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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405988 matches for " Hasan H. Sonmezturk and Nabil J. Azar "
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Levetiracetam Extended Release as Adjuvant Therapy for the Control of Partial-onset Seizures
Hasan H. Sonmezturk and Nabil J. Azar
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/JCNSD.S4126
Abstract: Extended release (XR) formulation of levetiracetam (LEV) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration as an add-on to other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for adults with partial onset seizures. This is based on class-I evidence demonstrating significant seizure reduction in once daily dosing. Keppra-XR is marketed with the brand name of Keppra XR since 2008 (UCB Pharma). Its original immediate release (IR) formulation has been in the market since 2000. LEV has a unique molecular structure which is chemically unrelated to existing AEDs. The precise mechanism of action is unknown. Animal studies showed binding to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A, thought to be involved in modulating synaptic neurotransmitter release. LEV-IR is proven effective as adjunctive therapy for partial-onset seizures, primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures and myoclonic seizures. It was shown to be equivalent to carbamazepine as first-line treatment for partial-onset seizures. The extended release formulation added advantages such as better tolerance and increased compliance.
Levetiracetam Extended Release as Adjuvant Therapy for the Control of Partial-onset Seizures
Hasan H. Sonmezturk,Nabil J. Azar
Journal of Central Nervous System Disease , 2011,
Marked Seizure Reduction after MCT Supplementation
Raed Azzam,Nabil J. Azar
Case Reports in Neurological Medicine , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/809151
Abstract: We report the case of a 43-year-old man with history of nonsurgical partial epilepsy who previously failed multiple trials of antiepileptic drugs. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were added to his regular diet in the form of pure oil. Subsequently, his seizure frequency was markedly reduced from multiple daily seizures to one seizure every four days. His seizures recurred after transient discontinuation of MCT over a period of ten days. His seizure improvement was achieved at a dose of four tablespoons of MCT twice daily with no reported side effects. He developed significant diarrhea and flatulence at higher doses. We conclude that MCT oil supplementation to regular diet may provide better seizure control in some patients. MCT oil supplementation may be a more tolerable alternative to the standard ketogenic diet. 1. Introduction The ketogenic diet was proven to be effective in treating patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. However, its sustained efficacy requires strict adherence to a high fat diet that can limit patient compliance. The fat intake can be derived either from long- or medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) [1]. One major component of MCT is caprylic acid which was recently FDA approved as a food supplement for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease [2]. While maintaining a regular diet, MCT supplementation demonstrated increased ketosis, suggesting a possible role in the treatment of epilepsy. In this case, we report a patient with drug-resistant epilepsy who experienced marked seizure reduction after the addition of MCT oil to his regular diet. 2. Case A 43-year-old Caucasian right-handed man presented to our clinic with longstanding history of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. His first seizure occurred at the age of five years. Since then, he was treated with multiple antiepileptic drugs resulting only in short periods of seizure freedom. He reported daily seizures averaging six per day, in spite of an adequate dosage of levetiracetam, lamotrigine, and phenytoin. He described stereotypical episodes of an initial “closing-in” sensation followed by a variable degree of loss of awareness or staring as reported by his wife. His seizures rarely progressed into secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures. His seizure risk factors included a history of premature birth and a paternal uncle with epilepsy. His past medical history included gastroesophageal reflux disease treated with famotidine. His general and neurological examinations were normal. As part of a presurgical evaluation, a five-day inpatient video-EEG study recorded 12
Calculation of Open Water Evaporation as a Climate Parameter  [PDF]
Nabil H. Swedan
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.108043
Abstract: Calculation of open water evaporation is important for hydrology, industry, agriculture, environment, and other fields. The available methods of calculating evaporation are based on field or laboratory experiments and should not be used for scale-up to open water evaporation for similitude relationships cannot be correctly obtained. The methods are thus unjustified scientifically. In addition, surface evaporation is not a local phenomenon that is a function of independent meteorological parameters. These are in fact dependent parameters, and the solar energy exchanged with the surface of the earth is the only independent variable for open water evaporation. Contrary to the existing methods, meteorological records and measurements are therefore not required. Many parts of the world do not have full or partial records available. For these, the available methods are likely not to be useful. In addition, future meteorological records or measurements cannot be made available for evaporation projection in a warming world. This may well place a limit on using the existing methods. The work presented in this manuscript reveals a new understanding of evaporation as a climate parameter instead and can be calculated as such. Minimal to no meteorological records or measurements may be required. The advantages of the proposed method are scientific justification, simplicity, accuracy, versatility, low to virtually no cost, and can be used to map present and future evaporation in a short period of time.
