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The theory of Realistic Mathematics Education as a theoretical framework for teaching low attainers in mathematics
Hayley Barnes
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v33i3.120
Abstract: This article recounts the process embarked on and reasons for selecting the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) as the theoretical framework in a study carried out with low attaining learners. In the study an intervention for low attaining grade 8 mathematics learners was implemented in an attempt to improve the understanding of the participants with regard to place value, fractions and decimals, and to identify characteristics of this type of intervention and potential design principles that could be applied in similar interventions. In this article, the theoretical framework for the intervention is discussed and theoretical (rather than empirical) reasons for selecting the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) for use with low attainers are put forward. From a literature review that looked at the teaching and learning of mathematics to learners who fall into the category of performing below the required standard, five common aspects emerged. Once these aspects had been identified, a theory in mathematics education was sought that encompassed these five aspects. The theory of RME was subsequently selected as the theoretical framework to drive the design and implementation of the intervention and is being suggested as a possible way forward for working with low attaining learners.
Mathematics as a social construct: Teaching mathematics in context
Hayley Barnes,Elsie Venter
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v33i68.62
Abstract: Why is teaching in context an important option to consider in the teaching of mathematics? What does it mean to teach mathematics from and in contexts? And what are the possible challenges associated with this practice? The aim of this paper is not to provide a comprehensive answer or solution to these questions. We attempt rather to address these questions specifically with regard to South Africa and the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education. In this article we consider a vignette of a more formal and traditional mathematics lesson and then suggest possible reasons why we need to be teaching more in context. Furthermore we discuss the application of the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education as a potential approach to facilitate teaching in context. Finally we present some challenges associated with this practice.
Evidence for perinatal and child health care guidelines in crisis settings: can Cochrane help?
Tari J Turner, Hayley Barnes, Jane Reid, Marie Garrubba
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-170
Abstract: Broad internet searches were undertaken to identify relevant guidelines. Guidelines were appraised using AGREE and the clinical areas that were relevant to perinatal or child health were extracted. We searched The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify potentially relevant reviews. For each review we determined how many trials were included, and how many were conducted in resource-limited settings.Six guidelines met selection criteria. None of the included guidelines were clearly based on research evidence. 198 Cochrane reviews were potentially relevant to the guidelines. These reviews predominantly addressed nutrient supplementation, breastfeeding, malaria, maternal hypertension, premature labour and prevention of HIV transmission. Most reviews included studies from developing settings. However for large portions of the guidelines, particularly health services delivery, there were no relevant reviews. Only 18 (9.1%) reviews have summaries in Evidence Aid.We did not identify any evidence-based guidelines for perinatal and child health care in disaster settings. We found many Cochrane reviews that could contribute to the evidence-base supporting future guidelines. However there are important issues to be addressed in terms of the relevance of the available reviews and increasing the number of reviews addressing health care delivery.Populations in crisis settings such as those resulting from natural disasters like earthquake, famine and flood, as well as man-made disasters like civil war, are at substantial risk of trauma and illness. The risks of disease and death are particularly increased for infants, children and women giving birth. Health care providers in disaster settings work with limited infrastructure, equipment, supplies and training. Given the constrained resources with which they work, health care providers in these settings cannot afford to waste time or money on ineffective or harmful treatments.Organisations working in disaster settings ar
Self-Starvation as Performance
Hayley Rudkin
Cultural Studies Review , 2012,
Abstract: A review of Patrick Anderson, So Much Wasted: Hunger, Performance, and the Morbidity of Resistance (Duke, 2010).
Toward an Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for Depression
Shawn Hayley
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00019
Abstract: It has become clear that the inflammatory immune system is altered during the course of clinical depression. In particular, studies on human patients have found depression to be associated with disturbances in the trafficking of cells of the adaptive immune system, coupled with elevations of innate immune messengers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Paralleling these findings, stressor-based animal models of depression have implicated several cytokines, most notably interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Elevations of these cytokines and general inflammatory indicators, such as C-reactive protein, together with reductions of specific immune cells (e.g., T lymphocytes) might serve as useful biomarkers of depression or at least, certain subtypes of the disorder. Recent reports also suggest the possibility that anti-inflammatory agents could have therapeutic value in acting as adjunct treatments with traditional anti-depressants. Along these lines, we presently discuss the evidence for pro-inflammatory cytokine involvement in depression, as well as the possibility that anti-inflammatory agents and trophic cytokines themselves might have important anti-depressant properties.
