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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 225912 matches for " Heather R. Cunningham "
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The Maryland Amphibian and Reptile Atlas: A Volunteer-Based Distributional Survey
Heather R. Cunningham,Charles A. Davis,Christopher W. Swarth,Glenn D. Therres
International Journal of Zoology , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/348653
Abstract: Declines of amphibian and reptile populations are well documented. Yet a lack of understanding of their distribution may hinder conservation planning for these species. The Maryland Amphibian and Reptile Atlas project (MARA) was launched in 2010. This five-year, citizen science project will document the distribution of the 93 amphibian and reptile species in Maryland. During the 2010 and 2011 field seasons, 488 registered MARA volunteers collected 13,919 occurrence records that document 85 of Maryland’s amphibian and reptile species, including 19 frog, 20 salamander, five lizard, 25 snake, and 16 turtle species. Thirteen of these species are of conservation concern in Maryland. The MARA will establish a baseline by which future changes in the distribution of populations of native herpetofauna can be assessed as well as provide information for immediate management actions for rare and threatened species. As a citizen science project it has the added benefit of educating citizens about native amphibian and reptile diversity and its ecological benefits—an important step in creating an informed society that actively participates in the long-term conservation of Maryland’s nature heritage. 1. Introduction Amphibian and reptile species are among the most threatened groups of vertebrate animals [1, 2]. Factors that lead to population declines are habitat alteration and loss, invasive species, disease, environmental pollution, commercial collection, and climate change [1, 3]. The lack of thorough understanding of regional distribution patterns of amphibian and reptile populations can limit our ability to predict how species will respond to these factors [4]. An additional challenge to the protection and conservation of amphibian and reptile species (also called herps) is the overall negative perception by the public towards these organisms [5]. There is a pervasive attitude that these organisms are unimportant [5]. However citizen science projects, defined as projects where citizens participate in scientific research [5], have the potential to advance the protection of amphibian and reptile species. Specifically, citizen science-based atlas projects can efficiently assemble distribution information across large spatial scales while increasing environmental awareness in the general public about the ecological importance of herpetofauna. Through participation in atlas projects citizens play an important role in the long-term protection and conservation of amphibians and reptiles. Currently 93 native species of amphibians and reptiles occur in Maryland (20
Free E-Books May Increase Print Sales: A Study with Mixed Results. A Review of: Hilton, J. III, & Wiley, D. (2010). The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1).
Heather R. Williams
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective – To determine whether the availability of free digital versions of books impacts print sales. Design – Quantitative data comparison. Setting – University Instructional Psychology Department. Subjects – A total of 41 books, each with a free digital version and a traditional print version. Methods – This study used Nielson BookScan data to track print book sales during a 16-week period, 8 weeks before a free digital version of the book became available and 8 weeks after the availability of the free digital version. The authors tracked 41 books and organized them into four categories. The first included 7 nonfiction books, the second consisted of 5 science fiction/fantasy books, the third included 5 science fiction/fantasy books released together by Random House, and the fourth group consisted of 24 science fiction/fantasy books released by Tor Books. The books released by Tor Books, unlike the other books in the study, were available by free download only if a person registered for Tor’s newsletter and the downloads were only available for one week. When a free digital book from any of the other three groups was released, it remained available for several weeks, and more often, indefinitely. Main Results – Combined print sales of the nonfiction titles in the first group increased 5% after the release of a free digital copy. The majority of the science fiction/fantasy books in the second group also had an increase in post-free release sales, with a combined increase of 26%. The combined sales of the Random House titles increased by 9% after the release of the free digital versions. However, in stark contrast to the results of the first three groups, the fourth group of Tor books had a combined decrease in print sales of 18%. While the authors were not able to explain this difference with certainty, they point out that the Tor model for releasing the free digital books (making the free books available for only one week and requiring registration in order to download the books) was substantially different from the models used by the other publishers. Conclusion – The study suggests a positive relationship may exist between free digital books and short-term print sales. However, the availability of free digital books did not always lead to increased print sales. The authors acknowledge a number of factors not fully accounted for, including the timing of the free digital release, the promotion it received, and the differences in the size of the audiences for the various books studied. Ultimately, however, the authors believe the data indicates that
Structure May Be Key to Incorporating Library School Interns in Academic Library Environments. A Review of: Sargent, A. R., Becker, B. W., & Klingberg, S. (2011). Incorporating library school interns on academic library subject teams. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 37(1), 28-33. doi: 10.1016/j.acalib.2010.10.004
Heather R. Williams
Evidence Based Library and Information Practice , 2011,
Abstract: Objective – To evaluate the effectiveness of the San Jose State University Library internship program. Design – Focus group; single point in time; qualitative design. Setting – Large academic library in the United States of America. Subjects – Nine former interns of the San Jose State University (SJSU) Library. Methods - Nine former interns of the SJSU Library internship program participated in a single 90-minute session. No inducements for participation were offered. A moderator asked a series of 10 questions designed to gather feedback in three areas: 1) “the internship as part of the Masters program,” 2) “the internship’s role in the realization of personal objectives and professional development,” and 3) “the experience of working in team based activities.” A digital voice recorder captured the participants’ responses, allowing for detailed analysis of the responses after the session. Main Results – The interns deemed their overall experience successful, as all indicated they achieved their professional development objectives for the internship. However, the interns also indicated their experience could have been improved by the appointment of a single dedicated coordinator for recruitment and oversight, as well as more feedback on the quality of their work, especially for course-related instruction. Conclusion – The SJSU Library determined that the internship program was advantageous to both the Library and the interns. All of the interns who participated in the focus group achieved their profession development objectives for the internship. Additionally, the Library received valuable feedback for improving the program. Suggestions included appointing a dedicated internship coordinator, allowing interns more of an opportunity to choose their projects, and ensuring that interns are offered frequent feedback about the quality of their work.
