cholesterol absorption and decreased those of cholesterol synthesis in the overweight subjects with mild OSA. 1. Introduction Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) characterized by repeated episodes of apnoea and hypopnoea during sleep is one of the most common sleep disturbances [1]. OSA is independently associated with hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes [2–7]. Furthermore, recent epidemiological studies have concluded that OSA is an important risk factor for mortality, particularly due to coronary artery disease [8, 9]. However, the underlying mechanisms explaining these associations are rather complex, and although several possibilities have been proposed, they are not entirely accepted. In general, atherogenesis as well as OSA is considered as slow processes, and the onset is likely to begin years before any symptoms appear. We have earlier demonstrated that even mild OSA is associated with the activation of the proinflammatory system [10]. Furthermore, since elevated LDL cholesterol level is one of the most important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, the question raises whether OSA has a role in hypercholesterolaemia or in cholesterol metabolism. In some, but not in
Whole Grain Products, Fish and Bilberries Alter Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in a Randomized, Controlled Trial: The Sysdimet Study
Maria Lankinen, Ursula Schwab, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Jussi Paananen, Kaisa Poutanen, Hannu Mykk?nen, Tuulikki Sepp?nen-Laakso, Helena Gylling, Matti Uusitupa, Matej Ore?i?
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022646
Abstract: Background Due to the growing prevalence of type 2 diabetes, new dietary solutions are needed to help improve glucose and lipid metabolism in persons at high risk of developing the disease. Herein we investigated the effects of low-insulin-response grain products, fatty fish, and berries on glucose metabolism and plasma lipidomic profiles in persons with impaired glucose metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings Altogether 106 men and women with impaired glucose metabolism and with at least two other features of the metabolic syndrome were included in a 12-week parallel dietary intervention. The participants were randomized into three diet intervention groups: (1) whole grain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish three times a week, and bilberries three portions per day (HealthyDiet group), (2) Whole grain enriched diet (WGED) group, which includes principally the same grain products as group (1), but with no change in fish or berry consumption, and (3) refined wheat breads (Control). Oral glucose tolerance, plasma fatty acids and lipidomic profiles were measured before and after the intervention. Self-reported compliance with the diets was good and the body weight remained constant. Within the HealthyDiet group two hour glucose concentration and area-under-the-curve for glucose decreased and plasma proportion of (n-3) long-chain PUFAs increased (False Discovery Rate p-values <0.05). Increases in eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid associated curvilinearly with the improved insulin secretion and glucose disposal. Among the 364 characterized lipids, 25 changed significantly in the HealthyDiet group, including multiple triglycerides incorporating the long chain (n-3) PUFA. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that the diet rich in whole grain and low insulin response grain products, bilberries, and fatty fish improve glucose metabolism and alter the lipidomic profile. Therefore, such a diet may have a beneficial effect in the efforts to prevent type 2 diabetes in high risk persons. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781
Fatty Fish Intake Decreases Lipids Related to Inflammation and Insulin Signaling—A Lipidomics Approach
Maria Lankinen, Ursula Schwab, Arja Erkkil?, Tuulikki Sepp?nen-Laakso, Marja-Leena Hannila, Hanna Mussalo, Seppo Lehto, Matti Uusitupa, Helena Gylling, Matej Ore?i?
