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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 192812 matches for " Heather D. Kissel "
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p16 Mutation Spectrum in the Premalignant Condition Barrett's Esophagus
Thomas G. Paulson, Patricia C. Galipeau, Lianjun Xu, Heather D. Kissel, Xiaohong Li, Patricia L. Blount, Carissa A. Sanchez, Robert D. Odze, Brian J. Reid
PLOS ONE , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003809
Abstract: Background Mutation, promoter hypermethylation and loss of heterozygosity involving the tumor suppressor gene p16 (CDKN2a/INK4a) have been detected in a wide variety of human cancers, but much less is known concerning the frequency and spectrum of p16 mutations in premalignant conditions. Methods and Findings We have determined the p16 mutation spectrum for a cohort of 304 patients with Barrett's esophagus, a premalignant condition that predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Forty seven mutations were detected by sequencing of p16 exon 2 in 44 BE patients (14.5%) with a mutation spectrum consistent with that caused by oxidative damage and chronic inflammation. The percentage of patients with p16 mutations increased with increasing histologic grade. In addition, samples from 3 out of 19 patients (15.8%) who underwent esophagectomy were found to have mutations. Conclusions The results of this study suggest the environment of the esophagus in BE patients can both generate and select for clones with p16 mutations.
Feasibility of RNA and DNA Extraction from Fresh Pipelle and Archival Endometrial Tissues for Use in Gene Expression and SNP Arrays
Heather D. Kissel,Thomas G. Paulson,Karen Liu,Xiaohong Li,Elizabeth Swisher,Rochelle Garcia,Carissa A. Sanchez,Brian J. Reid,Susan D. Reed,Jennifer Anne Doherty
Obstetrics and Gynecology International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/576842
Abstract: Identifying molecular markers of endometrial hyperplasia (neoplasia) progression is critical to cancer prevention. To assess RNA and DNA quantity and quality from routinely collected endometrial samples and evaluate the performance of RNA- and DNA-based arrays across endometrial tissue types, we collected fresh frozen (FF) Pipelle, FF curettage, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) hysterectomy specimens (benign indications) from eight women. Additionally, neoplastic and uninvolved tissues from 24 FFPE archival hysterectomy specimens with endometrial hyperplasias and carcinomas were assessed. RNA was extracted from 15 of 16 FF and 51 of 51 FFPE samples, with yields >1.2?μg for 13/15 (87%) FF and 50/51 (98%) FFPE samples. Extracted RNA was of high quality; all samples performed successfully on the Illumina whole-genome cDNA-mediated annealing, selection, extension, and ligation (WG-DASL) array and performance did not vary by tissue type. While DNA quantity from FFPE samples was excellent, quality was not sufficient for successful performance on the Affymetrix SNP Array 6.0. In conclusion, FF Pipelle samples, which are minimally invasive, yielded excellent quantity and quality of RNA for gene expression arrays (similar to FF curettage) and should be considered for use in genomic studies. FFPE-derived DNA should be evaluated on new rapidly evolving sequencing platforms. 1. Introduction Though endometrial carcinoma is the most common gynecologic malignant neoplasm [1], diagnostic capabilities and management of endometrial precancer (intraepithelial neoplasia) lag far behind those of cervical carcinoma [2]. A neoplastic continuum from simple, to complex, to atypical hyperplasia, to endometrial carcinoma is suggested from longitudinal epidemiologic studies [3–5]. Identification of molecular alterations present in various stages of endometrial neoplasia will provide the basis for early detection and therapeutics [6]. Present diagnostic capabilities utilizing histologic evaluation for endometrial hyperplasia/neoplasia alone are limited by poor diagnostic reproducibility [7] and relatively low prognostic value. Risk of progression to carcinoma among women with a diagnosis of endometrial hyperplasia with atypia is not well understood, though exposure to progestin therapy has been reported to be associated with an approximately 60% decreased risk of progression [4, 8]. Future studies that attempt to elucidate molecular biomarkers of endometrial hyperplasia progression risk will require the development of two methodologies: the ability to perform array
Do Characteristics of Faces That Convey Trustworthiness and Dominance Underlie Perceptions of Criminality?
