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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 325365 matches for " Hawa S Mbawalla "
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Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral hygiene status and oral health related quality of life, the Limpopo - Arusha school health project (LASH): A cross-sectional study
Hawa S Mbawalla, Joyce R Masalu, Anne N ?str?m
BMC Pediatrics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-10-87
Abstract: Cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 using one-stage cluster sampling design. Total of 2412 students (mean age 15.2 yr) completed self-administered questionnaires, whereas 1077 (mean age 14.9 yr) underwent dental-examination. Bivariate analyses were conducted using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics. Multiple variable analyses were conducted using stepwise standardized logistic regression (SLR) with odds ratios and 95% Confidence intervals (CI).44.8% presented with fair to poor OHIS and 48.2% reported any OIDP. Older students, those from low socio-economic status families, had parents who couldn't afford dental care and had low educational-level reported oral impacts, poor oral hygiene, irregular toothbrushing, less dental attendance and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened drinks more frequently than their counterparts. Stepwise logistic regression revealed that reporting any OIDP was independently associated with; older age-groups, parents do not afford dental care, smoking experience, no dental visits and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks. Behavioural factors accounted partly for association between low family SES and OIDP. Low family SES, no dental attendance and smoking experience were most important in males. Low family SES and fewer intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks were the most important correlates in females.Socio-behavioural factors associated with higher odds ratios for poor OHIS were; older age, belonging to the poorest household category and having parents who did not afford dental care across both genders.Disparities in oral hygiene status and OIDP existed in relation to age, affording dental care, smoking and intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks. Gender differences should be considered in intervention studies, and modifiable behaviours have some relevance in reducing social disparity in oral health.Promoting oral health of adolescents through health promoting schools has been prioritized by the World Health Organization (
Discriminative ability of the generic and condition-specific Child-Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP) by the Limpopo-Arusha School Health (LASH) Project: A cross-sectional study
Hawa S Mbawalla, Matilda Mtaya, Joyce R Masalu, Pongsri Brudvik, Anne N Astrom
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-45
Abstract: In Arusha, 1077 school children (mean age 14.9 years, range 12-17 years) and 1601 school children in Dar es Salaam (mean age 13.0 years, range 12-14 years) underwent oral clinical examinations and completed the Kiswahili version of the generic and CS Child-OIDP inventories. The discriminative ability was assessed as differences in overall mean and prevalence scores between groups, corresponding effect sizes and odd ratios, OR.The differences in the prevalence scores and the overall mean generic Child-OIDP scores were significant between the groups with (DMFT > 0) and without (DMFT = 0) caries experience and with (simplified oral hygiene index [OHI-S] > 1) and without periodontal problems (OHI-S ≤ 1) in Arusha and Dar es Salaam. In Dar es Salaam, differences in the generic and CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without dental caries, differences in the generic Child-OIDP scores were observed between the groups with and without periodontal problems, and differences in the CS Child-OIDP scores were observed between malocclusion groups. The adjusted OR for the association between dental caries and the CS Child-OIDP score attributed to dental caries was 5.4. The adjusted OR for the association between malocclusion and CS Child-OIDP attributed to malocclusion varied from 8.8 to 2.5.The generic Child-OIDP discriminated equally well between children with and without dental caries and periodontal problems across socio-culturally different study sites. Compared with its generic form, the CS Child-OIDP discriminated most strongly between children with and without dental caries and malocclusion. The CS Child OIDP attributed to dental caries and malocclusion seems to be better suited to support clinical indicators when estimating oral health needs among school children in Tanzania.Planning dental treatment within a public health system requires information on the prevalence and distribution of oral diseases [1]. However, normative treatment needs, ref
Nursing Students’ Experience with Information Literacy Skill  [PDF]
Hawa Osman
Yangtze Medicine (YM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ym.2017.13016
Abstract: This study examined the searching skills and extent of usage of electronic databases by Nursing, Midwifery and Public Health Nursing students in the University of Health and Allied Science (UHAS). The focus was on forty (40) level 300 students drawn from a universe of two hundred and forty six (246) of the School of Public Health (SPH). The study used quantitative method approach and the survey instruments were questionnaire, interview and observation. The data collected were analyzed and classified into the following themes: usefulness, extent of use, determinants of use of e-databases, searching skills, and main drawbacks of learning information literacy skills (ILS). Although all the respondents strongly agreed that e-databases are indispensable for academic and professional practice, findings revealed that majority of them have low quality of searching skills and that accounts for the sparse use of the e-databases. This positive association is proven by Pearson’s chi square test (0.000). The study also established that students’ attitude, academic loads and methodology of teaching were the challenges hindering the acquisition of ILS of students. As a consequence, the study recommends that Academic librarians should intensify their education on e-databases, the development of research guides and encourages stronger collaboration with faculty members in the teaching of ILS so that student nurses would be more adept in searching for information to enhanced scholarship and professional practice.