The Role of -Containing Kainate Receptors in Entorhinal Cortex Gamma Frequency Oscillations
Heather L. Stanger,Rebekah Alford,David E. Jane,Mark O. Cunningham
Neural Plasticity , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/401645
Abstract: Using in vitro brain slices of hippocampus and cortex, neuronal oscillations in the frequency range of 30–80 Hz (gamma frequency oscillations) can be induced by a number of pharmacological manipulations. The most routinely used is the bath application of the broad-spectrum glutamate receptor agonist, kainic acid. In the hippocampus, work using transgenic kainate receptor knockout mice have revealed information about the specific subunit composition of the kainate receptor implicated in the generation and maintenance of the gamma frequency oscillation. However, there is a paucity of such detail regarding gamma frequency oscillation in the cortex. Using specific pharmacological agonists and antagonists for the kainate receptor, we have set out to examine the contribution of kainate receptor subtypes to gamma frequency oscillation in the entorhinal cortex. The findings presented demonstrate that in contrast to the hippocampus, kainate receptors containing the GLUK5 subunit are critically important for the generation and maintenance of gamma frequency oscillation in the entorhinal cortex. Future work will concentrate on determining the exact nature of the cellular expression of kainate receptors in the entorhinal cortex.
Toward a Mackey formula for compact restriction of character sheaves
Pramod N. Achar,Clifton L. R. Cunningham
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We generalize a result by Cunningham-Salmasian to a Mackey-type formula for the compact restriction of a semisimple perverse sheaf produced by parabolic induction from a character sheaf, under certain conditions on the parahoric group used to define compact restriction. This provides new tools for matching character sheaves with admissible representations.
Applications and Implications of Neutral versus Non-neutral Markers in Molecular Ecology
Heather Kirk,Joanna R. Freeland
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12063966
Abstract: The field of molecular ecology has expanded enormously in the past two decades, largely because of the growing ease with which neutral molecular genetic data can be obtained from virtually any taxonomic group. However, there is also a growing awareness that neutral molecular data can provide only partial insight into parameters such as genetic diversity, local adaptation, evolutionary potential, effective population size, and taxonomic designations. Here we review some of the applications of neutral versus adaptive markers in molecular ecology, discuss some of the advantages that can be obtained by supplementing studies of molecular ecology with data from non-neutral molecular markers, and summarize new methods that are enabling researchers to generate data from genes that are under selection.
Observational nuclear astrophysics: neutron-capture element abundances in old, metal-poor stars
Heather R. Jacobson,Anna Frebel
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1088/0954-3899/41/4/044001
Abstract: The chemical abundances of metal-poor stars provide a great deal of information regarding the individual nucleosynthetic processes that created the observed elements and the overall process of chemical enrichment of the galaxy since the formation of the first stars. Here we review the abundance patterns of the neutron-capture elements (Z > 38) in those metal-poor stars and our current understanding of the conditions and sites of their production at early times. We also review the relative contributions of these different processes to the build-up of these elements within the galaxy over time, and outline outstanding questions and uncertainties that complicate the interpretation of the abundance patterns observed in metal-poor stars. It is anticipated that future observations of large samples of metal-poor stars will help discriminate between different proposed neutron-capture element production sites and better trace the chemical evolution of the galaxy.
