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Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study
Hatoluf Melkamu,Berhanu Seyoum,Yadeta Dessie
AIDS Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/279876
Abstract: There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB) infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection) that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123?TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed , 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education , 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight ( ?kg/m2) , 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus , 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging , 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen , 95% CI (0.28, 0.81) showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations. 1. Introduction Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the world’s most common cause of death in the era of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is among the leading causes of death for people living with HIV (PLWHIV) which shares about twenty-five percent of all causes of the deaths [1]. TB and HIV are called a “deadly duo” as HIV weakens the immune system and makes them more susceptible for TB infection. On the other hand, TB increases the progression of HIV to AIDS stage [2]. Globally, more than 13 million people are TB/HIV coinfected. Of these, about seventy percent are living in sub-Saharan Africa [3]. Ethiopia ranked seventh among the twenty-two high TB burden countries in the world [4]. Hospital data indicated that TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third cause of hospital admissions in the country [5]. Studies indicated that certain HIV-infected people develop TB, while others do not. This phenomenon iterates that being HIV positive is not a mere factor for being infected with TB, and there are various determinants factors that contribute to the TB/HIV co-infection [6–8]. These factors vary contextually which necessitate conducting the present study. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants of TB/HIV co-infection among HIV-positive adults attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte,
Assessment of Factors That Affect the Performance of Agricultural Production, in the Case of Amhara Region, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Melkamu Ayana Zeru
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.98073
Abstract: The agricultural sector is the basis of livelihood for a large proportion of society in Ethiopia. In the three political regimes in modern Ethiopia, the Imperial, the military and the Ethiopian people revolutionary democratic front (EPRDF), agriculture has been regarded as a critical sector. The Agricultural Development Led Industrialization (ADLI) is the national policy of the country. Regardless of the government policy attention and investment, there is a long way to go for smallholders to ensure food self-sufficiency. Agriculture is the base of our food, transformation to industrialization, climatic change control system. Agriculture is the soul of our sovereignty for development as well as poverty reduction for individuals and country level. In Ethiopia, population density is high and has been increasing and agricultural land has been decreasing because of fragmenting or converting it into residential plots. To meet the domestic food requirements, use of improved production technologies developed by research is come out to be important. Therefore, the goal of this study was to analyze factors that affect the performance of agricultural products in Amahara region national state and to determine the highly significant input factors for producing high and qualified agricultural outputs. Data regarding total agricultural outputs and its input factors in study area of Amahara region from 2010 to 2018 was obtained from Amhara national state branch of the Ethiopian institute of agricultural sector. Correlation analyses were used to examine the strength of the relationship between each of the determinant factors with total agricultural output, while multiple regression analysis was employed to examine the simultaneous effects of several independent variables on the dependent variable, total agricultural outputs. These analyses were employed through the packages R and Stata to achieve the main objectives of the study. All of the independent variables were highly correlated with the total agricultural output. The overall regression model was highly significant (p-value < 0.01) with F = 45.532. The R-squared value implies that 93.8% percent of the changes in average total agricultural outputs are successfully explained by the variables used in the model of this study. If we take model size into account, 91.8% percent of the variation in average total agricultural output was explained by the values of the independent variables. Specifically, among the independent variables irrigated land, fertilizer, improved seed and pesticides are the most significant
Silage Additives: Review  [PDF]
Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek, Birhan Tamir
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.45026
Abstract: Silage making process can be explained very simply, it is actually very complex and dependant on many factors, such as the natural microbial population, harvesting conditions and the sugar content of the forage. Consequently, silage quality can be very variable and the only way to effectively control the fermentation process is to use an additive. Additives are natural or industrial products added in rather large quantities to the forage or grain mass. Additives control or prevent certain types of fermentation, thus reducing losses and improving silage stability. In order to assist in the fermentation process, various silage additives have been used to improve the nutrient and energy recovery in silage, often with subsequent improvements in animal performance. The purpose for applying additives to the silage is to ensure that the growth of lactic bacteria predominates during the fermentation process, producing lactic acid in quantities high enough to ensure good silage. Therefore this review is made to focus on some practical aspects of the fermentation process and the uses of some common silage additives that include microbial inoculants, enzymes, and propionic acid.
