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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7941 matches for " Harrison Jones "
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Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance
R. Harrison,C. Jones
Biogeosciences Discussions , 2007,
Abstract: Natural ecosystems respond to, and may affect climate change through uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2. Here we use the land-surface and carbon cycle model JULES to simulate the contemporary European carbon balance and its sensitivity to rising CO2 and changes in climate. We find that the impact of climate change is to decrease the ability of Europe to store carbon by about 175 TgC yr 1. In contrast, the effect of rising atmospheric CO2 has been to stimulate increased uptake and storage. The CO2 effect is currently dominant leading to a net increase of around 150 TgC yr 1. Our simulations do not at present include other important factors such as land use and management, the effects of forest age classes and nitrogen deposition. There seems to be an emerging consensus that changes in climate will weaken the European land-surface's ability to take up and store carbon. It is likely that this effect is happening at the present and will continue even more strongly in the future as climate continues to change. Although CO2 enhanced growth currently exceeds the climate effect, this may not continue indefinitely. Understanding this balance and its implications for mitigation policies is becoming increasingly important.
Competing roles of rising CO2 and climate change in the contemporary European carbon balance
R. G. Harrison, C. D. Jones,J. K. Hughes
Biogeosciences (BG) & Discussions (BGD) , 2008,
Abstract: Natural ecosystems respond to, and may affect climate change through uptake and storage of atmospheric CO2. Here we use the land-surface and carbon cycle model JULES to simulate the contemporary European carbon balance and its sensitivity to rising CO2 and changes in climate. We find that the impact of climate change is to decrease the ability of Europe to store carbon by 97 TgC yr 1. In contrast, the effect of rising atmospheric CO2 has been to stimulate increased uptake and storage. The CO2 effect is currently dominant leading to a net increase of 114 TgC yr 1. Our simulations do not at present include other important factors such as land use and management, the effects of forest age classes and nitrogen deposition. Understanding this balance and its implications for mitigation policies is becoming increasingly important.
Communication Impairments in Parkinson's Disease
Bruce Murdoch,Tara Whitehill,Miet de Letter,Harrison Jones
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/234657
Abstract:
Engineering Ocean Nourishment
Bruce Judd,Daniel P Harrison,Ian S F Jones
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract:
Evaluation of a photosynthesis-based biogenic isoprene emission scheme in JULES and simulation of isoprene emissions under present-day climate conditions
F. Pacifico,S. P. Harrison,C. D. Jones,A. Arneth
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-4371-2011
Abstract: We have incorporated a semi-mechanistic isoprene emission module into the JULES land-surface scheme, as a first step towards a modelling tool that can be applied for studies of vegetation – atmospheric chemistry interactions, including chemistry-climate feedbacks. Here, we evaluate the coupled model against local above-canopy isoprene emission flux measurements from six flux tower sites as well as satellite-derived estimates of isoprene emission over tropical South America and east and south Asia. The model simulates diurnal variability well: correlation coefficients are significant (at the 95 % level) for all flux tower sites. The model reproduces day-to-day variability with significant correlations (at the 95 % confidence level) at four of the six flux tower sites. At the UMBS site, a complete set of seasonal observations is available for two years (2000 and 2002). The model reproduces the seasonal pattern of emission during 2002, but does less well in the year 2000. The model overestimates observed emissions at all sites, which is partially because it does not include isoprene loss through the canopy. Comparison with the satellite-derived isoprene-emission estimates suggests that the model simulates the main spatial patterns, seasonal and inter-annual variability over tropical regions. The model yields a global annual isoprene emission of 535 ± 9 TgC yr 1 during the 1990s, 78 % of which from forested areas.
Communication Impairments in Parkinson's Disease
Bruce Murdoch,Tara Whitehill,Miet de Letter,Harrison Jones
Parkinson's Disease , 2011, DOI: 10.4061/2011/234657
Abstract:
Behavioral Responses of the Bed Bug to Permethrin-Impregnated ActiveGuard? Fabric
Susan C. Jones,Joshua L. Bryant,Scott A. Harrison
Insects , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/insects4020230
Abstract: ActiveGuard? Mattress Liners have been used to control house dust mites, and they also are commercially available as an integrated pest management tool for use against bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius). The aim of our study was to evaluate responses of numerous populations of the bed bug to the permethrin-impregnated fabric, with particular regard to contact toxicity, repellency, and feeding inhibition. Continuous exposure to ActiveGuard fabric resulted in rapid intoxication for three of four populations, with 87 to 100% of moderately pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible bed bugs succumbing by 1 d. In comparison, a highly resistant population reached 22% mortality at 10 d. Video data revealed that bed bugs readily traversed ActiveGuard fabric and spent a considerable amount of time moving about and resting on it during a 12-h period. ActiveGuard fabric was non-repellent to bed bugs from five tested populations. Furthermore, significantly fewer bed bugs successfully fed to repletion through ActiveGuard fabric than through blank fabric for the five populations. With just 30 min of feeding exposure, mortality ranged from 4% to 83%, depending upon the bed bug strain. These laboratory studies indicate that ActiveGuard liners adversely affected bed bugs from diverse populations.
