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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 222 matches for " Heiervang Einar "
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The strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a screening instrument for norwegian child and adolescent mental health services, application of UK scoring algorithms
Br?ndbo Per,Mathiassen B?rge,Martinussen Monica,Heiervang Einar
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1753-2000-5-32
Abstract: Background The use of screening instruments can reduce waiting lists and increase treatment capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with the original UK scoring algorithms, when used as a screening instrument to detect mental health disorders among patients in the Norwegian Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) North Study. Methods A total of 286 outpatients, aged 5 to 18 years, from the CAMHS North Study were assigned diagnoses based on a Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). The main diagnostic groups (emotional, hyperactivity, conduct and other disorders) were then compared to the SDQ scoring algorithms using two dichotomisation levels: 'possible' and 'probable' levels. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (ORD) were calculated. Results Sensitivity for the diagnostic categories included was 0.47-0.85 ('probable' dichotomisation level) and 0.81-1.00 ('possible' dichotomisation level). Specificity was 0.52-0.87 ('probable' level) and 0.24-0.58 ('possible' level). The discriminative ability, as measured by ORD, was in the interval for potentially useful tests for hyperactivity disorders and conduct disorders when dichotomised on the 'possible' level. Conclusions The usefulness of the SDQ UK-based scoring algorithms in detecting mental health disorders among patients in the CAMHS North Study is only partly supported in the present study. They seem best suited to identify children and adolescents who do not require further psychiatric evaluation, although this as well is problematic from a clinical point of view.
Screening Foster Children for Mental Disorders: Properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
Stine Lehmann, Einar R. Heiervang, Toril Havik, Odd E. Havik
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102134
Abstract: Background High prevalence of mental disorders among foster children highlight the need to examine the mental health of children placed out of home. We examined the properties of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in screening school-aged foster children for mental disorders. Methods Foster parents and teachers of 279 foster children completed the SDQ and the diagnostic interview Developmental and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Using the diagnoses derived from the DAWBA as the standard, we examined the performance of the SDQ scales as dimensional measures of mental health problems using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Recommended cut-off scores were derived from ROC coordinates. The SDQ predictive algorithms were also examined. Results ROC analyses supported the screening properties of the SDQ Total difficulties and Impact scores (AUC = 0.80–0.83). Logistic regression analyses showed that the prevalence of mental disorders increased linearly with higher SDQ Total difficulties scores (X2 = 121.47, df = 13, p<.001) and Impact scores (X2 = 69.93, df = 6, p<.001). Our results indicated that there is an additive value of combining the scores from the Total difficulties and Impact scales, where scores above cut-off on any of the two scales predicted disorders with high sensitivity (89.1%), but moderate specificity (62.1%). Scores above cut-off on both scales yielded somewhat lower sensitivity (73.4%), but higher specificity (81.1%). The SDQ multi-informant algorithm showed low discriminative ability for the main diagnostic categories, with an exception being the SDQ Conduct subscale, which accurately predicted the absence of behavioural disorders (LHR? = 0.00). Conclusions The results support the use of the SDQ Total difficulties and Impact scales when screening foster children for mental health problems. Cut-off values for both scales are suggested. The SDQ multi-informant algorithms are not recommended for mental health screening of foster children in Norway.
Intuition, a Part of Bipolar Disorder? The Emotional Brain-Survival and Time  [PDF]
Einar Hellbom
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.32009
Abstract: Survival and reproduction are essential for all living forms. Can intuition increase the survival rate and be a part of the evolution? One of our survival functions is the automatic response to fear like our reaction to snakes mediated by the amygdala also called the emotional brain. But how fast can the amygdala react? Can it react and protect even before an event has occurred? Dreams and visions bringing warnings of future danger have been described by many people. The condition can be related to psychiatric disorders and have a genetic base. If we strictly follow Einstein’s general theory, time is a dimension containing our universe’s past and future at the same time. Then a “time mirage” can be like an optical mirage where you can see people in the desert but they cannot see you. Our methods of measuring this dimension are limiting our understanding of it; but if the brain has access to the dimension, we might be able to study and understand it better with new tests.
Deviants or Consenting Adults: A Human Rights Approach to Defining and Controlling Deviant Behavior  [PDF]
Einar Nick Larsen
Sociology Mind (SM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/sm.2013.31001