Prevalence of schistosomiasis and associated factors among students attending at elementary schools in Amibera District, Ethiopia  [PDF]
Worku Awoke, Melkamu Bedimo, Molalign Tarekegn
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2013.32027

Introduction: Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases and an important public health problem in many developing countries including Ethiopia. The study was aimed at assessing prevalence of schistosomiasis and associated factors among students attending at elementary schools in Amibera District, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross sectional school based study was carried out on sample of 840 students. First, all elementary schools around Amibera District were grouped in to strata based on their distance from the irrigation site as “Near” or “Far”. Then two schools were selected by simple random sampling method from each stratum. Finally, proportional allocation of the sample size was done according to the number of students in each stratum. From each grade level students were selected by simple random sampling techniques. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect data on socio demographic characteristics, water contact habit and toilet utilization. Stool and urine examination were done to determine prevalence. The analysis was carried out using SPSS version 16.0. Result and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of schis- tosomiasis in this study was 8.2%; among this Schisosoma haematobium was 7.4% and Schisosoma mansoni was 0.8%. Education level (p-value = 0.047, OR = 1.834), swimming habit (p-value = 0.0001, OR = 4.979) and source of water for domestic consumption (p-value = 0.0001, OR = 0.334) had shown significant association with the occurrence of S. haematobium infection. Conclusion and recommendations: The prevalence of schistosomiasis was not what to be neglected. It was significantly associated with educational level, swimming habit of children and source of water for domestic consumption. Therefore, provision of safe water supply and health

Linkage between VCT and reproductive health services (FP, ANC and delivery) in two public facilities of rural Ethiopia
A Misganaw, Y Melkamu
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2008,
Effect of Dried Tomato Pomace Feeding on Feed Intake, Body Weight Gain and Economic Efficiency of Rhode Island Red Grower Chicks
Melkamu Bezabih Yitbarek
International Journal of Natural Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of feeding Dried Tomato Pomace (DTP) with commercial ration on feed intake, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and economic efficiency of Rhode Island Red (RIR) grower chicks. A total of three hundred RIR grower chicks at the age of eight weeks were grouped into 20 pens of 15 chicks each, and randomly assigned to five treatments (control fed a commercial ration; 5% DTP;10% DTP; 15% DTP; 20% DTP). Birds fed on 5, 10, 15,and 20% DTP had the higher dry matter (DM) intake (72.93, 72.75, 72.98 and 73.15 g/bird/day) than the control group (72.10g/bird/day). The daily body weight gain of birds ranged from 13.3 to15.3 g/day, the highest being on birds fed on 5% DTP; The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of birds were 5.3, 4.8, 5.0, 5.3, and 5.5 for the control and for birds that consumed 5, 10, 15, and 20% DTP, respectively. The higher significant difference (p<0.05) was observed at 5%compaired with 20% DTP. The economic efficiency of the experimental diets was 1.35, 1.79, 1.80, 1.78, and 1.82 for a group fed on the control, 5, 10, 15, and 20% DTP, respectively. There was a higher significant (p<0.05) difference on a group fed on DTP and the control diet. 20% DTP brought the highest economic efficiency among the groups. Based on these results it could be concluded that dried tomato pomace could be incorporated at the level of 20% without any adverse effect on growth performance in order to increase the economic efficiency.
Assessment of the Sensitivity of Streamflow Simulations to Changes in Patch Resolution Using GIS Based Hydro-Ecologic Model  [PDF]
Samson G. Mengistu, Melkamu A. Ali, Fuad A. Yassin
Open Journal of Modern Hydrology (OJMH) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojmh.2016.62007
Abstract: Eight different patch configurations were investigated to analyze the effect of patch characterization/formation in streamflow simulation, using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation Systems (RHESSys) model. It is investigated for eight different patch configurations of a subcatchment of the Turkey Lakes Watershed, Ontario. The model’s hydrological parameters are calibrated for each of these patch configurations and the performance of the simulations is evaluated. Results indicate that both the nature of the flow simulation and the calibrated parameter values are sensitive to patch configuration. The best simulation results were obtained for the patch configuration with the highest spatial variation of climate, stream network and hillslope conditions across the subcatchment. Different patch configurations also lead to markedly different calibrations of the model’s hydrological parameters (54.26 < k < 119.13; and 1.02 < m < 2.28), which has implications for the physical interpretation and transferability of the calibrated parameter values.