Pulmonary Hypertension Induced by Thalidomide (and Derivatives) in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: A Systematic Review  [PDF]
Abdulqadir J. Nashwan, Nader I. Al-Dewik, Hisham M. Al Sabah, Mohamed A. Yassin, Shehab F. Mohamed, Nabil H. Omar, Dana B. Mansour
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2016.713094
Abstract: Thalidomide is widely used in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In recent years, several cases of pulmonary hypertension have been reported following treatment with thalidomide. The aim of this review was to evaluate the published literature on multiple myeloma patients with pulmonary hypertension following thalidomide treatment. A literature search was performed between 2000 and 2016. A total of 7 eligible studies were identified and deemed eligible, including 11 cases—approximately 37% (4 cases) with IgA (k), 27% (3 cases) with IgG (λ) MM, 27% (3 cases) with IgG (k) MM, and one case (9%) with primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL). The vast majority of cases—82% (9 cases)—are associated with thalidomide, while only 18% (2 cases) are related to thalidomide derivatives (lenalidomide and pomalidomide). In conclusion, pulmonary hypertension induced by thalidomide or derivatives in multiple myeloma (MM) patients is related to a multifactorial etiology including the pathophysiology of the disease, thromboembolic events, preexisted cardiovascular conditions, comorbidities, and combination with other chemo- or bio-therapeutic agents. MM patients should be evaluated for signs and symptoms underlying cardiopulmonary disease before initiating, and during treatment with thalidomide.
Enhanced and continuous electrostatic carrier doping on the SrTiO$_{3}$ surface
Azar B. Eyvazov,Isao H. Inoue,Pablo Stoliar,Marcelo J. Rozenberg,Christos Panagopoulos
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1038/srep01721
Abstract: Paraelectrical tuning of a charge carrier density as high as 10$^{13}$\,cm$^{-2}$ in the presence of a high electronic carrier mobility on the delicate surfaces of correlated oxides, is a key to the technological breakthrough of a field effect transistor (FET) utilising the metal-nonmetal transition. Here we introduce the Parylene-C/Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ hybrid gate insulator and fabricate FET devices on single-crystalline SrTiO$_{3}$, which has been regarded as a bedrock material for oxide electronics. The gate insulator accumulates up to $\sim10^{13}$cm$^{-2}$ carriers, while the field-effect mobility is kept at 10\,cm$^2$/Vs even at room temperature. Further to the exceptional performance of our devices, the enhanced compatibility of high carrier density and high mobility revealed the mechanism for the long standing puzzle of the distribution of electrostatically doped carriers on the surface of SrTiO$_{3}$. Namely, the formation and continuous evolution of field domains and current filaments.
Perfect interference-less absorption at infrared frequencies by a van der Waal's crystal
D. G. Baranov,J. H. Edgar,Tim Hoffman,Nabil Bassim,Joshua D. Caldwell
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.201405
Abstract: Traditionally, efforts to achieve perfect absorption have required the use of complicated metamaterial-based structures as well as relying on destructive interference to eliminate back reflections. Here, we have demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that such perfect absorption can be achieved using a naturally occurring material, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) due to its high optical anisotropy without the requirement of interference effects to absorb the incident field. This effect was observed for p-polarized light within the mid-infrared spectral range, and we provide the full theory describing the origin of the perfect absorption as well as the methodology for achieving this effect with other materials. Furthermore, while this is reported for the uniaxial crystal hBN, this is equally applicable to biaxial crystals and more complicated crystal structures. Interference-less absorption is of fundamental interest to the field of optics; moreover, such materials may provide additional layers of flexibility in the design of frequency selective surfaces, absorbing coatings and sensing devices operating in the infrared.