Heather D. Flowe
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037253
Abstract: Background This study tested whether the 2D face evaluation model proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov can parsimoniously account for why some faces are perceived as more criminal-looking than others. The 2D model proposes that trust and dominance are spontaneously evaluated from features of faces. These evaluations have adaptive significance from an evolutionary standpoint because they indicate whether someone should be approached or avoided. Method Participants rated the emotional state, personality traits, and criminal appearance of faces shown in photographs. The photographs were of males and females taken under naturalistic conditions (i.e., police mugshots) and highly controlled conditions. In the controlled photographs, the emotion display of the actor was systematically varied (happy expression, emotionally neutral expression, or angry expression). Results Both male and female faces rated high in criminal appearance were perceived as less trustworthy and more dominant in police mugshots as well as in photographs taken under highly controlled conditions. Additionally, emotionally neutral faces were deemed as less trustworthy if they were perceived as angry, and more dominant if they were morphologically mature. Systematically varying emotion displays also affected criminality ratings, with angry faces perceived as the most criminal, followed by neutral faces and then happy faces. Conclusion The 2D model parsimoniously accounts for criminality perceptions. This study extends past research by demonstrating that morphological features that signal high dominance and low trustworthiness can also signal high criminality. Spontaneous evaluations regarding criminal propensity may have adaptive value in that they may help us to avoid someone who is physically threatening. On the other hand, such evaluations could inappropriately influence decision making in criminal identification lineups. Hence, additional research is needed to discover whether and how people can avoid making evaluations regarding criminality from a person’s facial appearance.
Cyanobacteria from Extreme Deserts to Space  [PDF]
Daniela Billi, Mickael Baqué, Heather D. Smith, Christopher P. McKay
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2013.36A010
Abstract: The development of space technology makes the exposure of organisms and molecules to the space environment possible by using the ESA Biopan and Expose facilities and NASA nanosatellites; the aim is to decipher the origin, evolution and distribution of life on Earth and in the Universe. The study of microbial communities thriving in lithic habitats in cold and hot deserts is gathering appreciation when dealing with the limits of life as we know it, the identification of biosignatures for searching life beyond Earth and the validation of the (litho)-Panspermia theory. Cyanobacteria of the genus Chroococcidiopsis dominate rock-dwelling communities in extreme deserts that are considered terrestrial analogues of Mars, like the Dry Valleys in Antarctica, the Atacama Desert in Chile or the Mojave Desert in California. The extraordinary tolerance of these cyanobacteria towards desiccation, ionizing and UV radiation makes them suitable experimental strains which have been already used in astrobiological experiments and already selected for future space missions. Evidence gained so far supports the use of desert cyanobacteria to develop life support systems and insitu resource utilization for the human space exploration and settlement on the Moon or Mars.
Capital Folws, capital account liberalisation and the southern Mediterranean countries
Heather D. Gibson,Thomas Vlassopoulo
PSL Quarterly Review , 2007,
Abstract: This paper examines questions related to possible capital account liberalisation in theMediterranean countries. First, we provide an overview of the extent to which thesecountries have capital controls along with their exchange rate regimes and some basicmacroeconomic aggregates. Second, we examine the case for capital accountliberalisation, along with the prerequisites for successful liberalisation. Here weconsider issues such as sequencing and possible benefits of synchronisation. Finally,we examine the experience with capital flows – both FDI and other capital flows. Weexplain these flows and use the past experience of these countries to draw someconclusions for the successful opening up of the capital account.
Prospektive, offene, multizentrische Kohortenstudie (AWB) zur Wirksamkeit und Vertr glichkeit von Estradiolvalerat/Norethisteron (Merigest) bei klimakterischen Beschwerden.