This article examines the concept of deviance within a human rights perspective. The current debate over the need for consent, and the difficulty inherent in attempting to reach a consensus regarding definitions of deviance, are discussed. The positivist and subjectivist-constructionist approaches to defining deviance are outlined and critiqued. It is concluded that both of these models are inadequate for defining deviance and that a more objective approach is required which reflects society’s interests, while also protecting individuals from the tyranny of the majority. This conclusion leads to the development of a new model of deviance which incorporates human rights into the method for defining deviance. This model rests on the argument that there is a crucial difference between behaviors which are undesirable and those which are unacceptable. It is further argued that only unacceptable behaviors should be prohibited and that behaviors which are merely undesirable should be tolerated and regulated. A model is elaborated in which five criteria are posited as a methodology for determining whether particular behavior is deviant and/or whether it should be controlled through criminal sanctions.

The Use of Social Media in Medical Education: A Literature Review  [PDF]
Einar Arnbj?rnsson
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.524229
Abstract: Social networks are frequently used by university students, as well as by the rest of the population worldwide to communicate, collect information, and share information and images. The aim of this report was to determine if there was substantial evidence in the literature that demonstrated the benefits of using social networks to enhance the learning process, as measured by students’ performance on examinations. The main outcome measures were any measurable difference between students who used social networks as part of their education compared to those who did not. A systemic literature search was performed in the PubMed database using predefined search terms, exclusion/inclusion criteria, and primary/secondary criteria. The results disclosed in total, 636 publications were identified; however, only 77 articles met the criteria for inclusion and exclusion. After applying secondary filter criteria, 18 publications were identified that included randomized comparative studies, review articles, and meta-analyses. A review of the list of references in these publications revealed an additional seven articles. The findings demonstrate that although social media represents an important source of medical information that is widely used in education and in everyday lives, no studies have reported that it has a significant impact in enhancing the learning process. Additional comparative studies are needed on this topic.
Psychometric Properties of the Measure of Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS)  [PDF]
Sigrun Sveinbjornsdottir, Einar Baldvin Thorsteinsson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2014.52022

This paper presents the collective results of three independent studies in two countries, Australia and Iceland, aimed to develop a psychometrically sound adolescent coping scale, the Measure of Adolescent Coping Strategies (MACS). Study 1, relying on 3034 Australian and 6908 Icelandic adolescents, revealed five conceptually distinct first-order factors. Two second-order factors (dimensions) were derived: (a) adaptive coping encompassing stoicism/distraction, seeking social support, and self-care, and (b) maladaptive coping encompassing acting out and rumination. This factor structure was supported by multisample confirmatory factor analysis (MSCFA) across age, gender and national samples. Study 1 established evidence of discriminant validity. In Study 2, including 534 Australian adolescents, the factor structure was verified through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Studies 1 and 2 provided evidence of construct validity. Study 3, employing 118 Icelandic adolescents, established 16-week test-retest reliability and evidence of convergent validity. Therefore, the MACS is a short, reliable and valid scale to measure adolescent coping, thus enabling clinicians, researchers and educators to improve their practice when conducting research and guiding adolescents in developing effective coping methods.

Adolescents’ Compulsive Internet Use and Depression: A Longitudinal Study  [PDF]
Einar B. Thorsteinsson, Lucy Davey
Open Journal of Depression (OJD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojd.2014.31005
Abstract: Background: The present longitudinal study examined predictors of compulsive internet use and depression. Method: Adolescents, 21 males and 20 females, completed online questionnaires with a 12-month interval. Results: Social internet use (i.e., using instant messaging and social networks) was associated with decreased levels of depression. High support satisfaction, use of social networking, and instant messaging contributed to lower changes in compulsive Internet use. Conclusion: The effects of social internet use in combination with different psychosocial factors seem to have more positive effects than negative ones on change in depression and the development of compulsive internet use.