Grammar-based distance in progressive multiple sequence alignment
David J Russell, Hasan H Otu, Khalid Sayood
BMC Bioinformatics , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-306
Abstract: The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated via comparison to popular progressive multiple alignment approaches, ClustalW and T-Coffee, and to the more recently developed algorithms MAFFT, MUSCLE, Kalign, and PSAlign using the BAliBASE 3.0 database of amino acid alignment files and a set of longer sequences generated by Rose software. The proposed algorithm has successfully built multiple alignments comparable to other programs with significant improvements in running time. The results are especially striking for large datasets.We introduce a computationally efficient progressive alignment algorithm using a grammar based sequence distance particularly useful in aligning large datasets.Generation of meaningful multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) of biological sequences is a well-studied NP-complete problem, which has significant implications for a wide spectrum of applications [1,2]. In general, the challenge is aligning N sequences of varying lengths by inserting gaps in the sequences so that in the end all sequences have the same length. Of particular interest to computational biology are DNA/RNA sequences and amino acid sequences, which are comprised of nucleotide and amino acid residues, respectively.MSAs are generally used in studying phylogeny of organisms, structure prediction, and identifying segments of interest among many other applications in computational biology [3].Given a scoring scheme to evaluate the fitness of an MSA, calculating the best MSA is an NP-complete problem [1]. Variances in scoring schemes, need for expert-hand analysis in most applications, and many-to-one mapping governing elements-to-functionality (codon mapping and function) make MSA a more challenging problem when considered from a biological context as well [4].Generally, three approaches are used to automate the generation of MSAs. The first offers a brute-force method of multidimensional dynamic programming [5], which may find a good alignment but is generally computat
Field Dependence of the Spin Relaxation Within a Film of Iron Oxide Nanocrystals Formed via Electrophoretic Deposition
Kavich DW,Hasan SA,Mahajan SV,Park J-H
Nanoscale Research Letters , 2010,
Abstract: The thermal relaxation of macrospins in a strongly interacting thin film of spinel-phase iron oxide nanocrystals (NCs) is probed by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Thin films are fabricated by depositing FeO/Fe3O4 core–shell NCs by electrophoretic deposition (EPD), followed by sintering at 400°C. Sintering transforms the core–shell structure to a uniform spinel phase, which effectively increases the magnetic moment per NC. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) confirms a large packing density and a reduced inter-particle separation in comparison with colloidal assemblies. At an applied field of 25 Oe, the superparamagnetic blocking temperature is TBSP ≈ 348 K, which is much larger than the Néel-Brown approximation of TBSP ≈ 210 K. The enhanced value of TBSP is attributed to strong dipole–dipole interactions and local exchange coupling between NCs. The field dependence of the blocking temperature, TBSP(H), is characterized by a monotonically decreasing function, which is in agreement with recent theoretical models of interacting macrospins.
Whirl Interaction of a Drill Bit with the Bore-Hole Bottom  [PDF]
Nabil W. Musa, V. I. Gulyayev, L. V. Shevchuk, Hasan Aldabas
Modern Mechanical Engineering (MME) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/mme.2015.53005
Abstract: This paper deals with the theoretic simulation of a drill bit whirling under conditions of its contact interaction with the bore-hole bottom rock plane. The bit is considered to be an absolutely rigid ellipsoidal body with uneven surface. It is attached to the lower end of a rotating elastic drill string. In the perturbed state, the bit can roll without sliding on the bore-hole bottom, performing whirling vibrations (the model of dynamic equilibrium with pure rolling when maximum cohesive force does not exceed the ultimate Coulombic friction). To describe these motions, a nonholonomic dynamic model is proposed, constitutive partial differential equations are deduced. With their use, the whirling vibrations of oblong and oblate ellipsoidal bits are analyzed, the functions of cohesive (frictional) forces are calculated. It is shown that the system of elastic drill string and ellipsoidal bit can acquire stable or unstable whirl modes with approaching critical Eulerian values by the parameters of axial force, torque and angular velocity. The analogy of the found modes of motions with ones of the Celtic stones is established. It is shown that the ellipsoidal bits can stop their whirling vibrations and change directions of their circumferential motions in the same manner as the ellipsoidal Celtic stones do. As this takes place, the trajectories of the oblate ellipsoidal bits are characterized by more complicated paths and irregularities.
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