Valleyless Sequences
Robert G. Rieper,Melkamu Zeleke
Mathematics , 2000,
Abstract: Valleyless sequences of finite length $n$ and maximum entry $k$ occur in tree enumeration problems and provide an interesting correspondence between permutations and compositions. In this paper we introduce the notion of \emph {valleyless} sequences, explore the correspondence and enumerate them using the method of generating functions.
The pattern and predictors of mortality of HIV/AIDS patients with neurologic manifestation in Ethiopia: a retrospective study
Tesfaye Berhe, Yilma Melkamu, Amanuel Amare
AIDS Research and Therapy , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-6405-9-11
Abstract: Medical records of 347 patients (age ≥13 years) admitted to Tikur Anbesa Hospital from September 2002 to August 2009 were reviewed and demographic and clinical data were collected.Data from 347 patients were analysed. The mean age was 34.6 years. The diagnosis of HIV was made before current admission in 33.7% and 15.6% were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Causes of neurological manifestation were: cerebral toxoplasmosis (36.6%), tuberculous meningitis (22.5%), cryptococcal meningitis (22.2%) and bacterial meningitis (6.9%). HIV-encephalopathy, primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy were rare in our patients. CD4 count was done in 64.6% and 89.7% had count below 200/mm3[mean = 95.8, median = 57] and 95.7% were stage IV. Neuroimaging was done in 38% and 56.8% had mass lesion. The overall mortality was 45% and the case-fatality rates were: tuberculous meningitis (53.8%), cryptococcal meningitis (48.1%), cerebral toxoplasmosiss (44.1%) and bacterial meningitis (33.3%). Change in sensorium and seizure were predictors of mortality.CNS opportunistic infections were the major causes of neurological manifestations of HIV/AIDS and were associated with high mortality and morbidity. Almost all patients had advanced HIV disease at presentation. Early diagnosis of HIV, prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections, timely ART, and improving laboratory services are recommended. Mortality was related to change in sensorium and seizure.Symptomatic neurologic dysfunction develops in more than 50% of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [1] and about 10% experience neurologic symptoms as the initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) [2]. Neurologic disorders associated with HIV infection include central nervous system (CNS) infections, neoplasms, vascular complications, peripheral neuropathies and myopathies [3]. Neurologic dysfunction is an important cause or a strong marke
Utilization of post-abortion care services in three regional states of Ethiopia
Y Melkamu, M Betre, S Tesfaye
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2010,
Abstract: Background: In Ethiopia, utilization of post-abortion care service is minimal and it seems that the expanding services are underutilized. The purpose of this study was to assess factors which influence decisions for utilization of abortion related services at community level. Methodology: The study was carried out in six selected districts (woredas) within the three big regions of the country, namely Amhara, Oromiya and SNNPR. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. Both quantitative and qualitative study techniques, including structured interview questionnaires, focus group discussions (FGDs), and in-depth interviews. The study population comprised randomly selected 1,492 women of reproductive age, service providers, and key informants of the sampled districts. Results: Majority of respondents said that they prefer public health facilities. According to the respondents, the reason why women do not visit health facility for PAC services include lack of community support, unavailability of services, services are expensive, facilities are distantly located and lack of means of transportation. From the multivariate analysis it appears that public health facilities are preferred by younger respondents, those with no education, those with no history of unwanted pregnancy and those with better income. The qualitative study indicated that women do not go to health facilities for PAC mainly because of inappropriate treatment by providers at the health facilities. Conclusion: Public health facilities especially health centers are the most preferred but there are barriers that should improve. Introduction of supportive supervision should be considered as a tool for improving quality of care. A mechanism should be in place to obtain community opinion regularly and use it to continuously improve services. To correct some misconceptions and improve community awareness on abortion related issues community providers, including reproductive health agents and health extension workers can teach about availability of services and about abortion related complications. [Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 2010;24 Special Issue 1:123-129]
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