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005258
Abstract: Background The evidence of the multiple beneficial health effects of fish consumption is strong, but physiological mechanisms behind these effects are not completely known. Little information is available on the effects of consumption of different type of fish. The aim of this study was to investigate how fatty fish or lean fish in a diet affect serum lipidomic profiles in subjects with coronary heart disease. Methodology and Principal Findings A pilot study was designed which included altogether 33 subjects with myocardial infarction or unstable ischemic attack in an 8-week parallel controlled intervention. The subjects were randomized to either fatty fish (n = 11), lean fish (n = 12) or control (n = 10) groups. Subjects in the fish groups had 4 fish meals per week and subjects in the control group consumed lean beef, pork and chicken. A fish meal was allowed once a week maximum. Lipidomics analyses were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. Multiple bioactive lipid species, including ceramides, lysophosphatidylcholines and diacylglycerols, decreased significantly in the fatty fish group, whereas in the lean fish group cholesterol esters and specific long-chain triacylglycerols increased significantly (False Discovery Rate q-value <0.05). Conclusions/Significance The 8-week consumption of fatty fish decreased lipids which are potential mediators of lipid-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, and may be related to the protective effects of fatty fish on the progression of atherosclerotic vascular diseases or insulin resistance. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00720655
Non-Cholesterol Sterol Levels Predict Hyperglycemia and Conversion to Type 2 Diabetes in Finnish Men
Henna Cederberg, Helena Gylling, Tatu A. Miettinen, Jussi Paananen, Jagadish Vangipurapu, Jussi Pihlajam?ki, Teemu Kuulasmaa, Alena Stan?áková, Ulf Smith, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067406
Abstract: We investigated the levels of non-cholesterol sterols as predictors for the development of hyperglycemia (an increase in the glucose area under the curve in an oral glucose tolerance test) and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up study of a population-based cohort of Finnish men (METSIM Study, N = 1,050) having non-cholesterol sterols measured at baseline. Additionally we determined the association of 538,265 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) with non-cholesterol sterol levels in a cross-sectional cohort of non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetes (the Kuopio cohort of the EUGENE2 Study, N = 273). We found that in a cross-sectional METSIM Study the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol absorption were reduced as a function of increasing fasting glucose levels, whereas the levels of sterols indicating cholesterol synthesis were increased as a function of increasing 2-hour glucose levels. A cholesterol synthesis marker desmosterol significantly predicted an increase, and two absorption markers (campesterol and avenasterol) a decrease in the risk of hyperglycemia and incident type 2 diabetes in a 5-year follow-up of the METSIM cohort, mainly attributable to insulin sensitivity. A SNP of ABCG8 was associated with fasting plasma glucose levels in a cross-sectional study but did not predict hyperglycemia or incident type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, the levels of some, but not all non-cholesterol sterols are markers of the worsening of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes.
Triacylglycerol Fatty Acid Composition in Diet-Induced Weight Loss in Subjects with Abnormal Glucose Metabolism – the GENOBIN Study
Ursula Schwab, Tuulikki Sepp?nen-Laakso, Laxman Yetukuri, Jyrki ?gren, Marjukka Kolehmainen, David E. Laaksonen, Anna-Liisa Ruskeep??, Helena Gylling, Matti Uusitupa, Matej Ore?i?, for the GENOBIN Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002630
Abstract: Background The effect of weight loss on different plasma lipid subclasses at the molecular level is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether a diet-induced weight reduction result in changes in the extended plasma lipid profiles (lipidome) in subjects with features of metabolic syndrome in a 33-week intervention. Methodology/Principal Findings Plasma samples of 9 subjects in the weight reduction group and 10 subjects in the control group were analyzed using mass spectrometry based lipidomic and fatty acid analyses. Body weight decreased in the weight reduction group by 7.8±2.9% (p<0.01). Most of the serum triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were reduced. The decrease in triacylglycerols affected predominantly the saturated short chain fatty acids. This decrease of saturated short chain fatty acid containing triacylglycerols correlated with the increase of insulin sensitivity. However, levels of several longer chain fatty acids, including arachidonic and docosahexanoic acid, were not affected by weight loss. Levels of other lipids known to be associated with obesity such as sphingolipids and lysophosphatidylcholines were not altered by weight reduction. Conclusions/Significance Diet-induced weight loss caused significant changes in global lipid profiles in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. The observed changes may affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in these subjects. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00621205
