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Exploring Design Level Class Cohesion Metrics  [PDF]
Kuljit Kaur, Hardeep Singh
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2010.34043
Abstract: In object oriented paradigm, cohesion of a class refers to the degree to which members of the class are interrelated. Metrics have been defined to measure cohesiveness of a class both at design and source code levels. In comparison to source code level class cohesion metrics, only a few design level class cohesion metrics have been proposed. Design level class cohesion metrics are based on the assumption that if all the methods of a class have access to similar para-meter types then they all process closely related information. A class with a large number of parameter types common in its methods is more cohesive than a class with less number of parameter types common in its methods. In this paper, we review the design level class cohesion metrics with a special focus on metrics which use similarity of parameter types of methods of a class as the basis of its cohesiveness. Basically three metrics fall in this category: Cohesion among Methods of a Class (CAMC), Normalized Hamming Distance (NHD), and Scaled NHD (SNHD). Keeping in mind the anomalies in the definitions of the existing metrics, a variant of the existing metrics is introduced. It is named NHD Modified (NHDM). An automated metric collection tool is used to collect the metric data from an open source software program. The metric data is then subjected to statistical analysis.
Anthropometric determinants of low birth weight in newborns of Hoshiarpur district (Punjab) - A hospital based study
Hardeep Kaur,Rupinder Bansal
Human Biology Review , 2012,
Abstract: Objective: The main aim of the study was to determine best surrogate anthropometric measurement to determine low birth weight newborns among institutional deliveries in district Hoshiarpur, Panjab (India). Subjects: Subjects comprises of 504 newborns of singleton pregnant women delivering in reputed hospitals of Hoshiarpur, Panjab (India).Methods: Singleton pregnant women were booked in last trimester of pregnancy and followed them till delivery. Selective newborn measurements were taken within 48 hours of birth using standard scales.Results: In the present study, out of 504 newborn babies studied, 20.23% were having birth weight <2500gm. Birth weight was significantly correlated with all selected anthropometric measurements i.e. Crown Heel Length (CHL), Head circumference (HC), Chest circumference (CC), Mid-arm circumference (MAC), Abdominal circumference (AC), Thigh circumference (TC), Subscapular, Biceps, triceps, thigh and calf skinfold thicknesses at p<0.01. Univariate linear regression analysis was done to identify the optimal cut off points of these anthropometric measures to identify low birth weight babies.Conclusion: Mid-arm circumference was found to be best surrogate measurement followed by chest circumference to identify low birth weight newborns.
Measurement of Processes in Open Source Software Development
Parminder Kaur,Hardeep Singh
Trends in Information Management , 2011,
Abstract: Purpose:This paper attempts to present a set of basic metrics which can be used to measure basic development processes in an OSS environment.Design/Methodology/Approach:Reviewing the earlier literature helped in exploring the metrics for measuring the development processes in OSS environment.Results:The OSSD is different from traditional software development because of its open development environment. The development processes are different and the measures required to assess them have to be different.
THERAPEUTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS
Rajeev Kharb,Hardeep Kaur
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04311
Abstract: Microbial infections are one of the leading diseases which are responsible for millions of deaths every year because of lack of effective antimicrobial therapy and this situation becomes more complicated because of microbial resistance towards conventional antibiotics. Quinoline derivatives have proved their medicinal importance by having broad spectrum of pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities etc. This review article deals with the antimicrobial potential of novel quinoline derivatives as an effort to provide better treatment for microbial infections.
Whole Cell Based Electrochemical Biosensor for Monitoring Lead ions in Milk
Neelam Verma,Hardeep Kaur,Sachin Kumar
Biotechnology , 2011,
Abstract: Rapid industrialization, urbanization and modern agricultural practices have led to cumulative pollution of environment by heavy metals, thereby deteriorating water and food product quality. Milk and its products are most prone to heavy metal contamination and lead has been considered as a major contaminant in milk. A whole cell electrochemical lead biosensor has been developed using urease producing Bacillus sphaericus isolate (MTCC 5100) which was grown at 30C for 24 h and then harvested in phosphate buffer saline. Urease enzyme units available in the biomass were 53.871.41 IU mL-1. Whole cells were immobilized at the tip of carbon paste electrode and unutilized NADPH oxidation has been studied to reveal the lead concentration in milk. Preconcentration and specificity has been achieved by lead specific column. Lead analysis has been done at 25C in 5 min response time. Detection limit achieved is 2.4x10-3 nM well below the permissible limit of lead in milk. The developed method could be used for off line analysis of lead by portable handheld potentiostat.
Water Extract from the Leaves of Withania somnifera Protect RA Differentiated C6 and IMR-32 Cells against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity
Hardeep Kataria, Renu Wadhwa, Sunil C. Kaul, Gurcharan Kaur
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0037080
Abstract: Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), also known as Indian ginseng, against glutamate induced toxicity in the retinoic acid differentiated rat glioma (C6) and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32) cells. The neuroprotective activity of the Ashwagandha leaves derived water extract (ASH-WEX) was evaluated. Cell viability and the expression of glial and neuronal cell differentiation markers was examined in glutamate challenged differentiated cells with and without the presence of ASH-WEX. We demonstrate that RA-differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells, when exposed to glutamate, undergo loss of neural network and cell death that was accompanied by increase in the stress protein HSP70. ASH-WEX pre-treatment inhibited glutamate-induced cell death and was able to revert glutamate-induced changes in HSP70 to a large extent. Furthermore, the analysis on the neuronal plasticity marker NCAM (Neural cell adhesion molecule) and its polysialylated form, PSA-NCAM revealed that ASH-WEX has therapeutic potential for prevention of neurodegeneration associated with glutamate-induced excitotoxicty.