Do Children Who Move Home and School Frequently Have Poorer Educational Outcomes in Their Early Years at School? An Anonymised Cohort Study
Hayley A. Hutchings, Annette Evans, Peter Barnes, Joanne Demmler, Martin Heaven, Melanie A. Hyatt, Michelle James-Ellison, Ronan A. Lyons, Alison Maddocks, Shantini Paranjothy, Sarah E. Rodgers, Frank Dunstan
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070601
Abstract: Frequent mobility has been linked to poorer educational attainment. We investigated the association between moving home and moving school frequently and the early childhood formal educational achievement. We carried out a cohort analysis of 121,422 children with anonymised linked records. Our exposure measures were: 1) the number of residential moves registered with a health care provider, and 2) number of school moves. Our outcome was the formal educational assessment at age 6–7. Binary regression modeling was used to examine residential moves within the three time periods: 0 – <1 year; 1 – <4 years and 4 – <6 years. School moves were examined from age 4 to age 6. We adjusted for demographics, residential moves at different times, school moves and birth related variables. Children who moved home frequently were more likely not to achieve in formal assessments compared with children not moving. Adjusted odds ratios were significant for 3 or more moves within the time period 1 –<4 years and for any number of residential moves within the time period 4–<6 years. There was a dose response relationship, with increased odds ratios with increased frequency of residential moves (2 or more moves at 4–<6 years, adjusted odds ratio 1.16 (1.03, 1.29). The most marked effect was seen with frequent school moves where 2 or more moves resulted in an adjusted odds ratio of 2.33 (1.82, 2.98). This is the first study to examine the relationship between residential and school moves in early childhood and the effect on educational attainment. Children experiencing frequent mobility may be disadvantaged and should be closely monitored. Additional educational support services should be afforded to children, particularly those who frequently change school, in order to help them achieve the expected educational standards.
Laboratory Driven, Lean-to-Adaptive Prototyping in Parallel for Web Software Project Identification and Application Development in Health Science Research  [PDF]
Zachary Dwight, Alexa Barnes
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2012.52010
Abstract: Clinical research laboratories, bioinformatics core facilities, and health science organizations often rely on heavy planning based software development models to propose, build, and distribute software as a consumable product. Projects in non-agile software life cycles tend to have rigid “plan-design-build” milestones, increasing the amount of time needed for software development completion. Though the classic software development approach is needed for large-scale and organizational projects, clinical research laboratories can expedite software development while maintaining quality by using lean prototyping as a condition of project advancement to a committed adaptive software development cycle. Software projects benefit from an agile methodology due to the active and changing requirements often guided by experimental data driven models. We describe a lean to adaptive method used in parallel with laboratory bench work to develop quality software quickly that meets the requirements of a fast-paced research environment and reducing time to production, providing immediate value to the end user, and limiting unnecessary development practices in favor of results.
A New Slow Releasing, H2S Generating Compound, GYY4137 Relaxes Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractions of Human and Rat Pregnant Myometrium
Hayley Robinson, Susan Wray
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046278
Abstract: Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM–1 mM) and NaHS (1 mM) were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term) gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i) H2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii) that H2S affects L-type calcium channels and KATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii) add to the evidence that H2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv) H2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility.
Modern beachrock formation in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal
Hayley Cawthra,Ron Uken
South African Journal of Science , 2012,
Abstract: We explored the recent cementation of modern beachrock on the seaward margin of the Durban Bluff, central KwaZulu-Natal. The low latitude and subtropical climatic setting is a unique context compared to the more commonly documented contemporary beachrock formation in the tropics. Geological field mapping was carried out and here we present results based on sedimentary facies of a clastic shoreline and carbonate diagenesis of interstitial cements using transmitted light microscopy. The beachrock was cemented by micrite and aragonite, and iron oxide infilled voids. The presence of human artefacts within the deposit showed evidence for cementation within the last century. The elevation (at Mean Low Water) and correlation to rates of sea level change for the east coast of South Africa showed that the beachrock is less than 72 years in age. In contrast to older local Pleistocene deposits, beachrocks have cemented along this stretch of coast during successive sea level highstands with similar climatic regimes – the last Interglacial, the Holocene High and the present. Here we report the most southerly documentation of modern beachrock in KwaZulu-Natal, which, to our knowledge, represents the youngest deposit reported in southern Africa.
Multi-criteria Assessment of Innovative Technology in the Beef Industry
Hayley Moreland,Paul Hyland
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n12p17
Abstract: In Australia rural research and development corporations and companies expended over $AUS500 million on agricultural research and development. A substantial proportion of this is invested in R&D in the beef industry. The Australian beef industry exports almost $AUS5billionof product annually and invest heavily in new product development to improve the beef quality and improve production efficiency. Review points are critical for effective new product development, yet many research and development bodies, particularly publicly funded ones, appear to ignore the importance of assessing products prior to their release. Significant sums of money are invested in developing technological innovations that have low levels and rates of adoption. The adoption rates could be improved if the developers were more focused on technology uptake and less focused on proving their technologies can be applied in practice. Several approaches have been put forward in an effort to improve rates of adoption into operational settings. This paper presents a study of key technological innovations in the Australian beef industry to assess the use of multiple criteria in evaluating the potential uptake of new technologies. Findings indicate that using multiple criteria to evaluate innovations before commercializing a technology enables researchers to better understand the issues that may inhibit adoption.
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