Teacher Stress and Teacher Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Engagement, Emotional Exhaustion, and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession  [PDF]
Einar M. Skaalvik, Sidsel Skaalvik
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.713182
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore how seven potentially stressful school context variables (potential stressors) predicted senior high school teachers’ experiences of teacher self-efficacy, emotional stress, emotional exhaustion, engagement in teaching, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. A total of 523 Norwegian teachers in senior high school participated in the study. Four of the potential stressors were significantly but differently related to self-efficacy and emotional stress and indirectly to emotional exhaustion, engagement, and motivation to leave the profession. The study shows that different potential stressors predict emotional exhaustion, engagement, and motivation through different psychological processes. SEM-analysis indicated two main routes to teachers’ motivation to leave the profession: 1) one route from time pressure via emotional stress and exhaustion to motivation to quit and 2) another route from lack of supervisory support and trust, low student motivation and value conflicts via lower self-efficacy and lower engagement to motivation to quit.
Temporary Vascular Occlusion by Rapid Reverse Phase Polymer: A Preliminary In Vitro Study of Retrograde Injection
Einar Dregelid
International Journal of Biomaterials , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/152845
Abstract: During vascular surgical operations, there is a need for a simpler and more reliable method of temporary arterial occlusion than those currently employed, especially of heavily calcified arteries. A thermosensitive polymer, LeGoo (LG) (Pluromed, Woburn, MA), has been used successfully for temporary vascular occlusion. It has hitherto been injected by a cannula that has been introduced into the artery to be occluded, here henceforth called the “cannulation method.” Injection into arterial ostia without cannulation, using an injection device that arrests blood flow during the injection, here henceforth called “a retrograde method” may enable temporary hemostasis when ostial stenoses render it impossible to inject LG using the cannulation method. The objective of the present study was to study the feasibility of a retrograde method and to compare it with the cannulation method in an in vitro model, incorporating a narrow orifice to simulate ostial stenosis, using tap water at 37°C instead of blood. The retrograde method of LG injection, using a modified paediatric Foley catheter, turned out to be feasible to produce a durable LG plug more reliably, at higher water pressure and with less deep LG injection than with the cannulation method. 1. Introduction For hemostasis during vascular surgical operations, vascular branches need to be temporarily occluded. This may be accomplished by free dissection and clamping of the branches, which add time and operative trauma to the operation, or by occluding balloons introduced into branch ostia for, for example, visceral and large segmental arteries and stay sutures for small segmental ones, both of which clutters the operative field. A simpler yet rapid and reliable method of temporary arterial occlusion is therefore needed. The more rapidly and reliably bleeding from arterial ostia can be stopped during open aortic and other vascular operations, the less untoward blood loss. LeGoo (LG) (Pluromed, Woburn, MA, USA) is a thermosensitive polymer (20 weight percent of purified poloxamer 407 in saline) that undergoes rapid transition from liquid to a high viscosity gel when warmed from refrigerator temperature to body temperature and has been used successfully for temporary vascular occlusion in, for example, coronary artery bypass surgery. When used for temporary coronary artery occlusion, LG has been injected by a cannula that has been introduced via the arteriotomy into the artery proximally and distally to the arteriotomy, henceforth called the “cannulation method”. Intra-arterial pressure and flow rate have been
Contributions to the theory of Hermitian series III. Meanvalues
Einar Hille
International Journal of Mathematics and Mathematical Sciences , 1980, DOI: 10.1155/s0161171280000294
Abstract: Let f(z) be holomorphic in the strip ¢ ’ Keywords
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