Zahradnik HP,Kissel C
Journal für Menopause , 2004,
Abstract: In der hier vorgestellten prospektiven, offenen, multizentrischen Anwendungsbeobachtung (AWB) wurden Daten zur Wirksamkeit und Vertr glichkeit von kontinuierlich-kombiniertem Estradiol/Norethisteron (Merigest) unter Routinebedingungen bei Frauen mit klimakterischen Beschwerden gesammelt. Zwischen Anfang Oktober 2002 und Ende September 2003 wurden in 157 gyn kologischen Arztpraxen zu 98,7 % jeweils drei Patientinnen in die Studie eingebracht und meistens über neun Monate beobachtet. Der Schweregrad klimakterischer Beschwerden bzw. Wirksamkeit von Merigest wurden anhand eines Fragebogens, der in seinem Aufbau einer Anamneseerhebung angepa t wurde, erfa t, den die Patientin selbst vor Behandlungsbeginn, sowie 3, 6 und 9 Monate nach Behandlungsbeginn ausfüllte. Insgesamt war dieser Fragebogen aus der Menopausenbewertungsskala (MRS II) abgeleitet. Ferner wurde über den gesamten Behandlungszeitraum hinweg die Vertr glichkeit durch Dokumentation unerwünschter Ereignisse analysiert. 468 Beobachtungsb gen konnten ausgewertet werden. 65 % der Patientinnen waren zwischen 50 und 59 Jahre alt, 13,9 % unter 50, 21,1 % über 60. 12,6 % (n = 59) der Patientinnen haben die AWB vorzeitig beendet, nur 13 Frauen wegen Nebenwirkungen. 69 % der Patientinnen gaben eine vollst ndige Remission, ca. 90 % eine Besserung, 3,9 % noch mittelschwere und 1,5 % noch schwere Hitzewallungen nach durchschnittlich neunmonatiger Merigest-Behandlung an. Auch Nervosit t/Reizbarkeit, depressive Verstimmungen/ ngstlichkeit, Müdigkeit/Antriebslosigkeit, Herzbeklemmung/Herzrasen und vor allem Schlafst rungen waren bei mehr als 2/3 der Patientinnen signifikant gebessert. Wahrscheinlich durch die Verminderung der Scheidentrockenheit konnte auch in ca. 20 % der F lle eine Besserung des sexuellen Verlangens registriert werden, wenn zuvor Probleme bestanden. In der globalen Beurteilung der Wirksamkeit wurde Merigest von 97,6 % der rzte und 93,7 % der Patientinnen als "sehr gut" und "gut" eingestuft, bei der Beurteilung der Vertr glichkeit votierten 99,0 % der rzte und 96,3 % der Patientinnen mit "sehr gut" und "gut". Im Verlauf der AWB wurde von 30,8 % (n = 144) der Patientinnen Brustspannen als spezifische Nebenwirkung am h ufigsten angegeben, allerdings in über 3/4 der F lle als leicht eingestuft und vor allem w hrend der ersten drei Monate. Im übrigen wurden nur bei 3,2 % der Patientinnen sonstige, unspezifische Nebenwirkungen registriert, wie z. B. deme, übelkeit und Hautausschlag. Insgesamt sprechen die hier vorgestellten Daten dieser AWB für eine gute Wirksamkeit und Vertr glichkeit von Merige
Dystextia: An Early Sign of Pregnancy-Associated Meningioma  [PDF]
James B. Hannah, Phillip Kissel, Bianca Russell, Jo Ellen Hose
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2014.42015
Abstract: Objective: The authors report a case of meningioma causing incomprehensible and excessive text messaging in a postpartum woman. Case Report: We report the case of expressive dystextia related to a postpartum, progesterone receptor-positive meningioma. Growth of meningiomas can accelerate during pregnancy and the postpartum period due to expression of hormone receptors, particularly progesterone. This is the first study describing dystextia related to a brain tumor; previous cases of dystextia are associated with stroke and complex migraine. Here expressive dystextia, the inability to compose syntactically comprehensible text messages, preceded acute neurologic signs by several months, and surgical resection of the meningioma eliminated all neurologic sequelae. Possible genetic etiologies for meningioma are discussed since this patient’s prior thyroid cancer at age 18 suggests a relationship between the two neoplasms. Conclusions: Since text messaging is becoming one of the principal forms of communication in our society and requires both cognitive and motor skills, clinicians should be aware that dystextia may be the initial sign of significant neurologic pathology. We propose that an inquiry about altered text messaging frequency and comprehensibility should be a standard part of the neurologic evaluation.
