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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 329810 matches for " Hawksworth Jason S "
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Lymphocyte Depletion in Experimental Hemorrhagic Shock in Swine
Hawksworth Jason S,Graybill Christopher,Brown Trevor S,Gillern Suzanne M
Journal of Inflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-9255-9-34
Abstract: Background Hemorrhagic shock results in systemic activation of the immune system and leads to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Lymphocytes have been identified as critical mediators of the early innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury, and immunomodulation of lymphocytes may prevent secondary immunologic injury in surgical and trauma patients. Methods Yorkshire swine were anesthetized and underwent a grade III liver injury with uncontrolled hemorrhage to induce hemorrhagic shock. Experimental groups were treated with a lymphocyte depletional agent, porcine polyclonal anti-thymocyte globulin (PATG) (n = 8) and compared to a vehicle control group (n = 9). Animals were observed over a 3 day survival period. Circulating lymphocytes were examined with FACS analysis for CD3/CD4/CD8, and central lymphocytes with mesenteric lymph node and spleen staining for CD3. Circulating and lung tissue16 infiltrating neutrophils were measured. Circulating CD3 lymphocytes in the blood and in central lymphoid organs (spleen/lymph node) were stained and evaluated using FACS analysis. Immune-related gene expression from liver tissue was quantified using RT-PCR. Results The overall survival was 22% (2/9) in the control and 75% (6/8) in the PATG groups, p = 0.09; during the reperfusion period (following hemorrhage) survival was 25% (2/8) in the control and 100% (6/6) in the PATG groups, p = 0.008. Mean blood loss and hemodynamic profiles were not significantly different between the experimental and control groups. Circulating CD3+CD4+ lymphocytes were significantly depleted in the PATG group compared to control. Lymphocyte depletion in the setting of hemorrhagic shock also significantly decreased circulating and lung tissue infiltrating neutrophils, and decreased expression of liver ischemia gene expression. Conclusions Lymphocyte manipulation with a depletional (PATG) strategy improves reperfusion survival in experimental hemorrhagic shock using a porcine liver injury model. This proof of principle study paves the way for further development of immunomodulation approaches to ameliorate secondary immune injury following hemorrhagic shock.
Lymphocyte Modulation with FTY720 Improves Hemorrhagic Shock Survival in Swine
Jason S. Hawksworth, J. Christopher Graybill, Trevor S. Brown, Shannon M. Wallace, Thomas A. Davis, Doug K. Tadaki, Eric A. Elster
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034224
Abstract: The inflammatory response to severe traumatic injury results in significant morbidity and mortality. Lymphocytes have recently been identified as critical mediators of the early innate immune response to ischemia-reperfusion injury. Experimental manipulation of lymphocytes following hemorrhagic shock may prevent secondary immunologic injury in surgical and trauma patients. The objective of this study is to evaluate the lymphocyte sequestration agent FTY720 as an immunomodulator following experimental hemorrhagic shock in a swine liver injury model. Yorkshire swine were anesthetized and underwent a grade III liver injury with uncontrolled hemorrhage to induce hemorrhagic shock. Experimental groups were treated with a lymphocyte sequestration agent, FTY720, (n = 9) and compared to a vehicle control group (n = 9). Animals were observed over a 3 day survival period after hemorrhage. Circulating total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were measured. Central lymphocytes were evaluated with mesenteric lymph node and spleen immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for CD3. Lung tissue infiltrating neutrophils were analyzed with myeloperoxidase (MPO) IHC staining. Relevant immune-related gene expression from liver tissue was quantified using RT-PCR. The overall survival was 22.2% in the vehicle control and 66.7% in the FTY720 groups (p = 0.081), and reperfusion survival (period after hemorrhage) was 25% in the vehicle control and 75% in the FTY720 groups (p = 0.047). CD3+ lymphocytes were significantly increased in mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen in the FTY720 group compared to vehicle control, indicating central lymphocyte sequestration. Lymphocyte disruption significantly decreased circulating and lung tissue infiltrating neutrophils, and decreased expression of liver immune-related gene expression in the FTY720 treated group. There were no observed infectious or wound healing complications. Lymphocyte sequestration with FTY720 improves survival in experimental hemorrhagic shock using a porcine liver injury model. These results support a novel and clinically relevant lymphocyte immunomodulation strategy to ameliorate secondary immune injury in hemorrhagic shock.
A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names
David Hawksworth
MycoKeys , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/mycokeys.1.2062
Abstract: A personal synopsis of the decisions made at the Nomenclature Section meeting of the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 is provided, with an emphasis on those which will affect the working practices of, or will otherwise be of interest to, mycologists. The topics covered include the re-naming of the Code, the acceptance of English as an alternative to Latin for validating diagnoses, conditions for permitting electronic publication of names, mandatory deposit of key nomenclatural information in a recognized repository for the valid publication of fungal names, the discontinuance of dual nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi, and clarification over the typification of sanctioned names, and acceptability of names originally published under the zoological code. Collectively, these changes are the most fundamental to have been enacted at single Congress since the 1950s, and herald the dawn of a new era in the practice of fungal nomenclature.
