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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 18832 matches for " Haruna U.; Adamu "
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Control of African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria: Time to Strengthening Integrated Approaches (A Review)
U.O. Adamu,M.K. Haruna,R.P. Ovbagbedia,R. Bizi
International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2011,
Abstract: The aim of this review is to highlight the inadequacies of the current control of African Trypanosomiasis in Nigeria and the need to strengthen the already integrated control approach. African Trypanosomiasis is one of the most devastating diseases of man and animals in Sub-Saharan African countries, Nigeria inclusive. Over the past century numerous methods of control have been developed yet the disease has proved very difficult to eradicate. Current methods to control the disease, in the absence of a vaccine, rely on the use of anti-trypanosomal drugs and vector control. In animals, an additional control method is the use of trypanotolerant breeds of livestock. Unfortunately, all of these methods have disadvantages and none has proved to be ideal. The public health importance of trypanosomiasis, has led to attempts to control the disease nationally and regionally with initiatives such as the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) of the African union. At the Nigerian Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (NITR), a combination of control methods is being used for research development and control efforts against the disease. However, diminishing funding for research development and control activities against the disease has hindered this approach. Hence there is a great need to strengthen these integrated approaches for more effective control of trypanosomiasis. Strengthening intersectoral and inter-agency collaboration is greatly advocated in the fight against trypanosomiasis, in order to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of control, as well as enhance the prospect of sustainability and food security as supported by PATTEC. Hence, further fostering the existing relationship with PATEC in a bid towards the eradication of trypanosomiasis from Nigeria.
Identificación de los sitios de cría de Anopheles sp. durante parte de la estación seca en el estado de Jigawa, Nigeria
Marquetti,María del Carmen; Rojas,Lázara; Mohd Birniwa,Muktar; Sulaiman,Haruna U.; Adamu,Hassana H.;
Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: a study was conducted in the state of jigawa, republic of nigeria, from november to december in the dry season, where malaria is one of the main morbidity and mortality causes particularly in under 5 years-old children and pregnant women. this state had two climate seasons: dry from october to may and rainy from june to september. a total of 112 water bodies were sampled and just 18 in nine local governments were positive to mosquitoes. breeding sites for anopheles were rice fields, small holes in land, animal footsteps, small ponds, flooded pasture fields and water treatment dam, among others, to amount to 10 sites. contrary to what has always been reported about the presence of anopheles in clean waters, they were also breeding in highly polluted waters containing human faeces and garbage and located in open sewers. key words: breeding sites, anopheles, malaria, nigeria.
Economic Implications of Food Demand in Akoko South West, Ondo State, Nigeria: Aids Approach
Adebisi Temitope Edun,Adamu Haruna
American Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.11634/232907811301308
Abstract: The study examined the socio-economic characteristics of food consuming households, estimated the complete demand functions for some selected common food commodities, their prices and expenditure elasticities in Akoko South West (ASW) local government in Ondo state, Nigeria. The study examined demand analysis for food in ASW, using primary data with the use of questionnaire on some selected food-consuming households within the study area. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics for estimating demographic variables. The result of the descriptive statistics showed that semolina constituted the largest share of the household total food expenditure, among the low income and rural households but mostly among the married and the medium-size male-headed households who had tertiary-education. The Almost Ideal Demand System results showed that besides being a normal good, price inelastic, and expenditure inelastic, semolina has changed from being a luxury to being a necessity and has become a major food staple in the ASW metropolis. In conclusion, the study discovered that the prices of rice, beans, yam, garri, wheat, yam flour, and semolina were significantly important in the share of household total food budget at constant real income. Finally, the study showed from the result that the importance of semolina in ASW metropolis diet will increase as economic growth continues. This study therefore recommends that effort should be made to boost economic activities of ASW zone. This will increase their income and consequently improve their spending on the nutritious food items.
Application of Iterative Approaches in Modeling the Efficiency of ARIMA-GARCH Processes in the Presence of Outliers  [PDF]
Emmanuel Alphonsus Akpan, K. E. Lasisi, Ali Adamu, Haruna Bakari Rann
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/am.2019.103012
Abstract: The study explored both Box and Jenkins, and iterative outlier detection procedures in determining the efficiency of ARIMA-GARCH-type models in the presence of outliers using the daily closing share price returns series of four prominent banks in Nigeria (Skye (Polaris) bank, Sterling bank, Unity bank and Zenith bank) from January 3, 2006 to November 24, 2016. The series consists of 2690 observations for each bank. The data were obtained from the Nigerian Stock Exchange. Unconditional variance and kurtosis coefficient were used as criteria for measuring the efficiency of ARIMA-GARCH-type models and our findings revealed that kurtosis is a better criterion (as it is a true measure of outliers) than the unconditional variance (as it can be depleted or amplified by outliers). Specifically, the strength of this study is in showing the applicability and relevance of iterative methods in time series modeling.