HIV Prevention in Papua New Guinea: Is It Working or Not?  [PDF]
Heather Worth
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23016
Abstract: Introduction: There is a global call for structural approaches to HIV that go beyond awareness and HIV testing to approach prevention work via the social and economic drivers of the epidemic. Papua New Guinea is the epicentre of the HIV epidemic in the Pacific, with an adult prevalence rate of 0.9%. Since 2004, there has been a concerted response to HIV, with vastly increased rates of HIV testing and roll-out of antiretroviral therapy, and considerable funding for HIV prevention. Objectives: While incidence is slowing there are still a considerable number of new infections each year and many commentators are worried that HIV prevention is not working in that country. This article aims to critically examine HIV prevention programs in Papua New Guinea to show whether HIV prevention is effectiveness in reaching those most vulnerable to infection. Methods: Using data from HIV prevention programs and behavioural surveys this article will assess how HIV prevention has been carried out and the effectiveness of those programs. Results: There is little evidence to indicate that HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea, particularly among those most at risk of HIV has been successful. Conclusion: there is a dearth of HIV prevention interventions in Papua New Guinea that go beyond awareness-raising to deal with the structural drivers of the epidemic.
A Protein Thermometer Controls Temperature-Dependent Transcription of Flagellar Motility Genes in Listeria monocytogenes
Heather D. Kamp,Darren E. Higgins
PLOS Pathogens , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1002153
Abstract: Facultative bacterial pathogens must adapt to multiple stimuli to persist in the environment or establish infection within a host. Temperature is often utilized as a signal to control expression of virulence genes necessary for infection or genes required for persistence in the environment. However, very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow bacteria to adapt and respond to temperature fluctuations. Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne, facultative intracellular pathogen that uses flagellar motility to survive in the extracellular environment and to enhance initial invasion of host cells during infection. Upon entering the host, Lm represses transcription of flagellar motility genes in response to mammalian physiological temperature (37°C) with a concomitant temperature-dependent up-regulation of virulence genes. We previously determined that down-regulation of flagellar motility is required for virulence and is governed by the reciprocal activities of the MogR transcriptional repressor and the bifunctional flagellar anti-repressor/glycosyltransferase, GmaR. In this study, we determined that GmaR is also a protein thermometer that controls temperature-dependent transcription of flagellar motility genes. Two-hybrid and gel mobility shift analyses indicated that the interaction between MogR and GmaR is temperature sensitive. Using circular dichroism and limited proteolysis, we determined that GmaR undergoes a temperature-dependent conformational change as temperature is elevated. Quantitative analysis of GmaR in Lm revealed that GmaR is degraded in the absence of MogR and at 37°C (when the MogR:GmaR complex is less stable). Since MogR represses transcription of all flagellar motility genes, including transcription of gmaR, changes in the stability of the MogR:GmaR anti-repression complex, due to conformational changes in GmaR, mediates repression or de-repression of flagellar motility genes in Lm. Thus, GmaR functions as a thermo-sensing anti-repressor that incorporates temperature signals into transcriptional control of flagellar motility. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a protein thermometer that functions as an anti-repressor to control a developmental process in bacteria.
DNA replication: telling time with microarrays
Heather J McCune, Anne D Donaldson
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2003-4-2-204
Abstract: Eukaryotic DNA replication begins at multiple origins on each chromosome, with successive origins firing in a reproducible temporal sequence. The mechanism by which certain regions of the genome are reproducibly designated as earlier-or later-replicating is not well understood, but cytological observation of replicating metazoan chromosomes suggested that transcriptionally silent regions of the genome replicate late in S phase (for a review see [1]). This finding led to the hypothesis that transcription and replication timing are functionally linked and that a closed chromatin conformation that is refractory to transcription also delays replication.The hypothesis of a connection between transcriptional activity and replication timing was bolstered by molecular analysis of budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). As in higher eukaryotes, yeast DNA near or within transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, such as that located at telomeres, replicates late in S phase [2], because of delayed initiation at origins close to telomeres [3]. It is thought that late replication initiation at such origins may be imposed by the telomeric chromatin conformation, because moving a normally early-replicating origin near to a telomere delays its activation [4]. In addition, Sir3p, a protein involved in mediating transcriptional silencing, has been shown to be important for the activation of telomeric late origins at the appropriate time within S phase [5]. The relationship between transcription and replication timing in yeast is not absolute, however, given that one of the most well-studied late-replicating regions encompasses several transcriptionally active genes [6,7,8]. Furthermore, a genome-wide survey of replication timing in yeast failed to identify a direct correlation between transcriptional inactivity and late replication [9].The apparent disagreement between the yeast molecular data and the hypothesis from metazoans regarding control over replication timing and transcr
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