CD -24_17504 revisited: a new comprehensive element abundance analysis
Heather R. Jacobson,Anna Frebel
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/808/1/53
Abstract: With [Fe/H] ~ -3.3, CD -24_17504 is a canonical metal-poor main sequence turn-off star. Though it has appeared in numerous literature studies, the most comprehensive abundance analysis for the star based on high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra is nearly 15 years old. We present a new detailed abundance analysis for 21 elements based on combined archival Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES spectra of the star that is higher in both spectral resolution and signal-to-noise than previous data. Our results for many elements are very similar to those of an earlier comprehensive study of the star, but we present for the first time a carbon abundance from the CH G-band feature as well as improved upper limits for neutron-capture species such as Y, Ba and Eu. In particular, we find that CD -24_17504 has [Fe/H] = -3.41, [C/Fe] = +1.10, [Sr/H] = -4.68 and [Ba/H] <= -4.46, making it a carbon enhanced metal-poor star with neutron-capture element abundances among the lowest measured in Milky Way halo stars.
Overcoming barriers to engaging socio-economically disadvantaged populations in CHD primary prevention: a qualitative study
Christopher Harkins, Rebecca Shaw, Michelle Gillies, Heather Sloan, Kate MacIntyre, Anne Scoular, Caroline Morrison, Fiona MacKay, Heather Cunningham, Paul Docherty, Paul MacIntyre, Iain N Findlay
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-391
Abstract: The primary prevention element of Have a Heart Paisley (HaHP) offered risk screening to all eligible individuals. The programme employed two approaches to engaging with the community: a) a social marketing campaign and b) a community development project adopting primarily face-to-face canvassing. Individuals living in areas of SED were under-recruited via the social marketing approach, but successfully recruited via face-to-face canvassing. This paper reports on focus group discussions with participants, exploring their perceptions about and experiences of both approaches.Various reasons were identified for low uptake of risk screening amongst individuals living in areas of high SED in response to the social marketing campaign and a number of ways in which the face-to-face canvassing approach overcame these barriers were identified. These have been categorised into four main themes: (1) processes of engagement; (2) issues of understanding; (3) design of the screening service and (4) the priority accorded to screening. The most immediate barriers to recruitment were the invitation letter, which often failed to reach its target, and the general distrust of postal correspondence. In contrast, participants were positive about the face-to-face canvassing approach. Participants expressed a lack of knowledge and understanding about CHD and their risk of developing it and felt there was a lack of clarity in the information provided in the mailing in terms of the process and value of screening. In contrast, direct face-to-face contact meant that outreach workers could explain what to expect. Participants felt that the procedure for uptake of screening was demanding and inflexible, but that the drop-in sessions employed by the community development project had a major impact on recruitment and retention.Socio-economically disadvantaged individuals can be hard-to-reach; engagement requires strategies tailored to the needs of the target population rather than a population-wide
Performance of volume phase gratings manufactured using ultrafast laser inscription
David Lee,Robert R. Thomson,Colin R. Cunningham
Physics , 2012, DOI: 10.1117/12.926108
Abstract: Ultrafast laser inscription (ULI) is a rapidly maturing technique which uses focused ultrashort laser pulses to locally modify the refractive index of dielectric materials in three-dimensions (3D). Recently, ULI has been applied to the fabrication of astrophotonic devices such as integrated beam combiners, 3D integrated waveguide fan-outs and multimode-to-single mode convertors (photonic lanterns). Here, we outline our work on applying ULI to the fabrication of volume phase gratings (VPGs) in fused silica and gallium lanthanum sulphide (GLS) glasses. The VPGs we fabricated had a spatial frequency of 333 lines/mm. The optimum fused silica grating was found to exhibit a first order diffraction efficiency of 40 % at 633 nm, but exhibited approximately 40 % integrated scattered light. The optimum GLS grating was found to exhibit a first order diffraction efficiency of 71 % at 633 nm and less than 5 % integrated scattered light. Importantly for future astronomy applications, both gratings survived cooling to 20 K. This paper summarises the grating design and ULI manufacturing process, and provides details of the diffraction efficiency performance and blaze curves for the VPGs. In contrast to conventional fabrication technologies, ULI can be used to fabricate VPGs in almost any dielectric material, including mid-IR transmitting materials such as the GLS glass used here. Furthermore, ULI potentially provides the freedom to produce complex groove patterns or blazed gratings. For these reasons, we believe that ULI opens the way towards the development of novel VPGs for future astronomy related applications.
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