Effects of Whole Grain, Fish and Bilberries on Serum Metabolic Profile and Lipid Transfer Protein Activities: A Randomized Trial (Sysdimet)
Maria Lankinen, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Tiina J??skel?inen, Jussi Paananen, Laura Joukamo, Antti J. Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Kaisa Poutanen, Hannu Mykk?nen, Helena Gylling, Matej Ore?i?, Matti Jauhiainen, Mika Ala-Korpela, Matti Uusitupa, Ursula Schwab
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090352
Abstract: Objective We studied the combined effects of wholegrain, fish and bilberries on serum metabolic profile and lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with the metabolic syndrome. Methods Altogether 131 subjects (40–70 y, BMI 26–39 kg/m2) with impaired glucose metabolism and features of the metabolic syndrome were randomized into three groups with 12-week periods according to a parallel study design. They consumed either: a) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products, fatty fish 3 times a week, and bilberries 3 portions per day (HealthyDiet), b) wholegrain and low postprandial insulin response grain products (WGED), or c) refined wheat breads as cereal products (Control). Altogether 106 subjects completed the study. Serum metabolic profile was studied using an NMR-based platform providing information on lipoprotein subclasses and lipids as well as low-molecular-weight metabolites. Results There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics between the groups at baseline or at the end of the intervention. Mixed model analyses revealed significant changes in lipid metabolites in the HealthyDiet group during the intervention compared to the Control group. All changes reflected increased polyunsaturation in plasma fatty acids, especially in n-3 PUFAs, while n-6 and n-7 fatty acids decreased. According to tertiles of changes in fish intake, a greater increase of fish intake was associated with increased concentration of large HDL particles, larger average diameter of HDL particles, and increased concentrations of large HDL lipid components, even though total levels of HDL cholesterol remained stable. Conclusions The results suggest that consumption of diet rich in whole grain, bilberries and especially fatty fish causes changes in HDL particles shifting their subclass distribution toward larger particles. These changes may be related to known protective functions of HDL such as reverse cholesterol transport and could partly explain the known protective effects of fish consumption against atherosclerosis. Trial Registration The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00573781.
Osbpl8 Deficiency in Mouse Causes an Elevation of High-Density Lipoproteins and Gender-Specific Alterations of Lipid Metabolism
Olivier Béaslas, Jari Metso, Eija Nissil?, Pirkka-Pekka Laurila, Essi Kaiharju, Krishna Chaithanya Batchu, Leena Kaipiainen, Mikko I. M?yr?np??, Daoguang Yan, Helena Gylling, Matti Jauhiainen, Vesa M. Olkkonen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058856
Abstract: OSBP-related protein 8 (ORP8) encoded by Osbpl8 is an endoplasmic reticulum sterol sensor implicated in cellular lipid metabolism. We generated an Osbpl8?/? (KO) C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Wild-type and Osbpl8KO animals at the age of 13-weeks were fed for 5 weeks either chow or high-fat diet, and their plasma lipids/lipoproteins and hepatic lipids were analyzed. The chow-fed Osbpl8KO male mice showed a marked elevation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (+79%) and phospholipids (+35%), while only minor increase of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) was detected. In chow-fed female KO mice a less prominent increase of HDL cholesterol (+27%) was observed, while on western diet the HDL increment was prominent in both genders. The HDL increase was accompanied by an elevated level of HDL-associated apolipoprotein E in male, but not female KO animals. No differences between genotypes were observed in lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) or hepatic lipase (HL) activity, or in the fractional catabolic rate of fluorescently labeled mouse HDL injected in chow-diet fed animals. The Osbpl8KO mice of both genders displayed reduced phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, but only on chow diet. These findings are consistent with a model in which Osbpl8 deficiency results in altered biosynthesis of HDL. Consistent with this hypothesis, ORP8 depleted mouse hepatocytes secreted an increased amount of nascent HDL into the culture medium. In addition to the HDL phenotype, distinct gender-specific alterations in lipid metabolism were detected: Female KO animals on chow diet showed reduced lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity and increased plasma triglycerides, while the male KO mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol biosynthetic markers cholestenol, desmosterol, and lathosterol. Moreover, modest gender-specific alterations in the hepatic expression of lipid homeostatic genes were observed. In conclusion, we report the first viable OsbplKO mouse model, demonstrating a HDL elevating effect of Osbpl8 knock-out and additional gender- and/or diet-dependent impacts on lipid metabolism.
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