Helicobacter pylori: the causative agent of peptic ulcer
U Shamsuddeen, M Yusha’u, IA Adamu
Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: This review examines Helicobacter pylori as an organism and as the causative agent of peptic ulcers. The review also examined the classification of ulcers, how the bacterium produces the ulcer, some of the virulence factors possessed by the organism, its metabolism and growth requirements. The incidence and prevalence of peptic ulcers were originally believed to have resulted from some factors such as stress, eating spicy food, long term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs), like aspirin and ibuprofen, smoking, and many alike. presently due to the development in the field of research, researchers from different geographical locations have reported a spiralshaped Gram-negative bacterium called Helicobacter pylori to be responsible for the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer. This confirmation has been supported by the strong and effective diagnostic procedures such as urea breath test, stool test, endoscopy, and blood test. Elimination of Helicobacter pylori by treatment with antibiotics in peptic ulcer patients resulted in the healing of the ulcer. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infections is difficult because the mode of transmission is not well known.
Farm Planning Model for Sustainable Vegetable Crop Production in the Eastern Part of Kogi State, Nigeria
M.H. Sani,U. Haruna
Journal of Agronomy , 2010,
Abstract: The study examined the farm planning model for sustainable vegetable crop production in the Eastern part of Kogi State, Nigeria. Specific objectives of the study were to: identify the various cultural practice, irrigation sources and application methods and also to determine the net benefits of the farmers with respect to vegetable crop production. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used. From the study area, three local government areas were randomly selected. In each local government area, two villages each where there is extensive irrigation cultivation were purposively selected making a total of 6 villages. Samples of twenty farmers from each of the 6 villages were selected giving a total sample of 120 farmers in all. Data were collected with the assistance of trained enumerators using structured questionnaire, interview and on-the-farm observation. Farm budget planning model was used to determine the net benefits of the vegetable crop production by the farmers. The result reveals that gross total variable cost was N23, 378.59 and gross total fixed cost was 603.80 representing 97.48 and 2.52% of the gross total cost of N23, 982.39, respectively. Cost of fertilizer and fuel constitutes 30.62 and 38.38%, respectively of the gross total variable cost. The gross returns was N447,136.00 having the highest contribution margins of 51.47 and 27.86% from onion and pepper, respectively. The results of the profitability index revealed that RRI was 1,764.43%; RRFC was 70,181.75%; RRVC was 1,910.00% and CTO was 18.64. The result of RRI which is above 100% signifies that the 120 sample farmers do not require additional capital for crop production. The RRVC and RRFC were also above 100% meaning that some of the vegetable crop production inputs are high and as such needed to be subsidized in order to increase CTO of the sample farmers. The CTO has a value of 18.64 implying that for every additional Naira spent by the sampled farmers on inputs will yield about N18.64 net returns. The study recommend the need for the Government to subsidize some of the farm inputs based on the results of RRVC and RRFC which were above 100% revealing that some of the vegetable crop production inputs are high.
Relationship between Caregiver’s Quality of Life and Childhood Tuberculosis in Bauchi State, Northeastern Nigeria  [PDF]
Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Tolulope Andrea Osoba, Cornelia R. White, Yakubu Gida Abdullahi
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1104602
Background: In Nigeria, childhood tuberculosis (TB), a debilitating and deadly disease, is highly prevalent and case reporting is poor due to weak health systems. Globally, children account for at least 10 percent of the TB burden, yet they remain neglected in TB prevention and control efforts. Research studies integrating family and community-centered strategies have been recommended by stakeholders to address the paucity of current local prevention and management strategies for childhood TB. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: This quantitative cross-sectional study explored the relationship between caregivers’ quality of life (QOL) and the reporting of TB in their children aged 0 - 14 years. Using the abbreviated version of World Health Organization’s (WHO) QOL tool, the WHOQOL-BREF, data were collected individually in a face-to-face setting from caregivers (n = 47) whose children had been diagnosed with TB in Bauchi State, Northeastern Nigeria, over a 5-year period. Data were collected in the same manner from another set of caregivers of children without TB (n = 47) within the same period and setting. Results: Logistic regression indicated a statistically significant relationship (p < 0.001) between the caregivers’ QOL and the reporting of childhood TB. Conclusion: This finding underscores the need to identify the factors that positively impact the QOL of caregivers of childhood TB cases. It also reflects the importance of integrating QOL interventions as part of TB control programs seeking to improve childhood TB reporting. This can mitigate the disease burden in vulnerable age-groups living in resource limited settings, thereby contributing to positive social change in the society.