Under Pressure: Response Urgency Modulates Striatal and Insula Activity during Decision-Making under Risk
Catherine L. Jones,Ludovico Minati,Neil A. Harrison,Jamie Ward,Hugo D. Critchley
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0020942
Abstract: When deciding whether to bet in situations that involve potential monetary loss or gain (mixed gambles), a subjective sense of pressure can influence the evaluation of the expected utility associated with each choice option. Here, we explored how gambling decisions, their psychophysiological and neural counterparts are modulated by an induced sense of urgency to respond. Urgency influenced decision times and evoked heart rate responses, interacting with the expected value of each gamble. Using functional MRI, we observed that this interaction was associated with changes in the activity of the striatum, a critical region for both reward and choice selection, and within the insula, a region implicated as the substrate of affective feelings arising from interoceptive signals which influence motivational behavior. Our findings bridge current psychophysiological and neurobiological models of value representation and action-programming, identifying the striatum and insular cortex as the key substrates of decision-making under risk and urgency.
Mechanical induction of cough in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
Richard M Jones, Simon Hilldrup, Benjamin DM Hope-Gill, Ronald Eccles, Nicholas K Harrison
Cough , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1745-9974-7-2
Abstract: We studied 27 non-smoking subjects with IPF (63% male), mean (SD) age 71.7 (7) years and 30 healthy non-smokers. Quality of life (Leicester Cough Questionnaire), cough symptom scores and cough severity scores (visual analog scales) were recorded. Percussion stimulation was applied over the posterior lung base, upper anterior chest and manubrium sternum at sequential frequencies (20 Hertz (Hz), 40 Hz and 60 Hz) for up to 60 seconds and repeated twice at two minute intervals. The number of subjects achieving two and five-cough responses, total cough counts and cough latency were recorded. In separate experiments, the effect of mechanical stimulation on the pattern of breathing was determined in eight IPF subjects and five control subjects.In patients with IPF, we demonstrated strong correlations between subjective cough measurements, particularly the cough symptom score and Leicester Cough Questionnaire (r = -0.86; p < 0.001). Mechanical percussion induced a true cough reflex in 23/27 (85%) IPF subjects, but only 5/30 (17%) controls (p < 0.001). More patients with IPF reached the two-cough response at a lower frequency (20 Hz) posteriorly than at other positions. Highest mean cough totals were seen with stimulation at or above 40 Hz. Mechanical stimulation had no effect on respiratory rate but increased tidal volume in four (50%) subjects with IPF, particularly at higher frequencies. It was associated with increased urge to cough followed by a true cough reflex.This study demonstrates that patients with IPF show enhanced cough reflex sensitivity to mechanical stimulation of the chest wall whilst normal individuals show little or no response. The observation that low frequency stimulation over the lung base, where fibrosis is most extensive, induces cough in more patients than at other sites supports the hypothesis that lung distortion contributes to the pathogenesis of cough in IPF.Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a disease characterised by lung parenchymal dist
The impact of the introduction of liquid based cytology on the variation in the proportion of inadequate samples between GP practices
Wayne N Harrison, Alison MJ Teale, Suzanne P Jones, Mohammed A Mohammed
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-191
Abstract: Routinely collected cervical cytology data was obtained for all general practices in two localities in South Staffordshire for periods before and after the introduction of liquid based cytology. Control charts of the proportion of inadequate smears were plotted for the practices stratified by laboratory. A standardised measure of variation for all of the practices in each laboratory and each time period was also calculated.Following the introduction of liquid based cytology the overall proportion of inadequate samples in the two localities fell from 11.8 to 1.3% (p < 0.05). This fall was associated with a reduction in the average variation between the GP practices in the two localities from 1.6 to 1.0 standard deviations. There has also been a reduction in the number of practices showing special cause variation from eight to one following the introduction of liquid based cytology.A reduction in the proportion of inadequate samples has been realised in these localities. The reduction in the overall proportion of inadequate samples has also been accompanied by a reduction in variation between GP practices.In 2005/06 3.6 million women were screened for cervical cancer in England, 3.36 million following a formal invitation from the screening programme, generating just under 4.0 million cervical smears [1]. Women who have a smear which is identified as inadequate by the reporting cytology laboratory must be retested, in line with national guidelines, and women who have three successive inadequate smears are referred for colposcopy [2]. Inadequate smears are a source of avoidable distress to women, and a potential waste of resources in general practices, clinics and cytology laboratories [2].A study we undertook in South Staffordshire in 2000–01 identified two sources of variation in the proportion of inadequate smears; that associated with laboratories and that associated with GP practices [3]. Our study showed that there was wide variation in the proportion of inadequat
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