STUDY OF PARAMETERS FOR EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE AS A SERVICE
Aman deep kaur,DR.Hardeep Singh,Lakhbirpal Singh
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2012,
Abstract: Cloud computing is widely believed to be a revolution in computing that could soon become an industry standard, altogether replacing the traditional office setup. Due to the recency of these services, question marks exist over the performance of these systems, and consequently, over the corresponding billing schemes that the service provider issues. This study aims at addressing some of these doubts by introducing a measurement test for the network performance of these services, and comparing them with the performance offered by traditional web-hosting services. In this paper the parameters to be taken into consideration are studied and evaluated when actually one is going for purchasing software as a service, so that true value and benefits can be understood.
Withania somnifera Water Extract as a Potential Candidate for Differentiation Based Therapy of Human Neuroblastomas
Hardeep Kataria, Renu Wadhwa, Sunil C. Kaul, Gurcharan Kaur
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055316
Abstract: Neuroblastoma is an aggressive childhood disease of the sympathetic nervous system. Treatments are often ineffective and have serious side effects. Conventional therapy of neuroblastoma includes the differentiation agents. Unlike chemo-radiotherapy, differentiation therapy shows minimal side effects on normal cells, because normal non-malignant cells are already differentiated. Keeping in view the limited toxicity of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), the current study was aimed to investigate the efficacy of Ashwagandha water extract (ASH-WEX) for anti-proliferative potential in neuroblastoma and its underlying signalling mechanisms. ASH-WEX significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced cell differentiation as indicated by morphological changes and NF200 expression in human IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells. The induction of differentiation was accompanied by HSP70 and mortalin induction as well as pancytoplasmic translocation of the mortalin in ASH-WEX treated cells. Furthermore, the ASH-WEX treatment lead to induction of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) expression and reduction in its polysialylation, thus elucidating its anti-migratory potential, which was also supported by downregulation of MMP 2 and 9 activity. ASH-WEX treatment led to cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and increase in early apoptotic population. Modulation of cell cycle marker Cyclin D1, anti-apoptotic marker bcl-xl and Akt-P provide evidence that ASH-WEX may prove to be a promising phytotherapeutic intervention in neuroblatoma related malignancies.
Water Extract of Ashwagandha Leaves Limits Proliferation and Migration, and Induces Differentiation in Glioma Cells
Hardeep Kataria,Navjot Shah,Sunil C. Kaul,Renu Wadhwa,Gurcharan Kaur
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nep188
Abstract: Root extracts of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) are commonly used as a remedy for a variety of ailments and a general tonic for overall health and longevity in the Indian traditional medicine system, Ayurveda. We undertook a study to investigate the anti-proliferative and differentiation-inducing activities in the water extract of Ashwagandha leaves (ASH-WEX) by examining in glioma cells. Preliminary detection for phytochemicals was performed by thin-layer chromatography. Cytotoxicity was determined using trypan blue and MTT assays. Expression level of an hsp70 family protein (mortalin), glial cell differentiation marker [glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and immunoblotting. Anti-migratory assay was also done using wound-scratch assay. Expression levels of mortalin, GFAP and NCAM showed changes, subsequent to the treatment with ASH-WEX. The data support the existence of anti-proliferative, differentiation-inducing and anti-migratory/anti-metastasis activities in ASH-WEX that could be used as potentially safe and complimentary therapy for glioma.
El ácido siálico N-acetilado es inmunogénico e induce anticuerpos protectores contra Neisseria meningitidis
Moe,Gregory R.; Flitter,Becca A; Y. Ing,Jessica; S. Bhandari,Tamara; Kaur,Hardeep;
Vaccimonitor , 2009,
Abstract: recently, we showed that monoclonal antibodies (mabs) that are reactive with derivatives of polysialic acid containing de-n-acetylated neuraminic acid (neu) residues are protective against n. meningitidis group b strains (moe et al. 2005, infect immun 73:2123; flitter et al., in preparation). in addition, we found that fully de-n-acetylated psa (i.e. poly alpha 2,8 neu) conjugated to tetanus toxoid (denac) elicits igm and igg antibodies of all subclasses in mice that bind to group b strains, activate human complement deposition, are protective in an infant rat model of meningococcal bacteremia and are bactericidal against group c strains (moe et al, in press). we show here that anti-denac mabs, da1 and da2 (both igm), are reactive with polysaccharides containing neu, bind to group b, c, w135 and y but not x strains grown in chemically defined media (cdm). however, when the group x strain is grown in cdm supplemented with human plasma, da2 binds. also both mabs mediate bactericidal activity against b, c, w135, and x strains with human complement. the esults suggests that n. meningitidis express and/or acquire zwitterionic de-n-acetyl sialic acid antigens that can be the target of protective antibodies.
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