Suspected Malaria Outbreak Investigations in Baure LGA, Katsina State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Jalal-Eddeen Abubakar Saleh, Abdullahi Saddiq, Haruna Ismaila Adamu, Rex Mpazanje, Bala Mohammed Audu
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1105512
Background: Malaria, a disease that is endemic in Nigeria and contributing up to 25 per cent of infant mortality and 30 per cent of under-five mortality, is among the 17 per cent of the global burden of infectious diseases. Nigeria, which has 27 per cent malaria prevalence, is among the top eleven high-burden countries globally. In September 2018, a team headed by the World Health Or-ganisation in Nigeria investigated a suspected malaria outbreak in Baure local government area of Katsina state northwestern Nigeria. Methods: We reviewed clinical records of 30 patients who were presented to the health facility with febrile illness, investigated and treated from 10th-24th September 2018. The data used during the study included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Epicentre of the suspected outbreak to assess the knowledge of the caregivers on malaria control measures and look at the coverage of the seasonal malaria chemoprevention (SMC) running in the area for the third year. The data were analysed using Excel. Results: Out of the 30 reported cases, 27 (90%) were tested positive for RDT and 3 (10%) were tested negative. The age range of the cases was from three months to 70 years (median: 14 years), sex distribution F 16 (59%) and M 11 (41%) and CFR 3.7% (1/27). An SMC coverage survey shows that out of 86 HHs, 79 (91.86%) had SMC cards for the last two cycles of 2018. On the knowledge of caregivers on malaria preventive measures, 80% (8/10) were aware that mosquitoes transmit malaria, and 100% (10/10) had knowledge on at least one preventive measure against the disease. Conclusion: Although government commitment to malaria control is commendable, there is the need for state malaria control programme to intensify health education programmes on environmental hygiene, to strengthen awareness campaigns on the available malaria interventions and to improve access to the interventions especially for the more vulnerable members of the community.
Control of Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood (root-knot nematode) of Lycopersicon esculentus (tomato) using cowdung and urine
U Abubakar, T Adamu, SB Manga
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2004,
Abstract: Screenhouse experiments were conducted to test the efficacy of cowdung and urine separately and in combination in the control of root-knot nematode of tomato. Equal quantities of cowdung, urine and their mixture were separately made up to one litre with autoclaved soil. Two weeks old seedlings of tomato raised in autoclaved soil were transplanted into soil manure mixture and inoculated with 1,000 second stage larvae of Meloidogyne incognita race I. Treatments were completely randomized and effects assessed based on plant height, dry weight, extent of galling and the nematode multiplication factor. Results obtained showed that cowdung, urine, and their mixture produced significantly higher result than the untreated control. Similarly, the mixture of urine and cowdung, produced significantly higher results than the separate treatments.
Comparative performance of HbA1c 6.5% for FPG ≥ 7.0 vs 2hr PG≥ 11.1 criteria for diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes
AN Adamu
African Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Background: International expert committee on the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus in 2009 and World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 has advocated the use of HbA1c to diagnose diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine and compare the relationship between the new cut off value of HbA1c with established criteria. Methods: Thirty-one hypertensive subjects attending Lagos University Teaching Hospital were recruited for HbA1c and standard oral glucose tolerance test. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and two-hour plasma glucose (2hrpp) value of e”126mg/dl and >200mg/dl were used as standard respectively for diagnosis of diabetes. The HbA1c of e”6.5% was used to diagnose diabetes. The performance and correlation of HbA1c with FPG and 2hrpp were calculated and results were compared. Results: Mean age of the subjects was 53.97±6.27years. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), efficiency and correlation of FPG is 50%, 68%, 27%, 85%, 64% and 0.5 respectively while the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, efficiency and correlation of 2hrpp is 73.91%, 62.5%,85%, 41.66%, 70.97% and 0.73% respectively. There was a significant difference between FPG and 2hrpp interms of sensitivity, PPV and NPV. Conclusion: The results of HbA1c with 2hrpp has better correlation, sensitivity, and PPV compared to HbA1c with FPG.
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