IMC9 Edinburgh Nomenclature Sessions
L.L. Norvell,D.L. Hawksworth,R.H. Petersen,S.A. Redhead
IMA Fungus , 2010,
Abstract: The proceedings of the 3-5 August 2010, IMC9 Edinburgh Nomenclature Sessions are briefly summarized. The final resolution approved by the General Assembly endorses the recommendations by the Nomenclature Sessions regarding transfer of the governance of fungal nomenclature from botanical to mycological congresses, mandatory pre-publication deposit of nomenclatural information for valid publication of new fungal names, and the acceptability of English as an alternative to Latin in the valid publication of fungal names. Complete results from the IMC9 nomenclature questionnaire are also provided.
Ascospore discharge, germination and culture of fungal partners of tropical lichens, including the use of a novel culture technique
E. Sangvichien,D.L. Hawksworth,A.J.S. Whalley
IMA Fungus , 2011,
Abstract: A total of 292 lichen samples, representing over 200 species and at least 65 genera and 26 families, were collected, mainly in Thailand; 170 of the specimens discharged ascospores in the laboratory. Generally, crustose lichens exhibited the highest discharge rates and percentage germination. In contrast, foliose lichen samples, although having a high discharge rate, had a lower percentage germination than crustose species tested. A correlation with season was indicated for a number of species. Continued development of germinated ascospores into recognizable colonies in pure culture was followed for a selection of species. The most successful medium tried was 2 % Malt-Yeast extract agar (MYA), and under static conditions using a liquid culture medium, a sponge proved to be the best of several physical carriers tested; this novel method has considerable potential for experimental work with lichen mycobionts.
The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature
D.L. Hawksworth,P.W. Crous,S.A. Redhead,D.R. Reynolds
IMA Fungus , 2011,
Abstract: The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature offungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented.
Managing and coping with names of pleomorphic fungi in a period of transition
D.L. Hawksworth
IMA Fungus , 2012,
Abstract: An explanation is provided of the recent changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants relating to the ending of the separate naming of different states of fungi with a pleomorphic life-cycle. Issues relating to their implementation are discussed, including problems of defining “widely used”, author citations, proofs of holomorphy, typification, the preparation of “Lists of accepted and rejected names” (with a possible timetable), relationship to the existing processes of sanctioning and conservation or rejection, and steps to be considered for the future. This material is presented here to stimulate debate on the actions that should be taken by individuals, and responsible committees, in the current period of transition to a system of fungal nomenclature fit for the 21st century.
A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names
D.L. Hawksworth
IMA Fungus , 2011,
Abstract: A personal synopsis of the decisions made at the Nomenclature Section meeting of the International Botanical Congress in Melbourne in July 2011 is provided, with an emphasis on those which will affect the working practices of, or will otherwise be of interest to, mycologists. The topics covered include the re-naming of the Code, the acceptance of English as an alternative to Latin for validating diagnoses, conditions for permitting electronic publication of names, mandatory deposit of key nomenclatural information in a recognized repository for the valid publication of fungal names, the discontinuance of dual nomenclature for pleomorphic fungi, clarification of the typification of sanctioned names, and acceptability of names originally published under the zoological code. Collectively, these changes are the most fundamental to have been enacted at a single Congress since the 1950s, and herald the dawn of a new era in the practice of fungal nomenclature.
Addressing the conundrum of unavailable name-bearing types
David L. Hawksworth
IMA Fungus , 2012,
Abstract: Access to name-bearing type material can be a particular frustration for those mycologists in the tropics, or working outside established institutions, where the specimens are known to exist but cannot be examined. They can be inaccessible because of loans policies and the inability of mycologists to make personal visits. Each case has to be considered separately, but a pragmatic nine-point approach is presented which may provide some guidance as to what can be done in such instances. A postscript draws attention to 12 points to consider when designated or handling namebearing types.
Towards A Model of Identity and Role Exit
Jason S. Milne
Sociation Today , 2011,
Abstract: Explanations of role exit often focus on how factors associated with a specific role that affect whether the individual will exit a role or not. Other research explains how identities affect our performance in a role. However, no one has yet to demonstrate the connection between role-set factors and identities, and role exit. Using data from a survey of 940 current and former soccer referees, this paper provides a model of role exit that involves a complex of processes that include role-set factors (structural and cultural factors) associated with a specific role and identity processes. Specifically, this paper demonstrates that, other than role conflict, identity processes explain the relationship between role-set factors and role exit. The model provides a beginning method for understanding the connection between identities and role exit.
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