Osteoprotegerin - ein neuer Laborparameter zur Unterstützung der radiologischen Diagnostik rezenter Frakturen?
Krampla W,Newrkla S,Huber K,Hawa G
Journal für Mineralstoffwechsel , 2007,
Abstract: Ziel der Studie: Im Initialstadium der Frakturheilung treten lokale Regulationsmechanismen in Kraft, die den Knochenumbau vor Ort unabh ngig vom Gesamtmetabolismus des Skeletts steuern. Für den Knochenabbau ist die Reifung der Osteoklasten n tig. Diese erfolgt aus unreifen Vorstufen unter dem Einflu des steoklastendifferenzierungsfaktors sRANKL. Die reifen Osteoklasten produzieren Cathepsin K, die Gegenregulation erfolgt über eine lokale Osteoprotegerin- (OPG-) Ausschüttung. Festgestellt werden soll, ob die Serumkonzentrationen dieser drei Substanzen in einer Weise ansteigen, die einen darauf aufbauenden Labortest zum Nachweis einer rezenten Fraktur erlaubt. Material und Methode: Eingeschlossen wurden 19 Patienten mit nachgewiesenen Wirbelk rperfrakturen sowie sechs Probanden nach Wirbels ulenoperationen. Die Serumkonzentrationen obengenannter Parameter wurden ermittelt und die Werte mit publizierten Daten einer gesunden Normalgruppe verglichen. Ergebnis: Nur für OPG ist eine marginale Konzentrations nderung zu diskutieren. Die überschneidung zwischen Normalkollektiv und Patientengruppe ist allerdings so gro , da ein alleiniger praxisrelevanter Frakturbluttest nicht darauf aufgebaut werden kann.
Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Port Competitiveness in West Africa Using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)  [PDF]
George Kobina van Dyck, Hawa Mohamed Ismael
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2015.56043
Abstract: In the last decade, inter-port competition in West Africa has become fiercer as captive hinterlands of ports continue to overlap and become contestable or shared. This is due to door-to-door supply chain services being offered by shipping lines and third party logistics service providers through inter-modalism. In addition, as cargo becomes more concentrated in the region, there have been calls for the selection of a hub location for shipping lines serving the region in order to exploit economies of scale. This paper therefore aims to evaluate the competitiveness of major ports in the West African region based on criteria selected by experts. Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process, port competitiveness was evaluated and ports ranked according to the total weights obtained based on the different criteria used. The Port of Abidjan emerged the most competitive port in West Africa with its strongest links being its efficiency and performance, infrastructure and political stability outlook in spite of recent political turmoil. The Lagos Port Complex, West Africa’s largest port in terms of scale and throughput, emerged fifth falling behind the Ports of Lomé, Tema and Dakar respectively owing largely to its political stability outlook. The least competitive port was the Port of Cotonou in Benin.
Indian Streams Research Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Industry's external environment, including globalization and deregulations has made the companies highly competitive. Companies find it difficult to compete on price and need to look at other ways to retain customers. As customers become more sophisticated, it becomes essential for companies to consider the use of international certification to respond to their continuously changing requirements. Quality is a main agenda. Quality and productivity have been realized as top critical and strategic issues. As the customers become more aware and for making the competition healthy there is need to match the international standard of quality
Journal of Engineering Science and Technology , 2008,
Abstract: Replacement of wooden sleepers to prestressed concrete sleepers has marked as advancement in the railway sleepers industry in Malaysia. Despite superiority of these man-made composite sleepers, wooden sleepers still lead in terms of track performance qualities in particular on its natural elasticity. An initiative to investigate the degree of degradation of used wooden sleepers and the possibility of reusing them on low capacity railway track in Malaysia as a means of reducing the overall track rehabilitation cost was undertaken. Used wooden sleepers were tested according to Australian Standard, Railway Track Material, Prestressed Concrete Sleepers (AS 1085:14:2003) on Rail Seat Vertical Load Test and Centre Positive Bending Moment Test. Six wooden sleeper samples were tested under the static load until failure. Benchmarking was carried on high strength prestressed concrete sleeper, tested according to AS 1085:14:2003: Rail Seat - Positive Moment Test. The results obtained showed the maximum load that the used wooden sleepers can carry surpassed the design load of KTMB specifications and it is about 58% of high strength prestressed concrete sleeper.The maximum deflection produced by all used wooden sleepers is 20 mm showing that the sleepers maintained their elastic behaviour. Modulus of Elasticity ranging from 21 to 27 kN/mm2 of which within the standard value, indicating weathering process does not so much affect their stiffness. Most sleepers showed crack patterns propagated in the longitudinal direction. Toughness value is almost one half of the high strength prestressed concrete sleeper. This study indicates that there is a potential of reusing the wooden sleepers for light loading of the railway track. Hence, an extensive study is recommended to be carried out under fatigue loading condition.
A 93.36 dB, 161 MHz CMOS Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) for a 16 Bit Pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC)
Nordiana Mukahar,Siti Hawa Ruslan
International Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.11591/ijece.v2i1.121
Abstract: A gain modified CMOS Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) for a 16 bit pipeline Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is presented. The circuit is designed to be used for a high resolution and low sampling rate ADC. Gain boosting technique is implemented in the design to achieve high DC gain and settling time as required. Post layout simulations for a 5 pF load capacitance shows that OTA achieves a gain bandwidth of 161 MHz at a phase margin 93.14o with 93.27 dB DC gain. The settling time for an OTA is 163 ns for 0.1 % accuracy to achieve final value and consume power about 4.88 mW from 5 V power supply. Keywords: ADC; common mode feedback; CMOS Operational Amplifier; fully differential folded cascade
Effect of CO2 Enrichment on Synthesis of Some Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)
Ali Ghasemzadeh,Hawa Z. E. Jaafar
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijms12021101
Abstract: The effect of two different CO 2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol ?1) on the photosynthesis rate, primary and secondary metabolite syntheses and the antioxidant activities of the leaves, stems and rhizomes of two Zingiber officinale varieties (Halia Bentong and Halia Bara) were assessed in an effort to compare and validate the medicinal potential of the subterranean part of the young ginger. High photosynthesis rate (10.05?μmol CO 2 m ?2s ?1 in Halia Bara) and plant biomass (83.4 g in Halia Bentong) were observed at 800 μmol mol ?1 CO 2. Stomatal conductance decreased and water use efficiency increased with elevated CO 2 concentration. Total flavonoids (TF), total phenolics (TP), total soluble carbohydrates (TSC), starch and plant biomass increased significantly ( P ≤ 0.05) in all parts of the ginger varieties under elevated CO 2 (800 μmol mol ?1). The order of the TF and TP increment in the parts of the plant was rhizomes?>?stems >?leaves. More specifically, Halia Bara had a greater increase of TF (2.05 mg/g dry weight) and TP (14.31 mg/g dry weight) compared to Halia Bentong (TF: 1.42 mg/g dry weight; TP: 9.11 mg/g dry weight) in average over the whole plant. Furthermore, plants with the highest rate of photosynthesis had the highest TSC and phenolics content. Significant differences between treatments and species were observed for TF and TP production. Correlation coefficient showed that TSC and TP content are positively correlated in both varieties. The antioxidant activity, as determined by the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP) activity, increased in young ginger grown under elevated CO 2. The FRAP values for the leaves, rhizomes and stems extracts of both varieties grown under two different CO 2 concentrations (400 and 800 μmol mol ?1) were significantly lower than those of vitamin C (3107.28 μmol Fe (II)/g) and α-tocopherol (953 μmol Fe (II)/g), but higher than that of BHT (74.31 μmol Fe (II)/g). These results indicate that the plant biomass, primary and secondary metabolite synthesis, and following that, antioxidant activities of Malaysian young ginger varieties can be enhanced through controlled environment (CE) and CO 2 enrichment.
Primary, Secondary Metabolites, H2O2, Malondialdehyde and Photosynthetic Responses of Orthosiphon stimaneus Benth. to Different Irradiance Levels
Mohd Hafiz Ibrahim,Hawa Z. E. Jaafar
Molecules , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/molecules17021159
Abstract: The resource availability hypothesis predicts an increase in the allocation to secondary metabolites when carbon gain is improved relative to nutrient availability, which normally occurs during periods of low irradiance. The present work was carried out to confirm this hypothesis by investigating the effects of decreasing irradiance on the production of plant secondary metabolites (flavonoids and phenolics) in the herbal plant Orthosiphon stamineus, and to characterize this production by carbohydrate, H2O2, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, net photosynthesis, leaf chlorophyll content and carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N). Four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m2/s) were imposed onto two-week old seedlings for 12 weeks in a randomized complete block design experiment. Peak production of total flavonoids, phenolics, soluble sugar, starch and total non-structural carbohydrate ocurred under low irradiance of 225 μmol/m2/s, and decreased with increasing irradiance. The up-regulation of secondary metabolites could be explained by the concomitant increases in H2O2 and MDA activities under low irradiance. This condition also resulted in enhanced C/N ratio signifying a reduction in nitrogen levels, which had established significant negative correlations with net photosynthesis, total biomass and total chlorophyll content, indicating the possible existence of a trade-off between growth and secondary metabolism under low irradiance with reduced nitrogen content. The competition between total chlorophyll and secondary metabolites production, as exhibited by the negative correlation coefficient under low irradiance, also suggests a sign of gradual switch of investment from chlorophyll to polyphenols production.
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